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Cxln 6&. 5lfA. ? 





AUGUST 4, 1941 

Copyright, 1888, 
By John Allyn. 

University Press: 
John Wilson and Son, Cambridge. 

^ C' 



This edition of a part of the Iliad differs from any other 
which has hitherto appeared in our country, in the amount and 
variety of the introductory matter which immediately precedes 
the text ; and a few words may seem called for, explaining why 
this matter has been introduce d, and suggesting how it may be 
most profitably used. 

The object of the Introduction is to open the way to the 
study of Homer, by giving the student some idea of Epic 
Poetry, in general, and information upon the origin, history, 
and transmission of the Homeric poems, in particular. A 
sufficient account of Homeric criticism is also given to ena- 
ble the reader to enter intelligently into the discussion which 
is wont to arise among educated men when the name Ho- 
mer is mentioned. 

The Essay on Scanning has been inserted on account of 
the difficulty which the writer has observed that his own 
pupils have always found in learning to scan well. The 
dactylic hexameter is not usually treated in our Greek gram- 
mars as a distinct subject by itself, but boys are ordinarily 
left; to depend entirely upon the metrical knowledge which 
they have acquired in connection with their study of VergiL 
The Homeric hexameter can never be well understood by 
this process, and it is believed that no teacher of experi- 
ence will refuse his attention to the attempt nete t&a&a 


present the subject of scanning by itself, in a simple, un- 
technical way. 

The Sketch of the Peculiarities of the Homeric Dialect was 
originally prepared for the American edition of Autenrieth's 
Homeric Dictionary, and it is inserted here by the kind per- 
mission of Messrs. Harper & Brothers. It is translated and 
condensed from the first Appendix of Koch's Griechische Gram- 
matik. The project was seriously considered of expanding 
this sketch so that it should include a summary of the pecu- 
liarities of Homeric Syntax, and particularly of the uses of 
the Moods in Homer, but was at length abandoned on account 
of the belief that these peculiarities are best explained and 
easiest understood as they are met with in their connection. 
This is especially the case with the Moods, which show an elas- 
ticity of usage quite different from that of the Attic dialect, 
and not easily exhibited in a brief outline. 

In the judgment of the editor, the thorough acquisition by the 
pupil of all the introductory matter just referred to — Intro- 
duction, Essay on Scanning, Sketch of Dialect (excepting 
perhaps the latter sections) — should be insisted upon. The 
Table of Contents furnishes a full summary of this matter, and 
may suggest questions for examination upon it. 

The text is substantially that of La Roche, 1877. The only 
important variations are that the forms of the article 6, rj> ol, 
ai, are printed as in prose, (instead of o, rj, ol, at,) and that the 
dat. sing. t<3, ' therefore,' is printed with a subscript 1 (instead of 
tw). A fuller punctuation than that of La Roche, and a more 
frequent use of the diaeresis, will also be noticed, especially 
in Books I. and IL, where Sidgwick's edition is followed. 

The notes have been made quite full, but they are designed 

not so much to aid in translation as to supply that collateral 

information which is so much needed in the study of Homer. 

A constant attempt will be noticed, by very frequent cross- 

references, to make Homer his own interpreter. The sources 

from which the editor has chiefly drawn in the preparation of 
the notes will be seen by reference to the List on p. 157, 

It is emphatically true of this edition that it is an outgrowth 
of the editor's experience of the needs of the class-room. 
What would be the direction of his aim and effort in the teach- 
ing of Homer will sufficiently appear as the notes are read, but 
a suggestion or two may not be out of place. Respecting the 
style of translation, the rule he would follow is contained in two 
words : " Be Homeric/' Imitate in general, with scrupulous 
care, the order of words and the constructions of the original 
as far as our language permits. The cases are few in which 
it is impossible to translate a passage with literal fidelity and, 
at the same time, into idiomatic English, The ideal method 
in teaching is one which combines variety with thoroughness, 
and emphasizes different matters at successive stages in the 
pupil's progress. At the outset, while the lessons are very 
short (the editor usually devotes fifteen lessons to the first 
150 lines of the Iliad), it is of course indispensable to go over, 
with minutest care, translation, scanning, comparison of every 
Homeric form with the corresponding form in the Attic dia- 
lect and all those points respecting inflection and syntax 
which naturally suggest themselves, Eut when the pupil has 
acquired some familiarity with the dialect and begins to trans- 
late twenty lines at each lesson, it will no longer be possible 
to proceed with such minuteness ; and the scholar's interest 
in Homer will be heightened if, without tolerating super- 
ficial preparation in any particular, the teacher is able to bring 
some one point into prominence at each lesson* On one day, 
for example, etymologies and the composition of words may 
come to the foreground ; on another, the use of moods, run- 
ning back perhaps through a hundred lines j on a third, met- 
rical peculiarities ; on a fourth, words may be examined which 
illustrate Grimm's law of the interchange of mutes ; on a fifth, 
a metrical (hexameter) version of a part at the 3l&\&yvc&\^=otv 


may be required; on a sixth, an essay may be assigned on 
some point of custom or morals suggested by the lesson. It is 
indeed surprising how much grammar, philology, literature, folk- 
lore, religion may be taught in natural connection with the Ho- 
meric poems. They are like the great ocean, i£ oxm-ep wdvres 
irorafiol kclI iraxra OdXaxrcra^ $ 196. 

Without further words the editor commits to teachers and 
to students this book, which has occupied much of his time 
and thoughts for several years. He asks, from all who may 
use it, correction of any errors that may be discovered, and 
questions or suggestions respecting any points which may 
seem to need further comment 



July 13, 1883. 


In this edition the grammatical references to Hadley's Grammar 
have been adapted to that work in its new form, — as revised by 
Professor F. D. Allen, of Harvard College. 

Special thanks are due to Professor M. W. Humphreys, of the 
University of Texas, for a valuable list of corrections and sug- 

July 5, 1884. 


A few changes and corrections have been made in the plates 
preparatory to this edition, and in compliance with many requests 
the book is now for the first time issued in two styles, that its 
essential portions may be brought within the reach of all persons. 

Free Academy, Norwich, Conn., 
July, 1885. 


Frontispiece. Facsimile of a page of Codex Ven&us. Text and Scholia. 

Titlepage i 

Preface iii 

Table of Contents vii 

Introduction : 

I. Epic Poetry. II. Ancient traditions concerning Homer. 

III. Birthplace and early history of the Homeric Poems. 

IV. Rhapsodes. V. Place of the Homeric Poems in 
Greek Culture. — Civic Editions. VI. Homeric studies 
at Alexandria. — Three great Alexandrian critics. — Scho- 
lia. VII. Codex Venetus A. VIII. F. A. Wolfs Theory 
and its influence. IX. Present aspect of the Homeric 
Question. X. Outline of Plot of the Iliad ix 

On Scanning Homeric Verse: 

i. Structure of the Homeric Hexameter. 2. Metrical accent 
— Thesis and Arsis. 3. Diaeresis and Caesura. 4. Syn- 
izesis and Hiatus. 5. Rules of Quantity and Hints for 
Scanning. 6. Prerequisites to good Scanning. 7. Speci- 
mens of English Hexameters. 8. Translation into Eng- 
lish Hexameters xxiii 

Chief Peculiarities of the Homeric Dialect: 

i-&. Phonology : 1. Vowel changes. 2. Concurrent vow- 
els, how treated. 3. Hiatus. 4. Elision. 5. Apocope. 
6. Anastrophe. 7. Consonant changes. 8. Digamma. 
9-14. Declension : 9. Suffixes having force of case- 
endings. 10. First Declension. 11. Second Declension. 
12. Third Declension. 13. Declension of Adjectives. 

14. Declension of Pronouns. 15-25. Conjugation: 

15. Augment and Reduplication. 16. Endings. 17. 
Mood-vowels of subjunctive. 18. Contract-verbs. 19. 
Formation of Present-stem. 2a Formation ol Y^Xxafc 


and First Aorist active and middle. 21. Formation of 
Second Aorist without variable vowel. 22. Formation 
of Perfect and Pluperfect. 23. Passive Aorists. 24. 

Verbs in -/u. 25. Iterative Forms xxxi 

Text 1 

List of Books of Reference on Homer and the Iliad . 157 

List of Abbreviations 158 

Notes •.....- 159 

Appendix A. Contents of Iliad, I. -VI., distributed with reference 

to rapid reading 303 

Appendix B. Explanation of Facsimile 305 

Grammatical References to Allen's Hadley and Goodwin 308 

Indexes 316 



The Iliad and the Odyssey are the earliest extant works of 
Greek literature, and they are also the best examples of what 
are called Epic Poems. They are the survivors of an immense 
Epic literature which was produced by Greeks in the period 
prior to 700 b. c. Three things may be mentioned as charac- 
teristic of Epic poetry: a grand, stirring theme (usually of 
heroic adventure), unfolded in a more or less elaborate plot; 
an elevated diction, somewhat removed from the language of 
common intercourse; a peculiar metrical form. The Greek 
designation for epic poems is to. hrq, lit. * utterances,' * sen- 
tences.' The same name was also applied to the responses of 
oracles, for the most important oracles, those given from the 
shrine at Delphi, were similar to Epic poems, both in diction 
and in meter. 

Examples may be given of epic poems in other literatures 
than the Greek. Thus we have : in Latin, the Aeneid of Ver- 
gil ; in Italian, Dante's Divina Commedia ; in English, Milton's 
Paradise Lost. Of these, only the first is written, like the 
Homeric poems, in dactylic hexameter : but in the style and 
thought of all, the influence of the great master of epic song 
may be traced. The accepted meter for English epic or heroic, 
as for dramatic, poetry is the so-called " heroic verse," — a ten- 
syllabled line containing five feet. It is, however, proper to 
add, that since the hexameter has been seriously 3\X&\k^\&& \yj 


English poets, and has become naturalized in English poetry, 
several poems in this meter have been produced which have 
some of the qualities of epics, though they lack length and an 
absorbing theme. Such are Kingsley's Andromeda, Clough's 
Bothie of Tober-na-Vuolich, Longfellow's Evangeline. 


The Iliad and the Odyssey contain no allusion to their 
author; and although Homer has become a household word, 
and even a familiar Christian-name, we know nothing of his 
personality. Several ancient " Lives of Homer " exist, which 
describe with minuteness various details of the poet's life. Two 
of them, according to their titles, were composed by Herodotus 
and Plutarch ; but it is certain that neither of these great authors 
had anything to do with their composition, and their only value 
is in showing what was the popular tradition respecting Homer 
at or before the commencement of the Christian era. It is a 
passage from the Hymn to Apollo * which has given rise to the 
legend of the poet's blindness. Many towns in antiquity where 
the Homeric poems were especially studied and admired claimed 
the honor of being Homer's birth-place, and the names of seven 
claimants are preserved in the following epigram : — 

'EttA tt6\cis fidpyavro <ro<p)jv Sia f>l(av 'O/i^pov, 
2/i6pva 9 X(os' t Ko\o<pdv f 'Ifla/cr;, Tlfaos, "Apyos, 'A6f}vcu. 

Seven were the towns that laid claim to the gifted root of Homeros, 
Smyrna, Chios, Colophon, Ithake, Pylos, Argos, Athenae. 

The claim of Smyrna was conceded to be the strongest. Next 
came that of Chios, where there was a school of bards called 
Homerfdae, who claimed (as is shown by their name) descent 
from Homer, and transmitted the Homeric poems from father 
to son. 

1 The name " Homeric Hymns " is given to a series of Hymns to the 
.gods, in style not unlike the Iliad, but as a whole of somewhat later 



The Iliad and the Odyssey undoubtedly originated on the 
Ionian coast of Asia Minor and in the islands of the Aegean sea, ' 
Here the dialect was developed in which they were composed, 
ant I such indications of locality as can be discovered in the 
poems point to this region. Various stories explain how they 
were transmitted to Greece proper, Lycurgus (about 776 b. <j.) 
is said to have brought them to Sparta, where they furnished the 
Lacedaemonians with the model for the perfect soldier. But it 
was at Athens that the poems received that care to which their 
preservation is due* Here, even before the time of Solon 
(600 B, c), there seems to have grown up the custom of re- 
citing portions of the poems at popular festivals, which recita- 
tions Solon appears to have regulated. To Pisistratus, however, 
tyrant of Athens (560-527 B. a), the gratitude of lovers of 
Homer is due beyond all others. He collected, through a 
commission of four competent men, the Homeric rhapsodies l 
which were previously sung separately, and united them into the 
two poems which bear the names of Iliad and Odyssey* 


The singers or reciters of the Homeric poems were called 
rhapsodes. The word rhapsode (£o^&e) is variously explained. 
Some would derive it dtro rav ffiav ^airrd «nj, a 'from singing 
verses fitted (lit. ■ sewed *) together/ Verses £ sewed together * 
might refer to the weaving into songs what had previously 
been separate verses, or might have reference to the metrical 

1 The word * rhapsody/ as here used, is not to be understood as iden- 
tical with the twenty -four divisions or books into which each poem was 
subsequently divided by A ri starch us. 

* Another explanation of £*|rp&ib, perhaps quite as plausible as the 
one mentioned above, gives it the sense of ■ stitchers of song, 1 — kwb to? 


combination of words in the hexameter. The term pa^oSos 
describes ' singers ' (a8<ty), not merely ' reciters ; ' and it is prob- 
able that in early times the song was constantly accompanied by 
the music of the lyre. Later the singing passed into a sort of 
intonation, — the chord being struck, before commencing, on the 
lyre. Finally it became a dramatic recitation or declamation. In 
the earliest times the rhapsodes were poets, and often originated 3 
the songs which they sang, like a Neapolitan improvisator or a * 
Scotch minstrel. In later times they had little poetical taste 
or talent, and plied their art simply as a means of livelihood. 
The rhapsodes are spoken of several times by Xenophon and 
Plato, and by both contemptuously, as not always understanding 
the sense of what they declaimed. They made a study of their 
personal appearance, sometimes adorning themselves with gay 
garments and wearing a gold crown upon their heads. They re- 
cited with much action and with impassioned gesture. Was the 
passage sad, they wept ; was it horrible, their hair stood on end. 
Thus, like many modern actors, they strove, by overdoing the 
manifestation of the sentiment contained in the passage recited, 
to stir the feelings of their auditors. To persons of the best 
taste, their recitation became, in later times, offensive : but to the 
people in general of the period about 400 b. c, it must have been 
agreeable ; and the popular conception of many passages of both 
poems must have been formed upon the rhapsode's interpreta- 
tion of them. 


We can hardly form an adequate idea of what the Homeric 
poems were to the ancient Greeks. What the influence of a great 
epic may be upon the religious belief of a nation, we see from 
Milton's Paradise Lost, which has unquestionably contributed 
much to form the popular theology of both English and Ameri- 
cans. It should of course be remembered that the Homeric 
poems do not profess either to be or to rest upon a divine 
revelation, and that they are not didactic in the sense of laying 


down formal rules of conduct. But they contain passages which 
were accepted by the Greeks as the best description of the power 
and majesty of their deities, and they abound in illustrations of 
all the virtues of a patriarchal age. Plato often quotes a pas- 
sage from Homer in finishing an argument, as a theologian quotes 
from Scripture. 

A verse of Homer was an important make-weight in settling a 
disputed boundary or in establishing a doubtful pedigree. Both 
Iliad and Odyssey were often learned entire at school, and large 
portions of them were carried in memory through subsequent 
years. Copies of them were so multiplied that it was easy to 
possess them, as is illustrated by the story told of Alcibiades, who 
is said in righteous indignation to have beaten his teacher, who 
confessed that he did not own a copy of the Iliad. The poems 
served too as a standard of taste ; and though their origin dates 
back to the very beginning of Greek literature, they influenced to 
a surprising degree the works of subsequent writers. Herodo- 
tus, Plato, and even the late writer Lucian (160 a. d.), illustrate 
how familiar Homer was to educated men. That they should 
have retained their charm so long is indeed the highest proof of 
their merit. Fresh and spontaneous, they gave delight at the 
simple popular festivals which called them into existence nearly 
three thousand years ago ; and yet they had such perfection of 
form as to attract and satisfy the exacting criticism of the Alex- 
andrian and later periods. One of the very latest works of eru- 
dition in the twelfth century — only three centuries before the fall 
of Constantinople (1453 a.d.) — is the commentary on Homer 
by Eustathius, Bishop of Thessalonica. 

Different ancient cities had their civic or public editions, — 
perhaps prepared at the public expense, and from which copies 
could be made for private individuals. The best known of these 
editions were those of Massilia (Marseilles), Chios, Sinope, 
Argos, Cyprus, Crete. Private editions, supervised by indi- 
viduals, were also numerous. One of the most famous of these 
was the edition prepared by Aristotle for his pupil, Alexander. 
This was called the ' edition of the casket,' from the \ew*&s& 


case (said to have been part of the spoils taken, after the battle 
of Arbela, from the tent of Darius) in which the conqueror car- 
riedjt with him in his campaigns in Asia. 



When the Greek mind ceased to be productive, it turned 
itself toward the study of what it had created. The earliest and 
for many centuries the chief seat of Greek learning was Alex- 
andria. This city, from the time of its foundation by Alexander, 
grew with wonderful rapidity ; and in the second generation after 
its founder, under the peaceful reign of the Ptolemies, literature 
was cultivated here with a zeal and success unparalleled else- 
where in the Greek world. Ptolemy II., called Philadelphus 
(285-247 B.C.), established the Museum (Movo-etov), — an insti- 
tution combining the functions of a university and a learned 
academy, like the French Academy. It was provided with a 
corps of salaried professors, who gave public lectures in the 
various departments of human knowledge. But it was also in- 
tended to promote research ; and the most important work of 
the scholars who were maintained under stipends at the Mu- 
seum, and of the eminent men who directed their labors, was to 
sift, classify, and elucidate the immense collection of manuscripts 
which the Ptolemies had gathered together at lavish expense in 
the two great libraries. 1 The names of three heads of the Mu- 

1 The number of volumes in the Alexandrian libraries is said to have 
been 500,000. By volumes we are to understand rolls of parchment or of 
papyrus containing the equivalent of a book of Homer, a single tragedy, 
or a philosophical dialogue. It may be worth while to mention here that 
Jewish tradition represents that the Greek translation of the Old Testa- 
ment, known as the Septuagint, was made at the direction of Ptolemy 
Philadelphus, that it might be placed in the Alexandrian library. Another 
story relates how foreigners, who brought with them treatises of value, 
were liable to have them confiscated, and were obliged to be content with 
receiving copies, while the originals went to enrich the Alexandrian library. 
The Alexandrian library, or what remained of it, was burned 641 A. D. 




seum of Alexandria arc particularly famous for Homeric criticism, 
though their work was not confined to Homer, — Zenodotus 
of Ephesus, Aristophanes of Byzantium, Aristarehus of Samo- 
thrace. They flourished about 250-150 blcj and they fol- 
lowed certain common principles of criticism, as was natural, 
since Aristophanes, who was the pupil of Zenodotus, was the 
teacher of Aristarehus. The time had been when not only the 
Iliad and the Odyssey, but a vast mass of epic poetry known as 
the Epic Cycle j had been ascribed to Homer. This period was 
now passed, and Zenodotus restricted the authorship of Homer 
to the Iliad and the Odyssey* He edited the text of die two 
poems without commentary, and his revision gained such a repu- 
tation that it eclipsed all predecessors. He was the first to 
employ the obelus (d/JcA^), a heavy horizontal line like our 
dash ( — }, to indicate that the verses to which it was prefixed 
were spurious . He is said to have had a partiality for rare and 
archaic forms, and to have rejected with great boldness. Of 
Aristophanes we know but little* Another revision of the text 
was called for, which he edited, and which in its turn became a 
standard. He employed the asterisk (*) to designate particularly 
fine or repeated verses, and he invented the marks, ' * ' (acute, 
circumflex, and grave), w r hich are now used in indicating Greek 
accent. These marks were devised for the convenience of for- 
eigners at Alexandria, to whom Greek was not a native tongue. 
The third great Alexandrian critic was Aristarehus, whose fame 
overshadowed all his predecessors. He was the oracle of his 
day ; and the estimation in which he was held is shown by a pas- 
sage in the ancient Scholia : * It is better to err with Aristarehus 
than to be right with others. 1 His great object was to secure a 
correct text of Homer, This he strove to do by a comparison' 
of the civic editions and by attention to metrical considerations ; 
and he succeeded so far that his text is that to which most of our 
best modem editions strive to approach. The division of the 
Iliad and Odyssey into twenty-four books and the employment 
of the large and small letters of the Greek alphabet to designate 
these books are ascribed to Aristarehus. During the lifetime of 


this great critic, the views of Hellanicus, who maintained the 
separate authorship of the Iliad and Odyssey, gained some 
prominence. A school formed itself about Hellanicus ; and the 
doctrine of what were called the Chorizontes (ol Xwpt^ovre?), or 
' Separatists,' might have gained more adherents had not Aris- 
tarchus thrown the whole weight of his authority against it, and 
crushed it so completely that it was hardly heard of again until 
within the last hundred years. 

It does not appear that the great Alexandrian critics published 
anything but text-editions. They lectured, however, upon the 
classic authors, and much of their comments (wrofiv^fiaTa) was 
preserved in the meagre notes of their students. These notes 
were never carefully edited, but were copied, with more or less 
correctness, by successive generations of grammarians of infe- 
rior knowledge ; and it is in this way that they have reached us. 
Didymus, a grammarian of the Roman period, and a contem- 
porary of Cicero, may be mentioned for his services in the way 
just described. He was called XaAKcaeoos, ' Tough-gut ' (cf. 
Carlyle's Zahdartn), from his wonderful industry. He is said to 
have written 3,500 books. 1 

The manuscript copies of the Greek authors upon which our 
printed editions rest were mostly made in the period from the 
tenth to the fifteenth century by Greeks who had received their 
education at Constantinople or Athens. These copyists had access 
to a great mass of grammatical commentary which originated at 
Alexandria, and was preserved by such men as Didymus ; and 
they often selected from it to the best of their judgment, and 
filled with it a broad margin of the parchment page upon which 
they wrote the text of their author. Such explanatory notes, 
written in Greek, usually upon lines much closer together than 
the main text, and often in so fine a character as not to be easily 
decipherable, are called scholia ; 2 and their original author, in 
many cases unknown, is called a Scholiast. 

1 Book is of course to be taken in the same sense as was the word 
volume in the note on page xiv. 

2 We see the singular of this word employed in Geometry, where scho- 
)jum signifies a remark appended to a proposition. 




Our oldest complete manuscript * of the Iliad, which is also one 
of the most legible and beautiful of all existing classical manu- 
scripts, was probably written in the tenth century. Where it was 
written, or how it came to its present resting-place, — the library 
of the Church of Sl Mark at Venice, — is purely a matter of 
conjecture. It is known to scholars as the Codex Venetus A, — 
being thus distinguished from another manuscript of the Iliad 
in the same library, the Codex Venetus B* It is written upon 
vellum or parchment leaves, in size about 13 X 10 inches, and 
originally contained the entire Iliad upon 327 leaves, of which 
only 19 have disappeared. It was first published in the year 
17SS at Venice by the Abbe* Villoison, a French scholar, and its 
great importance was immediately recognized. It is interesting 
in three respects: (r) It contains the best text of the Iliad; 
(2) it preserves many of the critical marks (obelus, asterisk, etc*) 
used by the Alexandrian grammarians ; (3) it contains the best 
collection of scholia upon the Iliad, with the information that 
these scholia are derived from four grammarians ranging in date 
from the first century before Christ to the second century after 
Christ. One of these grammarians was Didymus, who has been 
just mentioned. 

The publication of the Venetian scholia shed a new light upon 
Homeric studies. Up to the date of their publication, it had 
been generally assumed that the received text of the Iliad had 
come down to us from about the time of the poet himself, which 
was sometimes placed at 1 144 b. c. But the Venetian scholia 
made it plain that the Alexandrian scholars had had before them 
no complete accepted text of the Iliad ; that they depended 
chiefly upon the civic editions, and sought by comparing them one 
with another to determine the form which the poem had origi- 
nally borne. None of the civic editions dated farther back than 
the age of Pericles (450 B.C.), and the earliest date which could 


be called historical in connection with the poems was that of 
the revision of Pisistratus, less than a century earlier, which, 
strange to say, there is no evidence that the great Alexandrian 
critics used. The question soon arose : " How account for the 
preservation of the poem, substantially unaltered, during the 
five centuries and more prior to Pisistratus? " ^^** 


F. A. Wolf, Professor in the University of Halle, maintained 
in his famous Prolegomena ad Homerutn, 1 published in 1 795, that 
the preservation of the poems during this long period was impos- 
sible. The earliest Greek inscription, he pointed out, scarcely 
antedated 600 b. c, and writing was not in general use before 
the time of Pisistratus. Without the common use of writing 
he affirmed that the preservation of the poems in an unaltered 
form was impossible. They neither originated so early as had 
been supposed, nor was the present their original form. Their 
origin was to be sought in the numerous songs which bards 
(dotSoi) sang at the popular festivals at a time when the gift 
of epic song was common to many. Each song was poured 
forth spontaneously by some gifted singer without any thought 
of the whole, the Iliad, of which by the version of Pisistratus 
it long after became a part. This view explained the many 
birth-places attributed to Homer ; for the name of the poet was 
to be interpreted as really the name of a style of composition. 
Wherever schools of bards flourished, there was a Homer. This 
theory, which saw in the Homeric poems only the spontaneous 
outgrowth of a certain phase of the Greek language and life, 
speedily gained warm adherents ; and the world was soon di- 
vided into Wolfians and anti -Wolfians. It is a theory the con- 
clusions of which have the most important bearing upon the 
credibility of all early history, and are by no means limited in 
their application to the Homeric poems. 

1 Prolegomena = Introduction. 


The admission, which would not now be made, that the art 
of writing was scarcely known or little used before the time of 
Pisistratus is not fatal, as Wolf supposed, to the oral transmission 
(/. r. transmission by the voice and by the power of memory) from 
a remote past of poems as long as the Iliad. Upon this point, 
many interesting facts illustrating the power of memory may be 
brought forward. In antiquity, when the number of books was 
much smaller than at the present time, and the variety of sub- 
jects which one was compelled to keep in mind much less 
great, the memory often performed feats which now seem in- 
credible. It was, for example, no infrequent accomplishment 
of educated men at Athens to repeat the entire Iliad and the 
entire Odyssey. In these days, on die contrary, we content our- 
selves with remembering where things are to be found, Instead of 
attempting to remember things themselves. Yet, in our time, 
Macaulay found that he could on occasion repeat half of Para- 
dise Lost, and some of De Quincey's exploits of memory were 
even more extraordinary than Macaulay's. On the whole, dien, 
it is impossible to set limits to the power of memory in such 
matters as these. It is probable that the poems could have been 
transmitted substantially unaltered, if it be granted that they 
could have been composed, without the aid of writing. 

Another argument against the unity of authorship of the Iliad 
is drawn from inconsistencies in the narrative. This line of in- 
vestigation has been followed up with the minutest diligence in 
Germany during the last fifty years, and Lachmann has divided 
the Iliad into eighteen originally distinct songs. But inconsist- 
encies in an epic poem are not necessarily fatal to unity of author- 
ship ; and so differently do such inconsistencies affect different 
persons that, while they lead Bonito (a Wolfian) to find the secret 
of the power of the Iliad " in the overpowering charm of the 
" separate pictures, which draw away the attention from their con- 
nection with each other," they allow Gladstone (a defender of 
the unity of authorship) to remark that " the plot of the Iliad 
u is one of the most consummate works known to literature. Not 
" only is it not true that a want of cohesion and proportion in the 


" Iliad betrays a plurality of authors, but it is rather true that a 
" structure so highly and so delicately organized constitutes in 
" itself a powerful argument to prove its unity of conception and 
" execution." 


The following is a statement of conclusions which may be 
considered as established after nearly a century of agitation of 
the Homeric Question. The language is that of Professor 
R. C. Jebb, a most candid and judicious English scholar : 

" The Iliad and Odyssey belong to the end, not to the begin- 
ning of a poetical epoch. They mark the highest point 
" reached by a school of poetry in Ionia which began by shap- 
" ing the rude war-songs of Aeolic bards into short lays, and 
"gradually developed a style suited to heroic narrative." 

"The Iliad has been enlarged and remodelled by several 
" hands from a shorter poem, by one poet, on the ' Wrath of Achil- 
" les.' This original ' Wrath of Achilles/ probably composed 
" about 940 b. c, was not merely a short lay, but a poem on a 
" large plan, in which the central motive gave unity to a varied 
" action, and which might properly be called an epic. It may 
"have been only the last and best of a lost series of similar 
" poems. But if it was the first of its kind, then its author was 
" the Founder of the Epic art, who made the advance, not from 
" the primitive war-song to the epic on a grand scale, but from 
" the lay to the short epic." x 


The word Iliad means Poem about Ilium. Ilium, or Troy, was 
a city of what was later called Mysia, in the northwest of Asia 
Minor, and was situated three miles south of the Hellespont. 9 

1 Primer of Greek Literature, p. 36. 

2 See map of region in Autenrieth's Homeric Dictionary, Plate V. 


The poem describes only an episode in the ten years' siege of 
Troy by the Greeks. 

The following are the chief facts mentioned, or assumed as 
known , in the Iliad. Paris, also called Alexander, had carried 
off the fairest woman in Greece, — Helen, wife of Menelaos, 
King of Sparta. Helen had had many suitors, all of whom had 
promised her father Tyndareos, at his daughter's wedding, that 
they would maintain her husband's rights, should any one interfere 
with them. So Menelaos's brother Agamemnon, King of Myke- 
nae, then the leading sovereign in Greece, called together all the 
suitors and some other heroes, and the whole force in x 100 ships 
sailed to besiege Troy* For ten years they besieged it without 
result, — not being able to come to a pitched battle with the Tro- 
jans, who would not venture forth from the city-walls on account 
of their dread of the Greek hero Achilles, the son of Peleus, king 
of Phthiotis, and Thetis, a sea-goddess. But, in the tenth year of 
the siege, Achilles suffered an affront from Agamemnon, who 
took away from him his prize, the captive maiden Briseis, who 
had been assigned to him after the sack of Lymessos, one of the 
lesser towns of the Troad, or plain about Troy. In consequence 
he withdrew from the conflict, and retired to his tent by the 
sea shore. This is the point at which the Iliad begins. The 
wrath of Achilles — its causes, its effects, and how it was appeased 
— is the subject of much of the poem. The immediate conse- 
quence of Achilles's retirement is that the Trojans now dare to 
come forth and engage in combat with the Greeks. Fifteen out 
of the twenty-four books describe the varying strife. Finally 
(in II) Patroclos begs Achilles to lend him his armor, and goes 
with it into the combat. The Trojans flee before him, think- 
ing that Achilles has re-entered the fray ; but at last Patroclos is 
slain by Hector aided by Apollo. Achilles's desire for ven- 
geance on the slayer of his friend now overcomes his resentment 
ist Agamemnon (in S). A new and splendid suit of armor 
is prepared for him by Hephaistos, — Hector had stripped his 
former armor from the corpse of Patroclos, — and he rushes into 
the combat, slays Hector, and drags his body back to the ships 
(in X), 


The last scene of the Iliad presents King Priam begging of 
Achilles, the slayer of his son, the body of Hector. His prayer 
is granted, and a truce is observed while Hector is buried. 1 

1 For a detailed outline of that portion of the Iliad contained in the 
present volume, see the summaries printed with the Greek text. 



Two different feet occur in the Homeric hexameter: the 
dactyl and the spondee. The dactyl consists of a long syllable 
followed by two short syllables ; the spondee^ of two long syllables. 
As a long syllable occupies in pronunciation twice the time of a 
short syllable, the two feet may be represented to the eye in two 
ways: (i) by marks of long and short quantity, dactyl "^^ 

spondee ; (2) by quarter and eighth notes, dactyl f 66» 

spondee f f. 1 

The unit, or fundamental foot, of the verse is the dactyl. This 
greatly prepondt rates in the first five of the six feet of which the 
line is composed. Occasionally, as A 10, each of the first five feet 
is a dactyl ; more often, spondees interchange with dactyls, except 
in the fifth foot which is so commonly a dactyl that, when a spon- 
dee is found there, the verse receives the special name of ' spondaic 
verse.' Examples of spondaic verses are A 14, 21, 74, 107. About 
one verse in every twenty is spondaic. The last foot of the verse 
is never a dactyl, but always consists of two syllables. 2 We see 
then that the number of syllables in a verse may vary between 
seventeen (all the feet dactyls except the last) and twelve (all 
the feet spondees, of which the only example in Books I-VI, is 

1 Dactyl is derived from SoktuKos ' finger,' — more probably from the use of the finger 
in beating time than because the finger, like the dactyl, contains one long and two short 
portions. Spondee is a derivative from <nreV5o/uiai, 'pour libation* (<nr<w8ij, ' libation*) , 
because slow solemn chants in this measure were sung in propitiating the gods. 

3 The last foot of a verse is sometimes an apparent trochee (- » or f£), since the slight 
pause which always occurs at the end of the line tends to obscure the difference between 
a preceding long or short syllable. A similar remark may be made respecting short syUar 
bles used as long before a caesura. See § 5, 4. 



The first syllable of each foot receives, in scanning, a metrical 
accent. This is entirely distinct from the written accent, with which 
it may, or may not, coincide. Each hexameter verse has six metrical 
accents. The stress which the metrical accent gives to the accented 
syllable is called ictus* The accented part of each foot is called 
the thesis; the unaccented part, the arsis. In the dactyl the arsis 
consists of two syllables ; in the spondee, of one. As the spondee 
is the precise equivalent of the dactyl (p f = • 55), the 
length of the thesis is precisely equal to that of the arsis. 


Pauses, both those indicated by punctuation and those not thus 
indicated, are as important to good scanning as they are to the 
good reading of prose. They may occur at the end of a foot or in 
the heart of a foot; a pause of the first kind is called a diaeresis; 
one of the second kind, a caesura. A diaeresis at the end of the 
third foot, which would divide the verse exactly at the center, is 
avoided ; but diaereses, at the end of the second and especially at 
the end of the fourth foot, are not infrequent. This latter is called 
the Bucolic diaeresis, because more frequent in Bucolic or Pastoral 
poetry than in Epic poetry. Examples are A 4, 14, 15, 30. 

Caesura (caesura, the Latin equivalent of the Greek ropf), lit. 
'cutting') designates that break in the verse which is caused 
whenever a word ends in the heart of a foot. Caesurae can occur 
in any foot, and there are usually several in a verse ; but the most 
important or main caesura is always near the middle of the line, 
and commonly in the third foot. This caesura of the third foot 
may come after the thesis, as is the case in A 1, 8, n, and in 247 
out of the 611 verses in Book I. This is the favorite Vergili an 
caesura. Or, if the third foot is a dactyl, so that the arsis con- 
sists of two syllables, the caesura may come in the arsis ; e. g. 
A 5, 6. This latter caesura is the most frequent in the Homeric 
poems. It occurs 356 times in Book I. 1 

1 The caesura after the thesis is sometimes called the masculine caesura ; it was also 
called by the ancients to/aij irev0i)/u/i6ptf, i.e» ' the caesura after the first five half-feet ' 
(Tre'tre, tj/uu-, fie'poc). The caesura in the arsis, also called the feminine caesura, was often 
called rofiri Kara rbv rpirov rpo\alov, * caesura at the end of the third trochee,' because, 
by cutting off the last syllable of a dactyl in the third foot, it left a trochee. Much less 
common than the caesurae just described is the caesura m the fourth foot, generally 
accompanied by a caesura in the second foot; e.g. a 7, 10, 16. 



Two successive vowels (or a vowel and diphthong) are often 
fused in pronunciation. This is called synisesis (crW^em, lit. • set- 
tling together '). The contiguous vowels may be in different words 
or in the same word. Syndesis differs from the elision so common 
in Vergil in that neither vowel is lost, for where vowels are elided in 
utterance in Greek they are omitted in writing ; it differs from con- 
traction because the vowels are merged only in utterance, though 
written out tn full. It might be said to add other diphthongs to 
those commonly recognized as such. Examples are A 1, 15, 18. 

Hiatus la said to exist when two vowels immediately follow one 
another, either as the final and initial vowel in two successive words* 
or in the parts of a compound word. There are certain conditions, 
specified in the Sketch of the Dialect, § 3, in which hiatus is tol- 
erated. There are many other cases where it is only apparent 
In these the second of the two words had originally an initial con- 
sonant, the effect of which was remembered, though the consonant 
itself was no longer written and not always uttered. Examples are 
in A 4, 7, 24. See also Sketch of Dialect, § 3, 2. 


In order to divide a line correctly into feet, we need to know the 
quantity of each syllable. This Is more easily recognized in Greek 
than in Latin. A few rules of special importance may be given : — 

|. 7, op, and all diphthongs are long by nature. 

2. r, o are short by nature. 

3. A vowel naturally short is made long by position when it 
stands before two consonants or a double consonant. One or 
both of these consonants may be in the following word, and a mute 
will] a liquid usually gives long position. A single liquid may 
give long position ; e.g* A 283, 

4. A vowel naturally short is often used as long in the thesis 
before the caesura. The ictus, or stress of voice, doubtless has a 
tendency to prolong the vowel, and so does the slight pause accom- 
panying the caesura {c/\ § i, note 2). Examples of this lengthening 
are found in A 45, 153. 

L5. A long final vowel or diphthong is frequently used as short 
when the following word begins with a vowel, Li. before a hiatus. 1 
' This apparent $h wlenfag may perhaps be best explained by sa^vcife ftaU\»tW^wt\ 
w diphthong loses, xm if by elision t half of its quantity. 



This shortening occurs, of course, only in the arsis of the foot. 
Examples are A 14, 15. 

The beginner will be aided in his first attempts to divide a line 
into feet by remembering that dactyls decidedly predominate above 
spondees. He should also understand that there is no such 
general principle in Greek as that expressed by the common rule 
in Latin *a vowel before another vowel is short.' Examples of 
the contrary are 'AxtXXiJos A 1 , rjpdxov A 4. The marks of accent 
aid in many cases in determining the quantity of the doubtful 
vowels a, 4, v, as does also the fact that most inflectional and forma- 
tive suffixes are short. 

The following hints for scanning, beginning anywhere in a hex- 
ameter verse, will be found useful : — 

1. When a long syllable is followed by a short syllable, the long 
syllable always has a metrical ictus ; e.g. -*- kj. 

2. The syllable following two short syllables always has a met- 
rical ictus ; e.g. — \y w -*■ \j w. 

3. A short syllable always indicates the presence of a dactyl. 

4. Two contiguous long syllables always indicate the presence 
of a spondee which either (a) ends with the first long syllable, 
or (b) begins with it. 

The beginner will find it a useful exercise to scan half a line 
at a time, making a long pause near the middle of the verse, 
/.*. in the third foot. One must begin in the first half with an 
ictus on the first syllable ; in the second half of the line, the first 
ictus will come on the first long syllable not immediately following 
the pause. 

It will also be well to select a few verses of which the first five 
feet are dactyls (<rrixoi 6\o8dicrv\oi), — e.g. A 10, 12, 13, — and to 
practise these until one is familiar with the rhythm. There are 
120 such verses in Book I of the Iliad. Then one may pass 
to verses containing two spondees, and gradually increase the 


The three prerequisites to good scanning are : a correct di- 
vision of the verse into feet ; the placing of the metrical accent 
upon the first syllable of each foot (ictus on the thesis) ; the cor- 
rect location of the main caesura. The scholar should distinctly 
understand that attention to the second of these points often in- 


volves the neglect of the written accent, which he has hitherto 
carefully observed. 1 

Attention to the marks of punctuation will often aid in fixing the 
place of the main caesura, as will also the fact that many verses are 
so constructed that the sense is already complete at the middle of 
the third (or of the fourth) foot, while the part that remains is 
simply explanatory, and serves to round out the verse. Examples 
are A 17, 18, 19, 20, 21. 

Three prerequisites to good scanning have been named ; two other 
essential things must now be mentioned, without which scanning, 
though it may be correct, will be lifeless and intolerable. One must 
have such familiarity with the Greek words as to recognize and utter 
them without hesitation or conscious effort; one must also be famil- 
iar with the movement, the swing, of the hexameter. A good way to 
secure this familiarity is by memorizing selected hexameters, which 
may be repeated by pupils singly or by a class in concert. The follow- 
ing passages are suitable for this purpose : A 38-49, Chryses's prayer 
to Apollo, and Apollo's speedy answer ; A 148-157, Achilles's angry 
reply to Agamemnon. If memorizing hexameters is considered to 
make too great demands upon the time of a class, simple reading in 
concert, at first with the lead of the teacher, then without his lead, 
will give that idea of the rhythm without which there can be no good 
scanning. It may be well to expressly remind the pupil that he 
should never, in scanning, forget the sense, and to suggest that 
several words closely connected in sense may be uttered with 
hardly more pause between them than between the parts of a 
compound word ; e,g. ItyXqiaSea) 'A^iX^os, Al ; oltapolo-L re irao-t, A 5 ; 
Tis r ap <T<f)0)€ deSiPy A 8. 


It will also be highly profitable to call the attention of scholars 
to the best English accentual hexameters. Among the best-known 
English poems in this meter may be mentioned Longfellow's Evan- 
geline, Kingsley's Andromeda, and Clough's Bothie of Tober-na- 

1 This feet, that the written and metrical accent cannot both be regarded at the same 
time, is one of the strongest reasons for believing that the marks of written accent indicated 
varieties of pitch, not differences of stress, between different syWaUts. 


be called historical in connection with the poems was that of 
the revision of Pisistratus, less than a century earlier, which, 
strange to say, there is no evidence that the great Alexandrian 
critics used. The question soon arose : " How account for the 
preservation of the poem, substantially unaltered, during the 
five centuries and more prior to Pisistratus? " ^^ 


F. A. Wolf, Professor in the University of Halle, maintained 
in his famous Prolegomena ad Homerum, 1 published in 1 795, that 
the preservation of the poems during this long period was impos- 
sible. The earliest Greek inscription, he pointed out, scarcely 
antedated 600 b. c, and writing was not in general use before 
the time of Pisistratus. Without the common use of writing 
he affirmed that the preservation of the poems in an unaltered 
form was impossible. They neither originated so early as had 
been supposed, nor was the present their original form. Their 
origin was to be sought in the numerous songs which bards 
(dotSot) sang at the popular festivals at a time when the gift 
of epic song was common to many. Each song was poured 
forth spontaneously by some gifted singer without any thought 
of the whole, the Iliad, of which by the version of Pisistratus 
it long after became a part. This view explained the many 
birth-places attributed to Homer ; for the name of the poet was 
to be interpreted as really the name of a style of composition. 
Wherever schools of bards flourished, there was a Homer. This 
theory, which saw in the Homeric poems only the spontaneous 
outgrowth of a certain phase of the Greek language and life, 
speedily gained warm adherents; and the world was soon di- 
vided into Wolfians and anti -Wolfians. It is a theory the con- 
clusions of which have the most important bearing upon the 
credibility of all early history, and are by no means limited in 
their application to the Homeric poems. 

1 Prolegomena = Introduction. 


The admission, which would not now be made, that the art 
of writing was scarcely known or little used before the time of 
Pisistratus is not fatal, as Wolf supposed, to the oral transmission 
(/, t r transmission by the voice and by the power of memory) from 
a remote past of poems as long as the Iliad. Upon this point, 
many interesting facts illustrating the power of memory may be 
brought forward. In antiquity, when the number of books was 
much smaller than at the present time, and the variety of sub- 
jects which one was compelled to keep in mind much less 
great, the memory often performed feats which now seem in- 
credible. It was, for example, no infrequent accomplishment 
of educated men at Athens to repeat the entire Iliad and the 
entire Odyssey* In these days, on the contrary, we content our- 
selves with remembering where things are to be found, instead of 
attempting to remember things themselves* Yet, in our time, 
Macaulay found that he could on occasion repeat half of Para- 
dise Lost, and some of De Quincey's exploits of memory were 
even more extraordinary than Macaulay's* On the whole, then, 
it is impossible to set limits to the power of memory in such 
matters as these. It is probable that the poems could have been 
transmitted substantially unaltered, if it be granted that they 
could have been composed, without the aid of writing. 

Another argument against the unity of authorsliip of the Iliad 
is drawn from inconsistencies in the narrative. This line of in- 
vestigation has been followed up with the minutest diligence in 
Germany during the last fifty years, and Lachmann has divided 
the Iliad into eighteen originally distinct songs. But inconsist- 
encies in an epic poem are not necessarily fatal to unity of author- 
ship ; and so differently do such inconsistencies affect different 
persons that, while they lead BoniU (a Wolfian) to find the secret 
of the power of the Iliad " in the overpowering charm of the 
" separate pictures, which draw away the attention from their con- 
41 nection with each other," they allow Gladstone (a defender of 
the unity of authorship) to remark that " the plot of the Iliad 
** is one of the most consummate works known to literature. Not 
*' only is it not true that a want of cohesion and proportion in the 


" Iliad betrays a plurality of authors, but it is rather true that a 
" structure so highly and so delicately organized constitutes in 
" itself a powerful argument to prove its unity of conception and 
" execution." 


The following is a statement of conclusions which may be 
considered as established after nearly a century of agitation of 
the Homeric Question. The language is that of Professor 
R. C. Jebb, a most candid and judicious English scholar : 

" The Iliad and Odyssey belong to the end, not to the begin- 
ning of a poetical epoch. They mark the highest point 
" reached by a school of poetry in Ionia which began by shap- 
" ing the rude war-songs of Aeolic bards into short lays, and 
"gradually developed a style suited to heroic narrative." 

"The Iliad has been enlarged and remodelled by several 
" hands from a shorter poem, by one poet, on the ' Wrath of Achil- 
" les.' This original ' Wrath of Achilles/ probably composed 
" about 940 b. c, was not merely a short lay, but a poem on a 
" large plan, in which the central motive gave unity to a varied 
" action, and which might properly be called an epic. It may 
"have been only the last and best of a lost series of similar 
" poems. But if it was the first of its kind, then its author was 
" the Founder of the Epic art, who made the advance, not from 
" the primitive war-song to the epic on a grand scale, but from 
" the lay to the short epic." * 


The word Iliad means Poem about Ilium. Ilium, or Troy, was 
a city of what was later called Mysia, in the northwest of Asia 
Minor, and was situated three miles south of the Hellespont. 9 

1 Primer of Greek Literature, p. 36. 

2 See map of region in Autenrieth's Homeric Dictionary, Plate V. 



The poem describes only an episode in the ten years 1 siege of 
Troy by the Greeks. 

The following are the chief facts mentioned, or assumed as 
known, in the Iliad. Paris, also called Alexander, had carried 
off the fairest woman in Greece, — Helen, wife of Menelaos, 
King of Sparta* Helen had had many suitors, all of whom had 
promised her father Tyndareos, at his daughter's wedding, that 
they would maintain her husband *s rights, should any one interfere 
with them, So Menelaos's brother Agamemnon, King of Myke- 
nae, then the leading sovereign in Greece, called together all the 
suitors and some other heroes, and the whole force in i too ships 
sailed to besiege Troy. For ten years they besieged it without 
result, — not being able to come to a pitched battle with the Tro- 
jans, who would not venture forth from the city- walls on account 
of their dread of the Greek hero Achilles, the son of Peleus, king 
of Phthiotis, and Thetis, a sea-goddess. But, in the tenth year of 
the siege, Achilles suffered an affront from Agamemnon, who 
took away from him his prize, the captive maiden Briseis, who 
had been assigned to him after the sack of Lymessos, one of the 
lesser towns of the Troad, or plain about Troy. In consequence 
he withdrew from the conflict, and retired to his tent by the 
sea shore. This is the point at which the Iliad begins. The 
wrath of Achilles — its causes, its effects, and how it was appeased 
— is the subject of much of the poem. The immediate conse- 
quence of Achilles's retirement is that the Trojans now dare to 
come forth and engage in combat with the Greeks. Fifteen out 
of the twenty- four books describe the varying strife. Finally 
(in n) Patroclos begs Achilles to lend him his armor, and goes 
with it into the combat. The Trojans flee before him, think- 
ing that Achilles has re-entered the may ; but at last Patroclos is 
slain by Hector aided by Apollo. Achilles's desire for ven- 
geance on the skyer of his friend now overcomes his resentment 
against Agamemnon (in S). A new and splendid suit of armor 
is prepared for him by Hephaistos, — Hector had stripped his 
former armor from the corpse of Patroclos, — and he rushes into 
the combat, slays Hector, and drags his body back to the ships 
(in X), 


The last scene of the Iliad presents King Priam begging of 
Achilles, the slayer of his son, the body of Hector. His prayer 
is granted, and a truce is observed while Hector is buried. 1 

1 For a detailed outline of that portion of the Iliad contained in the 
present volume, see the summaries printed with the Greek text. 



Two different feet occur in the Homeric hexameter: the 
dactyl and the spondee. The dactyl consists of a long syllable 
followed by two short syllables ; the spondee, of two long syllables. 
As a long syllable occupies in pronunciation twice the time of a 
short syllable, the two feet may be represented to the eye in two 
ways: (i) by marks of long and short quantity, dactyl w w , 

spondee ; (2) by quarter and eighth notes, dactyl f66> 

spondee f f. 1 

The unit, or fundamental foot, of the verse is the dactyl. This 
greatly prepondt rates in the first five of the six feet of which the 
line is composed. Occasionally, as A 10, each of the first five feet 
is a dactyl ; more often, spondees interchange with dactyls, except 
in the fifth foot which is so commonly a dactyl that, when a spon- 
dee is found there, the verse receives the special name of ' spondaic 
verse.' Examples of spondaic verses are A 14, 21, 74, 107. About 
one verse in every twenty is spondaic. The last foot of the verse 
is never a dactyl, but always consists of two syllables. 2 We see 
then that the number of syllables in a verse may vary between 
seventeen (all the feet dactyls except the last) and twelve (all 
the feet spondees, of which the only example in Books I-VI, is 

1 Dactyl is derived from SoktvAo? ' finger,' — more probably from the use of the finger 
in beating time than because the finger, like the dactyl, contains one long and two short 
portions. Spondee is a derivative from (nreVSojuiat, 'pour libation' (<nrof8»j, 'libation'), 
because slow solemn chants in this measure were sung in propitiating the gods. 

a The last foot of a verse is sometimes an apparent trochee (- w or f ff ), since the slight 
pause which always occurs at the end of the line tends to obscure the difference between 
a preceding long or short syllable. A similar remark may be made respecting short sylla- 
bles used as long before a caesura. See § 5, 4. 



The first syllable of each foot receives, in scanning, a metrical 
accent. This is entirely distinct from the written accent, with which 
it may, or may not, coincide. Each hexameter verse has six metrical 
accents. The stress which the metrical accent gives to the accented 
syllable is called ictus. The accented part of each foot is called 
the thesis j the unaccented part, the arsis. In the dactyl the arsis 
consists of two syllables ; in the spondee, of one. As the spondee 
is the precise equivalent of the dactyl (f f = f J J), the 
length of the thesis is precisely equal to that of the arsis. 


Pauses, both those indicated by punctuation and those not thus 
indicated, are as important to good scanning as they are to the 
good reading of prose. They may occur at the end of a foot or in 
the heart of a foot; a pause of the first kind is called a diaeresis; 
one of the second kind, a caesura. A diaeresis at the end of the 
third foot, which would divide the verse exactly at the center, is 
avoided ; but diaereses, at the end of the second and especially at 
the end of the fourth foot, are not infrequent. This latter is called 
the Bucolic diaeresis, because more frequent in Bucolic or Pastoral 
poetry than in Epic poetry. Examples are A 4, 14, 15, 30. 

Caesura (caesura, the Latin equivalent of the Greek To/if) 9 lit. 
'cutting*) designates that break in the verse which is caused 
whenever a word ends in the heart of a foot. Caesurae can occur 
in any foot, and there are usually several in a verse ; but the most 
important or main caesura is always near the middle of the line, 
and commonly in the third foot. This caesura of the third foot 
may come after the thesis, as is the case in A 1, 8, 11, and in 247 
out of the 611 verses in Book I. This is the favorite Vergili an 
caesura. Or, if the third foot is a dactyl, so that the arsis con- 
sists of two syllables, the caesura may come in the arsis; e. g. 
A 5, 6. This latter caesura is the most frequent in the Homeric 
poems. It occurs 356 times in Book I. 1 

1 The caesura after the thesis is sometimes called the masculine caesura ; it was also 

called by the ancients ro/i-n irev0ij/uu/mepis, i.e. ' the caesura after the first five half-feet ' 

(ireVre, 77/Ai-, nipos). The caesura in the arsis, also called the feminine caesura, was often 

called To/xij Kara rbv rplrov rpo\alov y * caesura at the end of the third trochee,' because, 

by cutting off the last syllable of a dactyl in the third foot, it left a trochee. Much less 

common than the caesurae just described is the caesura ui the iourth foot, generally 

accompanied by a caesura in the second foot; e.g. a 7, 10, 16. 


Two successive vowels (or a vowel and diphthong) are often 
fused in pronunciation. This is called synizcsis (aWfoo-tr, lit. ' set- 
tling together s ). The contiguous vowels may be in different words 
or in the same word. Synizesis differs from the elision so common 
in Vergil in that neither vowel is lost, for where vowels are elided in 
utterance in Greek they are omitted in writing ; it differs from con- 
tracdon because the vowels are merged only in utterance, though 
written out in full. It might be said to add other diphthongs to 
those commonly recognized as such. Examples are A t, t$, 18. 

Hiatus is said to exist when two vowels immediately follow one 
another, either as the final and initial vowel in two successive words, 
or in the parts of a compound word. There are certain conditions, 
specified in the Sketch of the Dialect, § 3, in which hiatus is tol- 
erated. There are many other cases where it is only apparent. 
In these the second of the two words had originally an initial con- 
sonant, the effect of which was remembered, though the consonant 
itself was no longer written and not always uttered, Examples are 
in A 4, 7, 24. See also Sketch of Dialect, % 3, 2, 


In order to divide a line correctly into feet, we need to know the 
quantity of each syllable. This is more easily recognized in Greek 
than in Latin. A few rules of special importance may be given : — 

1. q, a, and all diphthongs are long by nature. 

2. *» are short by nature. 

3* A vowel naturally short is made long by position when it 
stands before two consonants or a double consonant One or 
both of these consonants may be in the following word, and a mute 
with a liquid usually gives long position. A single liquid may 
give long position \ t\^. A 283* 

4. A vowel naturally short is often used as long in the thesis 
before the caesura. The ictus, or stress of voice, doubtless has a 
tendency to prolong the vowel, and so does the slight pause accom- 
panying the caesura {cf. % 1, note 2). Examples of this lengthening 
are found in A 45, 153. 

5. A long final vowel or diphthong is frequently used as short 
when the following word begins with a vowel, le, before a hiatus, 1 

1 This agparcor jfeortenfag may perhaps be best explained by tvpag v\»S.lfc«\[snvwM^ 
or diphthong !cxs r «# */ by elision, half of its quantity* 


This shortening occurs, of course, only in the arsis of the foot 
Examples are A 14, 1 5. 

The beginner will be aided in his first attempts to divide a line 
into feet by remembering that dactyls decidedly predominate above 
spondees. He should also understand that there is no such 
general principle in Greek as that expressed by the common rule 
in Latin *a vowel before another vowel is short.' Examples of 
the contrary are 'AxtXX^oy A 1 , rjpdxov A 4. The marks of accent 
aid in many cases in determining the quantity of the doubtful 
vowels a, 4, v, as does also the fact that most inflectional and forma- 
tive suffixes are short. 

The following hints for scanning, beginning anywhere in a hex- 
ameter verse, will be found useful : — 

1. When a long syllable is followed by a short syllable, the long 
syllable always has a metrical ictus ; eg. -L \j. 

2. The syllable following two short syllables always has a met- 
rical ictus ; e.g. — w -*■ \j \j. 

3. A short syllable always indicates the presence of a dactyl. 

4. Two contiguous long syllables always indicate the presence 
of a spondee which either (a) ends with the first long syllable, 
or (b) begins with it. 

The beginner will find it a useful exercise to scan half a line 
at a time, making a long pause near the middle of the verse, 
i.e. in the third foot. One must begin in the first half with an 
ictus on the first syllable ; in the second half of the line, the first 
ictus will come on the first long syllable not immediately following 
the pause. 

It will also be well to select a few verses of which the first five 
feet are dactyls (ori^ot 6Xodd#cruXot), — e.g. A 10, 12, 13, — and to 
practise these until one is familiar with the rhythm. There are 
120 such verses in Book I of the Iliad. Then one may pass 
to verses containing two spondees, and gradually increase the 


The three prerequisites to good scanning are : a correct di- 
vision of the verse into feet ; the placing of the metrical accent 
upon the first syllable of each foot (ictus on the thesis) ; the cor- 
rect location of the main caesura. The scholar should distinctly 
understand that attention to the second of these points often in- 


volves the neglect of the written accent, which he has hitherto 
carefully observed. 1 

Attention to the marks of punctuation will often aid in fixing the 
place of the main caesura, as will also the fact that many verses are 
so constructed that the sense is already complete at the middle of 
the third (or of the fourth) foot, while the part that remains is 
simply explanatory, and serves to round out the verse. Examples 
are A 17, 18, 19, 20, 21. 

Three prerequisites to good scanning have been named ; two other 
essential things must now be mentioned, without which scanning, 
though it may be correct, will be lifeless and intolerable. One must 
have such familiarity with the Greek words as to recognize and utter 
them without hesitation or conscious effort; one must also be famil- 
iar with the movement, the swing, of the hexameter. A good way to 
secure this familiarity is by memorizing selected hexameters, which 
may be repeated by pupils singly or by a class in concert. The follow- 
ing passages are suitable for this purpose : A 38-49, Chryses's prayer 
to Apollo, and Apollo's speedy answer ; A 148-157, Achilles's angry 
reply to Agamemnon. If memorizing hexameters is considered to 
make too great demands upon the time of a class, simple reading in 
concert, at first with the lead of the teacher, then without his lead, 
will give that idea of the rhythm without which there can be no good 
scanning. It may be well to expressly remind the pupil that he 
should never, in scanning, forget the sense, and to suggest that 
several words closely connected in sense may be uttered with 
hardly more pause between them than between the parts of a 
compound word ; e,g. HrjKr\idb€(a 'A^iX^or, A I ; oltapolo-L re 7racri, A 5 ; 
Tis r dp (r<f)<0€ QeStPy A 8. 


It will also be highly profitable to call the attention of scholars 
to the best English accentual hexameters. Among the best-known 
English poems in this meter may be mentioned Longfellow's Evan- 
geline, Kingsley's Andromeda, and Clough's Bothie of Tober-na- 

1 This feet, that the written and metrical accent cannot both be regarded at the same 
time, is one of the strongest reasons for believing that the marks of written accent indicated 
varieties of pitch, not differences of stress between different syltable*. 


The following example is from Kingsley's Andromeda : — 

Smiling, she | answered in | turn, || that | chaste Tri | tonid A | thene*, 
Dear unto | me, no | less than to | thee, || is the | wedlock of | heroes, 
Dear who can | worthily | win him || a | wife not un | worthy and | noble, 
Pure with the | pure to be- 1 get brave | children || the | like of their | father. 

I add two translations of detached passages of the Iliad and Odys- 
sey. First, from the Iliad, T 233-242, by Dr. Hawtrey, former Head- 
master of Eton College : — 

Clearly the | rest I be | hold of the | dark eyM | sons of A | chaia. 
Known to me | well are the | faces of | all ; their | names I re | member ; 
Two, two, I only re | main whom 1 1 see not a | mong the com | manders, — 
Kastor | fleet in the | car, Poly | deukes | brave with the | cestus ; 
Own dear | brethren of | mine, one | parent | loved us as | infants. 
Are they not | here in the | host, from the | shores of | lov'd Lake | daimon, 
Or, though they | came with the | rest, in | ships that I bound through the | waters 
Dare they not | enter the | fight or | stand in the | council of | Heroes, 
All for I fear of the | shame and the | taunts my | crime has a | wakened ? 

Second, from the Odyssey, e 55-69, by William Cullen Bryant : l — 

Now as he | reached, in his | course, that | isle far | off in the | ocean, 
Forth from the | dark blue | swell of the | waves he I stepped on the | sea-beach, 
Walking right] on till he | came to the | broad-roofed | cave where the | goddess 
Made her a | bode — that | bright-haired | nymph, — in her | dwelling he | 

found her. 
There, on the | hearth, was a | huge fire | blazing, and | over the | island 
Floated the | odorous | fume sent | up from the | cedar and | cypress, 
Cloven and | burning, while | she sat | far in the | grotto and | sweetly 
Sang, as the | shuttle of | gold was | flung through the | web from her | fingers. 
Round that | grot grew | up, on all | sides, a lux | uriant | forest. 
Alders were|there, and|poplars, and|there was the tsweet smelling [cypress, 
Haunted by |broad-wingedJ birds which | build their | nests in the | branches, 
Owls of the I wood, and | falcons, and | crows with | far-sounding | voices, 
Birds of the | shore which | seek their | food on the | beaches of | ocean. 
There, all | over the | rock from | which that | grotto was | hollowed, 
Clambered a | strong-growing | vine whose | fruit hung | heavy in | clusters. 

The reader of the selections just given will observe how greatly 
the dactyl preponderates in English hexameters. This is indeed 

1 This translation, never elsewhere published, so far as I know, than in the " Evening 
Post," was made by Mr. Bryant as an experiment, before he had decided what meter to 
employ in his translation of the Odyssey. 


their great defect, because fatal to variety. Another defect is the 
frequent occurrence of the diaeresis at the end of the third foot (see 
§ 3). It will be also noticed that the same syllable is now used as long, 
now as short Little regard, in fact, is had for quantity, which is 
wholly subordinated to accent. The last two specimens (from Haw- 
trey and Bryant) show a regard for quantity much greater than is 
usually found in English hexameters. 


It is a good exercise to turn a few lines of Homer into English 
hexameter. Some verses will go into the same English measure with 
little effort ; e.g. B 23 : — 

E8$€ts, "Arpeos vU ScU<ppovos lnrotidfioio ; 
Sleep'st thou, | O son of | Atreus || the | furious | tamer of | horses ? 

or the following (A 148-151) : — 

Tbv 5* &p' vir6Spa i5u>*> irpo(T€<p7) ir6$as wkus 'AxiAActf* * 
& fioty avtufalyv imcificvt, K€plah*6<ppoi> • 
irabs rls rot irp6<ppwv tirc<riv ireldryrat 'Axcuwv, 
^ tthv iKOc/xevai, fj foSpdaiv ?<pt fidxctrdai; 

Him then with | stern glance re | gardmg ad | dressed the swift- | footed 

A I chilles : 
Ah me 1 | mantled in | arrogance, | greedy in | spirit and | temper, 
How to thy I words shall | any A | chaian | render o | bedience 
Either to | go on a | foray or | valiantly | combat with | heroes ? 

A moderate amount of practice will give considerable ease in writ- 
ing such hexameters. The writer has sometimes had an entire 
lesson voluntarily prepared by a class in hexameter translation, and 
pupils have frequently in examination written, in this meter, their 
translation of the passage set. There are several familiar combina- 
tions of words in English which naturally close a dactyl. As such 
may be mentioned the monosyllabic prepositions followed by the 
article ; e.g. ' of the,' ' in the,' 'for the,' * with the,' etc. The trans- 
lator will soon notice, however, that the Greek line literally trans- 
lated does not furnish, in most cases, enough material to fill out the 
English hexameter. The obvious reason for this is the lack in 
English of that multitude of particles and conjunctions for which 
in English there is no precise equivalent, and wYAch m Gt^&l svk$- 


ply so readily the short syllables for the dactyls. The translator 
has no alternative but to expand ; and it is perhaps this inevitable 
introduction of foreign matter, more than anything else, which 
explains the failure of hexameter translations of extended por- 
tions of the Iliad to interest the reader. Of course, this fact con- 
stitutes no objection to the hexameter as an English meter, nor to 
its use for original English poems. But it is a question whether it 
does not render it an unsuitable meter for a translation of Homer 
as a whole. 

Note on § 2. — The terms thesis and arsis are employed in the preced- 
ing pages in the same sense as they were originally used by the Greek 
grammarians, where Ocaris, * placing,' indicated the fall of the foot (or 
hand or finger), with an accompanying accent, in beating time. "A/xrw, 
' raising,' was the corresponding lifting of the foot, unaccompanied by 
accent. Since the time of the Roman grammarians these two terms have 
been used in the reverse of their original signification. 




1. Vowel Substitutions. 

i. 17 is used in Homer after p, c, i, where the Attic uses 0; 
{'&' <*y°py [py°P&\> ofiolrj [6/xoia], TrciprjcrofiaL [7T€ipacrofiai]. 

2. Similarly, « is found for c, ov for o ; e.g. %clvos [£evos], \pv- 
<r€ios [xpvvtos, xP u<ro ^ ff ]> irovXvs [noXvs], povvos [jidvos]. 

3. More rarely, 01 is found for o, at for a, 17 for c ; ^.^. Avoir) [irvoql 
alms [arnfc], TiOrjfievos [ri$e fievos]. 

4. By what is called metathesis quantitatis, 'transposition of 
quantity,' do becomes co> ; e.g. 'Arpci'ScG) interchangeable with 'Arpci- 
flao. Similarly, we find eas and elos [ens], direpeia-ios for diretpt<rios 
[aireipoff], wX. 

2. Treatment of Concurrent Vowels. 

1. Contraction, when it occurs, follows the ordinary rules, except 
that €0 and €ov contract only into ev ; e.g. 0dp<revs [Qapo-ovs], /SaXXev 

2. But contraction often does not take place ; e.g. dcVcov [$kuv\ 
Skyca [SKyrj] ; and, on the other hand, a few unusual contractions 
occur ; e.g. cvppfios, instead of cvppcovs from ivppecos. 

3. Two vowels (or diphthongs) are often blended in pronuncia- 

x The Homeric dialect, also called the Epic or older Ionic, is the oldest form of the 
Greek language of which we have knowledge. To this the newer Ionic in which Herodo- 
tus wrote, and the Attic dialect which became the accepted standard for ordinary compo- 
sition, stand related as younger sisters. The Homeric dialect was undoubtedly based upon 
the Greek as spoken, during the tenth and ninth centuries, in the islands of the Aegean Sea 
and on the Ionian coast of Asia Minor. But the variety of forms which it contains is greater 
than could have been employed at one time in any spoken dialect. Hence it is inferred that 
the originators of Epic poetry created in fact their dialect, developing and amplifying it 
in the direction of certain tendencies which they found existing in common every-day 


tion (synizesis) ; e.g. 'ArpeioVo (pronounce -dyo), hi\ ad, cW ov, tj off. 
See Essay on Scanning Homer, § 4. 

3. Hiatus. 

1. Hiatus is allowed (*>. may be considered regular) in the fol- 
lowing cases : — 

(a) after the vowels 1 and v ; 

(b) when the two vowels are separated by a principal caesura, a 
diaeresis, or a mark of punctuation ; 

(c ) when the final vowel of the first word is long and stands in 
the accented part of the foot ; 

(d) when the first of the two vowels, though naturally long, stands 
in the unaccented part of the foot, and loses half of its quan- 
tity before the following vowel. 

(e) when the last vowel of the first word has been lost by elision. 

These cases are illustrated by the following examples : — 

(a) faorrjpi kp7)p6ri. — | — kj\j \ — w v> 

(b) KaOrjaro, iTriyvdfujtcura, kt\. \j \ — ww| | — \j. 

(c) iivrtOetp 'OSvo-rji. — uu|— uu| — \j* 

(d) blcrroi 4*' &fiav. \j | — w w | . 

{e) fxvpi * 'Axaioty &\yt ' tdyicfv. — w | | — vu| — \j* 

2. Hiatus in other circumstances is generally only apparent, and 
disappears on supplying the original consonant (now no longer writ- 
ten) ; e.g. rhv 8* ^/m/Ser' tnfvra Fdva£ dvhpusy y Ayapepva>v. See § 8 ; 
also see Essay on Scanning Homer, § 4, and Apparent Hiatus in 

4. Elision. 

Elision is allowed in some cases where it would not occur in prose, 
a, c, t, o are elided in declension and conjugation ; <u in the endings 
fuu, a-ai, tcu, crOax ; 01 in /*oi, (rot, rot. 

5. Apocope. 

I Before a following consonant, the final short vowel of apa, and of 

lthe prepositions dvd, napd, Kara may be cut off, leaving tip, 3v, irdp, 

Var. This is called apocope. 

I Remark. The accent in this case recedes to the first syllable, and 

tie consonant, now final, is assimilated to a following consonant ; 

kg. tab bwap.iv [Kara bvvapuv], koXXcttc [icarcAMre], ap irebiov [d»a 



6. Anastrofhe, 

Anastrophe, or the retraction of the accent from the ultima to the 
penult, may occur in the case of all oxytone prepositions except 
dp<pi t avrty aud, §id. It regularly occurs ; (i) when a preposition fol- 
lows its case (but yt jf the final vowel of the preposition has been 
eJidedX — **g* $ «" [*'<£ * »]s but Biv itf? oXor [«ri 0'tva <£X«r] ; (2) when 
a preposition is placed after a verb from which it has been sepa- 
rated by tmesis (see note on A 25) ; e.g. oXecrar iVo [diroXctnu]. 

Remark. The adverb of comparison £«, 'as, 1 when placed after 
the noun which it woujd naturally precede* is accented; eg. upviBn 
&t. t as birds,* 

7* Consonant Changes. 

1. Single* 'consonants, especially X, p y v, p, tr, are often doubled In 
the heart o£ a word after a vowel ; e.g. ZXkafiov [fXa^o^J, roWoc [td- 
*ro*]. Here may also be mentioned the occasional lengthening of a 
short final vowel before certain words beginning with a liquid (per- 
haps the liquid was doubled in pronunciation); e.g. erf pcyapoiat. 

2. Metathesis (pn-ajfr <ris-, * transposition T ) of a vowel and a liquid 
is common; e.g. upa&iq and jtapSity \jtap&ia\ t Aaptrnt and Bptitras [Baptms*] 

3. Between p and p f a^also between p. and X, $ is sometimes in- 
serted ; e.g. trpfiparost where pfiporos [fycmfr] is for ppar6^ and shows 
the same root as Latin mor-ior* Cf. also p£-p0Kmm t from stem 
pXor t fiak-* - s * 


For fuller statements respecting this letter (called digamma, &A 


-gamma, from its form, but in pronunciation having the power 

of w) 3 

see the grammars, 

The following words had originally ini- 





tTTJS * JjMr 



Zov t of, 1 

tfror ft, r#* 


efyoi ('say') 

lira*, cIwqv 

jgBfa T*roi 




li^Wi ' b x4 W'^S 




IoVTjt, otS<x oTkos 


tttTlTl) CKWV 


emtio, atfOS 




UfXOS fo> fl, ©V 



efya, ivQ4t 





fvF ('violet 1 ) 




9. Suffixes having Force of Case-Endings. 

f i. The termination -</>i(v) serves for the ending of the genitive and 

[ dative, in both singular and plural ; e.g. eg evvrjfa, ftirjQi, darcoQt 

I Bis, <rvv tmroia-tu ical 6xco-<t>i' These forms would be written, in the 

/ Attic dialect, e£ evv£>v 9 /3ia, ootcW (ootgw) 6ls, avv tmrois kcu o^eai. 

2. The three local suffixes -di, -6ev, -be are frequently appended 

to a substantive to answer the questions ' where ? ' ' whence ? ' 

'whither?' (-be being appended to the accusative case and -6ev 

being often the equivalent of the genitive ending) ; e.g. oucoBi [oUoi], 

ovpav60ev [e£ ovpavov\, ovbe bopovbe [eis rov bopov avrov\. 

10. First Declension. 

[Here are included feminine forms of several classes of words in -os, -if, -ov ; e.g. of adjec- 
tives and of participles, of pronouns, and of the article.] 

1. For 5 we find regularly, in the singular, r\ ; e.g. dupy [Bvpci^ 
verjvLrjs [yeavlas]. To this statement Oca must be excepted, and some 
proper names ; e.g. 'EppeLas. 

2. The nominative singular of some masculines in 17s ends in -a ; 
e.g. wnrdra [hnrorqs], vefaXijyepera [yefpeXrjyerqs']. Cf. in Latin the 
nouns nauta, poeta, the equivalents of the Greek vavrqs y iroiifrfis. 

3. The genitive singular of masculines ends in -do or -a»; e.g. 
'Arpetbao, 'ArouSe© fArpciSou]. 

4. The genitive plural ends in -d<ov or -e'«v, but is rarely contracted, 
as in Attic, into -£>v ; e.g. 6eda>y [6e£>v\, vavrcav [yavr&v], irapei&v. 

5. The dative plural ends in -70-1 or -ys (which may usually be read 
-rjo-% i.e. -ijai with 1 elided), rarely in ais ; e.g. irvkgo-i. (irvkflo-') [irvXcus], 


11. Second Declension. 

[Here are included masculine and neuter forms of adjectives and participles in -o?, -17, -of, 
of pronouns, and of the article.] 

i. The genitive singular has retained the old ending -to, which, 
added to the final o of the stem, gives the termination -010. Hence 
arise the three terminations -010, -00, -ov. Of these only -010 and -ov 
occur in existing texts of Homer ; but there seems to be evidence 
that the termination -00 originally stood in a number of places 
where we now find -ov. 



2. The genitive and dative dual end in -ouv. 

3. The dative plural ends in -o«ri or -01s (which may usually be 
ead -oto-'). 

12. Third Declension. 

1. The genitive and dative dual end in -ouv ; e.g. irobouv [no- 

2. The dative plural has the endings -<n(y) and -<r<ri(v), usually 
joined to consonant stems by a connecting vowel c. Hence arise 
many different forms of the dative plural, — all, however, easily recog- 
nizable; e.g. from/SeXoy, — /SeXeeo-o-t [jSeXco-i], /SeXeo-o-t, /Se'Xeo-i ; from 
ttovs, — irobcaai \iro<ri\ 7ro<r<rt, iroai. 

3. Stems ending in <r are generally uncontracted in declension, 
though -cor may contract into -€vs ; e.g. Oepcvs [Ocpovs], genitive sin- 
gular of 0€pOS. 

4. Words in -is generally retain the t in all their cases ; e.g. pdv- 

TtS, fidvTIOS [lld.VT€(OS~\. 

Remark. The following are the forms of ir6Xis (irroXts) which are 
not met with in the Attic dialect : in the singular, G. irfXios, iroXrjos, 
D. 7roXi, noXtjij ndXei; in the plural, N. tt6\l€s, ttcJXijcs, G. woXLav, 
D. iroXU(T(Tiy A. noXiaSy woXrjas, TroXls. 

15. Stems in -*v generally lengthen € to tj in compensation for 
the omitted v (f) ; e.g. fiao-iXijos, /Sao-tXijt ; yet not always, e.g. Tuficoy, 
Tv&o, Tv8ea. 

13. Adjectives. 

t 1. The feminine singular of adjectives of the first and second 
fc Ideclensions is regularly formed in 17; e.g. opoirj [6/ioia], al<rxpfi 
y[al<rxpa], except 8Za. See § 10, 1. 

2. The Attic rule, that compound adjectives have only two termina- 
I tions, is not always observed; and, conversely, some adjectives which 
1 in Attic have three terminations have only two in Homer. 
V 3. Adjectives in -vs often change the feminine termination from 
^ -«a to -ca and -eiy ; e.g. from fiadvs we find ^aBcirjSj PaBerjs [fiaBcLas]. 

t Remark. UoXvs has well-nigh a full declension from two stems, 
oXv (woXeF-) and noXXo-. Thus 7roXXds and iroXXov occur ; also tto- 
cos, iroX&s, iroXcav, TroXeaai, iroXiai, noXiearo-i., iroXias. 
14. The comparative and superlative endings -«W and -iaros are 
much more extensively used in the Homeric than in the Attic 



14. Pronouns. 

i. The following table shows the personal and possessive pro- 
nouns as they occur in Homer. For Attic forms, see the gram- 

Sing. N. *yrf, iy4v -f- 


G. t/A€?0, 4fl4o t ifACV, 

<T6tO, <rA>, <T6W, 


efo, ?o, od 9 

D. ipol, /mi 

<ro/, toi, Tffy 

of, lot 

A. iii4,p* 



Possessive. 4p6s. 

COS, T€<fe 

8s, Ms 

Dual N.A.V. vm (ace. v4») 

o^£t, o^c5 


G. D. vmv 

<r<f>&lv f <r<f>$v 


Possessive. vwtrtpos 


PLUR. N. 4l"<*9 */*/*€* -— ' 

dficis, ti/X/XeSym-' 

G. jyictav, iificiwv 

ufiecoVy v/JLflcov 

(r<p4a>v, tnptloov, (T<p*V 

D. wtii>, foiv, &fifii{vY~ 

tfuvy Ifiiv, C/x/ii(v)r 

*v4>l<ri(v), cr<pi{y) 

A. rifi4as y fifias, &/*ue ^-» 

6fi4as, tififi* »- 

<r<peas, <T<fHXs, o^e 

Possessive, ^jx4rtpos, a/x6s 

6fi4r€pos, $fi6s 

(r<p4r(po$t <r<p6s 

2. The article 6, 9, to in Homer is usually a demonstrative pro- 
noun. In the nominative plural, the forms rol and rai occur by the 
side of ol and at. The forms beginning with r are very often used 
with relative signification. 

"Ofic has the peculiar forms roiafoao-i and roiVftco-i. 
By the side of iKctvos, mvos is also found. 

3. Homeric forms of the relative pronoun are 6 for &, 80 for 0$ 
«7s for j}f. The nominative masculine forms & and 5 sometimes have 
demonstrative signification. 


4. The following are the forms in use of the interrogative and of 
the indefinite pronoun. For Attic forms, see the grammars. _ 


Singular. Plural. 

N. ris 9 ntr. rt rlvts, ntr. riva 
G. r4o riw 

D. riff rioitn 

A. rba, ntr. rt rlvas, ntr. rlya 


Singular. Plural. 

tij, ntr. ti riv4s, ntr. rwd and ttrtra 


T69? rioun 

r V 

rtvd, ntr. ri rivcb, ntr. rutf and fotra 

5. The compound relative has a great variety of forms : — 

N. torts, tris ; ffr« ; #ti, tirri 

G. Jttco, 5tt6v, fo-ev 

D. 4rty, $rtp 

A. tvriva, triva; Ijvrtvai 9rt f tirri 

drives ; &<r<ra (for #-ri-a) 


oflorivas, Urivas; torivas; &<r<ra 

Homer also uses very frequently the form ocrre, which is regarded 
by Monro as equivalent in meaning to ocm*. 

16. Augment and Reduplication. 

1. The augment, either temporal or syllabic, may be omitted. In 
this case, the accent is thrown back as far as possible toward the 
beginning of the word ; e.g. XCo-e [eXuo-e], icadcpev [KaSufiev]. Mono- 
syllabic forms with a long vowel are circumflexed ; e.g. pr} [?j8ij]. 

2. The second aorist active and middle is often formed in Homer 
from a reduplicated theme. (The only examples in Attic of such 
reduplicated aorists are fyayov, rfveyKov (tiv-cvck-ov), and clirov (cfeff- 
nov).) There are about twenty reduplicated aorists in Homer ; the 
most important are : enecppadov (</>pa£&>), eWieXrro and ice'ieXero (kcXo- 
pai), v€<f>Ui(<r$u (^ctdo/uu), ir€7ri8oLfi€P (7T€i'0<»), TreirvBoiaro (irvvOdvo- 
fuu) 9 apireirak&v (dvairaXK<o). 

Examples of a very peculiar reduplication are : ivitr-cwov (ipiirra*) 
and cpvK-wcrop (ipvKoo). Here the last consonant of the theme is re- 
peated after a connecting a. 

3. There are a few examples of a reduplicated future of similar 
formation with the reduplicated aorist ; e.g. irc<j>i&T)ao|Mu, iteitv&V<&. 


16. Endings. 
i. The older endings of the singular number, -/u, -v6a, -<ri, are 
more common in Homer than in the Attic dialect; e.g. ed^Kcopi 
[e&X©] (subj), e&fXqo-i, also written e&'Xflo-i [e&'Xtf] (perhaps an ex- 
ample of reasoning from false analogy on the part of the copyists). 
2. The ending of the third person dual in the historical tenses 
is -top as well as -ttju in the active, -a8ou as well as -aBrju in the 
middle voice. \ In the first person plural -peo-Oa is often used for 
t 3. The second person singular of the middle and passive often 
I loses a from the ending, and remains uncontracted ; e.g. exrjcu [cxa], 
"""^l/SaXXco [jSaXXov], cflrXeo (also en-Xev) [eVXcov], oybvcrao [a>8u<ro>]. We 
leven find £«'j3X?;ch [j9e'j3X?;(rcu] in the perfect middle. 
) 4. For the endings -mat and -vto of the third person plural, -arai 
V and -clto are often substituted ; e.g. debaiarm [dc'dourm], ycvotaro 
[yevoivro]. Before these endings (-arm and -aro) smooth or middle 
labial and palatal mutes become rough ; e.g. rerpd^arai (rp€wa>]. 
< 5. Active infinitives (with the exception of the first aorist infini- 

\ jtive) frequently end in -ficuat, also shortened into\ e.g. aKovepe- 
\ \vai [axoveiv], ik6epcp(ai) [ekSeiv], Tc6vdp.€v(ai) [reBudvat]. The second 
] aorist infinitive active sometimes ends in -eW ; e.g. ftc'cur [iSctv]. 

17. Mood-Vowels of Subjunctive. 
The long characteristic vowels of the subjunctive frequently ap- 
pear as c and o. The shorter vowel does not appear in the singu- 
lar, nor in the third person plural of the active voice. Thus we have 
lofiev [uoficv], 0(opr)£ofi€u [Qtoprffyopcv], cv£eai [etffqcu (*#£#)]• This 
shorter form is especially common in the first aorist subjunctive, 
which thus becomes identical in form with the future indicative. 

18. Contract-Verbs. 

f 1 . Verbs in -a<» appear in uncontracted, contracted, and assimi- 

, : lated forms. The assimilated forms may be regarded as intermediate 

between the uncontracted and contracted forms. They are called 

i assimilated forms because the two vowels (or the vowel and diph- 

j thong) which would ordinarily be contracted are assimilated, so as to 

j give a double-A or a double-0 sound. Thus we have 6p6a> for Spam, 

6p6a>T€ for opdoire, eXooxri for eXdovcn (fut. of iXavvoai) i\dav for c\d- 

av (i\dcv). This assimilation never occurs unless the second vowel 

is long either by nature or by position. It may be accompanied 

by a lengthening of either (very rarely both) of the assimilated 




2. Verbs in -eo> are generally uncontracted, but sometimes form « 
from €€ and *«, cv from co or cov. In uncontracted forms, the theme- 
vowel c is sometimes lengthened into « ; e.g. ctcXclcto [rrcXeiro]. 

3. Verbs in -oa> are generally contracted, except in a few cases 
where assimilation, see § 18, 1, occurs ; e.g. dpo<o<ri \_dpS><rC\. 

19. Peculiarities in the Formation of the Present Stem. 

1. Several presents in -£<» are formed from themes ending in y ; 
e.g. iro\e/u£o> (fut. noXepi^opev [iroXepla-opfv, or 7ro\f fuov/xfi/]) , /iaoTifco 
(aor. pdari&v). The theme of 7rXa£o> is 7rXayy- (7rXay^-^j; aor. 

2. Several presents in -<r<ra> are formed from lingual themes; 
e.g. Kopvcraco (pf. pass. ptC KacopvOp-cvos), Xiaaofiai (aor. iXt<rdprjv) . 

3. wf<» shows a theme wj3- (aor. infin. vfyaaBai). 

4. Several other themes, additional to icai<» (theme kclF-) and 
xXato) (theme icXaF), form the present stem by the addition of 1 ; 
e.g. paiopcu (pf . . 

20. Formation of Future and First Aorist Active and 


1. Such pure verbs as do not lengthen the final theme vowel in 
the formation of tenses often double <r in the future and first aorist 
active and middle ; e.g. aldea-aopai [alMaopai], v€iK€<r<re [eVei'iceo-e], 
erawaaf [erdwac]. Sometimes, dental themes show a similar 
doubling of a ; e.g. Kopiaaaro [iKoplaaro], 

2. The future of liquid verbs is generally uncontracted ; e.g. 
ayyeXe'a [dyycXS)']. A few liquid themes form their first aorist with 
the tense-sign <r ; e.g. cKcXo-apev [vicciXapcv (okcXXg))] (*e«XX<»), &p<re 
[&pwpi] . 

3. A few verbs form the first aorist active and middle without a ; 
e.g. <?x€va and ^eva [ex*a] (X €6) == X*^ *)' ^ (r€va (trevw), qXcvaro, dXeaaQai 
(dXfvo/xat), ciioya [?jcav<ra], subj. K7)opcv \Kava , «op.€v\ t infin. K^ai f/cat/am] 

4. o and c sometimes take the place of o as intermediate vowels of 
the first aorist; e.g. lgov t Igcs (Uvcopcu), bva-ero (8va>). The same 
thing is seen in the imperatives &h<rco (paiva) opa-eo and Zpo-cv (op- 
mjfu), 3£erc (ay<o), olae Ofc'/wo), and in the infinitives dgepevai, 010Y- 


21. Formation of Second Aorist without Variable Vowel. 

' Many verbs have a second aorist active and middle without a 
i variable vowel, formed similarly to the second aorist of verbs in -ju. 
Of this formation there are many instances ; e.g. cicra, cktov, exraro 
(stem icra-, KTci/-), ot/to (<rcvo>), l^wo (x €Cl, )> ^vr° (Ava>), optatives 
<j)6ifir)p, (f&ro, infin. QQLaBai, ptc. <j>6ipcvos ((frfi-v-a), imperatives #e\v&, 
kKvtc (kAvg)), c/3Xr/ro, $\riv6ai (/3dXXa>), 3Xto (oEXXoftai), dcxro (bex°~ 
pai), efiiicro and fit/rro (plywpi) tyro, opao (oprv/xt). The imperatives 
kcjcauIc, kckKvtc are similarly formed, from a reduplicated theme. 

22. Formation of Perfect and Pluperfect. 

i. In the forms cppopa (jieipopat) and ta-avpai (acva), we see the 
/ same doubling of the initial consonant of the theme after the aug- 
| ment (reduplication), as if the theme began with p. 

"Eouca (fefbtica), coXna (FcFoXna), copya (fefopya), when the lost 
consonants are supplied, are seen to have the full reduplication. 

In Sc'xaTot [bebeypcvoi cio-i] the reduplication has been lost, and it 
is irregular in bcibcypai [bcbcypai] (bcxopat) and beldotKa [dc'douca], 
faftia [Sebia]. 

2. The first perfect is formed from vowel-verbs only, and is rare. 

3. The second perfect is common, but always wants the aspira- 
tion ; e.g. K€K(ma [kUo^o] (ko7jtg>). There frequently occur, from 
vowel- verbs, forms without the tense-sign *e, and perfect participles 
thus formed are particularly common; e.g. ircQvao-i [ire^vfouri] (<£vo>), 
K€KfiT)(brL [KfKprjKori] (lea/ii/a), Tcdvrjcaras [rfOvrjK&ras'] (Binjo-Kto). 

4. In the pluperfect the endings -ca, -eas, -cc(i/), contracted «(*) 
or rj y appear; e.g. j}8ca [fjbrjl fi&ec [ja«j. 

Remark. Compare rjfoa = Fyb-co-ap with Lat. v i d - e r a m ; jj&cas 
= FflS-caas with v i d - e r a s ; jjfco-av = Fyb-co-avT with vid-erant 
The Greek pluperfect is thus seen to be, like the Latin pluperfect, a 
compound tense, of which the last part doubtless contains the root 
* «<r- of the verb dpi. 

23. Passive Aorists. 

1. The third plural indicative often ends in v instead of ow; 
r % & % cpiX& €V \Jp' , -X^ r i a ' av \ <t>o$r)6ev [7<£o/3q0?;<rai>], rpafav |Vrp<tyj/0w]. 

2. The subjunctive remains uncontracted ; at the same time the 
\ € of the passive sign is often lengthened into « or ?;, and the follow- 
I ing mood-sign (in the dual and 2, 3 pi.) shortened to e or o ; e.g. 

' Sae/oj [Saa>] (theme da- 9 brita<rKa>\ bapti^s OX bapr^s [bapfjs] (bdpvrjpi). 



Remark. A peculiar form is rpa^tlo^t^ 2 aor. pass, from Ttpn-w* 
This arises by metathesis from Tttpntioptv [rap^-wjiep]. 

24. Verbs in -fit. 

r. By the side of the ordinary forms of the present indicative of 
verbs in -p.t, there occur also forms as if from presents in -*« and -dm ; 
g.g* Ti8d [WA^cri], Mm [ft'dmcri]. 

2, As the ending of the third person plural of the imperfect and 
second aorist indicative active, v often takes the place of -cm* • 
£ g. tf v \tttrav], coraif trrdv [t<rnjtrap] 9 fj8aM fidv [e^o-ov], tfpav <fid» 

3, In the second aorist subjunctive active, the mood-sign is some- 
times shortened and the stem- vowel lengthened. Thus arise such 
forms as: tfeiu [#&>], oW^r St^s [0ffs]t 0T fe ff [o^S*! J v ^ [y^L ft&W 1 
(fi&fffri) Sw^ [8&\. Sometimes a of the stem is weakened into * t and 
this again protracted into ft. Thus arise the forms fietoptv [f}ap€v\ 
or/w/irM, aTtiQfJLtv [<rru^tFp]> 

4- The following are the forms of the so-called irregular verbs 
in ~pi which do not occur in the Attic dialect. 

[a) From tqp.1 : 3 pi. pres, indie, act fewrt, 3 sing* subj. Tjjfft, infin. i7«e- 
vat, ipf- I sing, tf tv, 3 pi* f«\ aor. indie, act. 1 sing, e-tftfOj J pi. etraj', subj. 
I sing. fitB-t iw. 3 sing, %&t t ajf^tfr infin. 4u<ev : 3 pir~2 aor. indie. eWo. 

[b) From *T^.i : 2 sing, pres, indie, rfjrffa, subj. 2 sing. fipcrfla, 3 sing. fp- 
**i>, 1 pLto&Mtr, 3 sing, opt, fekj, In fin. jjiie* (ai), ipf. 1 sing. ^fa. ^lo^ 3 sing, 
fjlf (f) tf(K), I pi. #cyif*s 3 pi. rfffrraj^fffcK #0*, fut. efrro^cu, r aor. viirdfat* 

(f) From *lpt: pres. indie. 2 sing* *Wi eh, 1 pi. »V* l 'i 3 pi- fatrt{v) t 
subj. 1 sing. Iw per-cfu, 2 sing. Ipr, 3 sing. Ipcr* Jcr* fy, 3 pi. JWifi'), 
opt. 2 sing, frij, 3 sing, lot, imv. ftfiro, infin. l/^iepfaij and Ipcrfu), pte. «*^ 
louira I&, etc., ipf, I sing, fia £a fry, 2 sing: '-&r>0a, 3 sing. %tv $i}v fop, 
3 pi. itrdp, fut. 3 sing. IffdrfTOi ^ffffftrai. 

(i/) From oT8a: 2pf. indic«2sing. oftai, 1 pI.TfyiWi subj. 1 sing. eioVar, 
I pi. rfSppcj)', 2 pi. ttSfTCj infin. X^tv{ai), ptc. fem. tSuIa, plupf. 2 sing, ijef- 
$17$, 3 sing. TjeftS-Ff ^f8f#j 3 pi, f<JW, (of. tifi^trai. 

(*) From fipttt : pres. indie. 3 pi. cara* and flora*, ipf. 3 pi. eWo and 


(/) From «*7>iai : pres. indie 3 pi. jteiaTai k*ot(m kkutiu. 


25. Iterative Forms. 

The endings -<tkov and -acoiiriv indicate repetition of the action, 
whence they are called iterative endings. They do not occur in 
the same sense in the Attic dialect. Iterative forms have the 
inflection of the imperfect indicative of verbs in a>, and are rarely, 
if ever, augmented. The iterative terminations are attached to the 
present stem and to the second aorist stem of verbs in o> by the 
intermediate vowel c, rarely a ; e.g. cx-c-o-kov, pwrr^a-o-Kov, <£vy*€-07C€. 
When joined to the first aorist stem, these endings follow directly 
after the suffix -o-o- of the aorist indicative ; e.g. iXdo-a-a-Ke. Verbs 
in fu append the iterative endings directly to the stem ; eg. ora- 
(TKiv, £a>wv<rK€To 3 c-o-kov (= €<r-<rKov). 

Note. — The term theme is everywhere employed in the preceding sec- 
tions instead of verb-stem, to designate the fundamental form of the verb 
from which the various tense-stems are made. 

The term variable vowel is used instead of connecting vowel. 



Sing, Muse, the Wrath of Achilles, fatal, but foreordained. 

Mrjvcv aet$€, Oed, IlrjXrjidBeoi) 'A%ikr)o$, 

ov\ofjL€V7]v, fj fivpC 'Ayhioi? ahrye eOrj/cev, 

7ro\X^5|S' l<f>ffjfwv<; yfrmfc "Al8i irpoikvtyev 

rjpahov, atyrov? Se eiwpiaWefylefavue&a-iv 

oiwcMTi T€|7ra<n — ^Aibs 8 irikelero vSovKri — 3 

cf om&q Td\7rpwra BiaaTnTtjv ipfravTe 

'ATpenrj? re, avja% aMp&\ /com SZo? 'AwiXXevs. 

The cause: Apollo's priest, Chryses, came in state with gifts 
. to redeem his daughter: 

Tk r dp <r(f>a)(B 04&v IpiBi, gvvirjtcG fidyjeadac ; 
Aryrovs fcal Alo^jjUr* 07^0 fiaawJni yjbXcoBei^ 
vovaov dvcL arpafov %p<r4 /cdtcTJv, oXJicovro Sp Xaot, ■ ■*• I0 
ovve/calrbv Xpikrrjv ^Hp^evmprirrjpa \ 

% Arp€wri<i. 6 ydp 9jK0e uod<; fori vijas * AyawsPi 
Xvaopevo? re Ovyarpa <f>€pcov r direpeiaC diroiva, < , 
arififUiT iywv iv X e P aiv e/erjfioXov * AiroKkavos 
ypvaitp dvh CKiprrptp, kcl\ Xlaaero irdvrov; 9 A%cuofc 9 15 
'Arpet&a 8k fidfuara 8v<o, KoapJirope Xa&v • 

2 IAIAA02 A 

And thus addressed the Greeks: 
*Arpetiav re teal aXXoi iv/orf/juSe? 'Amatol, 

Vfliv fl€P 0€OL BoleV 'OXvflTTUL BcOfMlT $)(pVT€$ 9 

itciripo-at Ilpidfioio iroKiv, ei 8' otteaS' UiaOcu 9 

iralSa 8' ifiol \vaal re (frtkrjv, rd r diroiva hfyeaOak 20 

d^ofievoc A lo<; vlov etcrjfioXov ^ AiroXKwva. 

Most approve : not Agamemnon, who dismisses him scom/klfy. 

*Ev0' aWot, fiep frames iirev^fi^aav *A%aiol 
alSeurffal ff leprja, zeal dy\aa heyBai airoiva • 
d\V ovk 'ArpetSy 'Ayafiifivovi ffvhave Ovfjup, 
aXXa teatccos acfrlet,, tcparepbv 8' hrX fivdov kreXKev 25 

Mq ae, yepov, /cotky&w eyi> irapa vrjva\ Kiyelw, 
tj vvv orjBvvovT, tj voTepov aim? lovra, 
pr\ vi tov ov 'XpaurpLti a/crjirrpov teal arifi/jLa Oeoto* 
rtjv 8* 4y<b ov \vcay irpLv fuv /cal yrjpa? kweuriv 
rjiieriptp cpI ottc<p, 4v *Apyel, mjkodv irdrpn\^ t 3° 

iarbv hrov^pyAv^v ical ifwv Xe^o? dvrcocoaav • 
d\\' t0i 9 firf fi ep40i£e, aawrepo? a>? tee verbal. 

Chryses departs sadly ^ and prays to Apollo for vengeance 

*fi$ e<f>ar* eSeurev 8* 6 yeptov teal enrelOero yrififp. 
/3rj 8' dtce&v irapa 0lva iro\v(f>\oi<rfioto 0a\do-<rqf 
iro\\a 8' eirevr dirdvev0e iu&v tfpaff 6 yepaibs 35 

*A7t6Wg>vi avaKTL, rbv rjiKopx)^ re* tee Ayra • 

KXO0C fiev, 'Apyvporog, b$ Xpva^v dfjL<f>i/3£/3r}icai9 t 
KlXkav re £a0eriv, TeveBoto re Vf>t avdaaeis* 
Sficvdev, elirori toi xaplevr hr\ vrjbv Zpeyfra, 
fj el 817 irore tov Kara irlova yn\pC iict)a fO 

IAIA&02 A. 

ravpwv iJS' atymv t roSe fioi tcptfapov iikBt&p • 
Ti&etav Aavaol ipd Bdzcpva a-ota-t ftiXtG&iv* 

Ap$ll$ hears; and begins to slay the Greeks with his halts* 

*J2g %<par €ir%Q}i£vo$ • rov S* e/cXve $<n/3t>e *AwqXXq>p* 
fiij Be mar 0u\vfi7roto Kapr}ptav> ^(wo/i-evo? Ktjp t 
^to!** WfjLQiaiv e^mp afnf>-rjpe<f>ia re $ap&Tp*}v * 

- €KXcuy£ait B % dp* olarol eir &fi&v %t&op,evoiQ 9 

- avrov tuwr}0€in-o$ * 6 S* Vj'te pvkti eot/ccos* 
€%er SwetT awav€V0€ ve&v, fterd S* lav thjxep ■ 
Be&vTj Be KTuxfyy}} yh/er dpyvpeoto ft tola. 
ovpTpt? p,hf wpmrov eVoJ^€To zeal tcvva? dpyotk * 
avrap ewur avrotat /3eXo? i%ewevK€s ejnetfi* 
0dXb? ■ alel Be irvpal vetevcav /catopro 8ap,etaL 



Achilles calls an assembly, and proposes ta ask advice of a seer, 

*Epp*}p&p p,ep dvd arparop $%ero K ^ Mf ^w 1 
t$ Be/cdrrj S 1 dyapf^vBe Ka\z<r<raTo Xaov *A%tXXeu$ * 
t$ y&p cttI <f>p€<ri Office 8ea Xevxritkepas **Hpi} * 55 

^jcrjBeTQ yap Aavamv t Sri pa BvijaKOvra^ a para* 
$[ <T ewel avv ijyepOev, optiyyepees r eyepomo* 
rottrt 8* avtardftevo? p,eri(f>i} iroBas &tcv? *A%(XKev$ * 

^ArpetBt}, vvv app,e 7ra\Lp,7r\ay](8ema<; om 
aty dirovQ<rrqaetv 9 eX fcep Bdparop ye tpvyoip>€P 3 
el Btj 6fL0V 7rdXe/io? re Safia teal Xotyio? ^A^utoi^* 
dXX' dye Bt] riva pdmtv ipeiaft.€P, tj Uprja, 
J) teal oveipoiroXov — xal yap r Sirap etc A to? effrw— 
o? k eliroi on tog-pop iyuHrara 4*q$/3qi; *Att6XXwp, 
€tr dp* o y cv^gjX?}? iirtp^e^erai, etff* etcaTopfiys * 6f 

at tc&P Tra? dpvwp Kvttra-i}? aly&p re teXciW 
ffovXerai am idea? 4jp£v dwo Xotybp dfxvvat. 


Calchas, the soothsayer, asks leave to speak freely: 

"Htoi oy o>9 elirebp tear ap efero. rolcrc 8' aviary 
Kd\%a<; SearoplSr)*;, oicovottoXcov orf apierro? • 
89 rjSrj rd r iovra, rd r icraofiepa, irpo r iovra, 7 C 

teal vr\eerer rjyycraT ^AyaiSiV "I)uov elereo, 
fjp Sut fiaproavprjp, tt\v oi irope $ot)3o? 'AttoXKcdv • 
o er<f>cp iv <f>pov€G)v dyoprjeraro teal fiereeiirev • 

*/2 '^^XeO, tcekeal p,e, 8u<f>i\e, fivdrjeraerOeu 
firjvcv ' AiroXhcovo? etcarrjfieXeTao apatcTO?. 75 

rotyap iywp ipe<o • av Be crvpOeo, tcai \xoi ofjuocrcrov, 
ff fiev fioi, 7rp6<f>pcov eirecnp teal ^epcrlp dprj^euv. 
rj yap otofiat, aphpa ypKaycrifiep, o? fiiya ttoptcdv 
*Apyeia>p tcpariec tcai oi ireidoprai* * Amatol, 
tcpelcrcrcop yap ftacnXevs, ore x&creTai dpSpl x&prji* 80 

eXirep yap re ypkop ye teal avTrjfiap Karaireyfry, 
a\Xd re teal fieroincrOep fyec kotop, 8<f>pa reXecrcrp, 
iv trtrfiecrtnp eolcri • erv Be <f>pdcrat,, et fie cradxret,?. 

And Achilles having reassured him, he announces that the 
daughter of Chryses must be restored. 

Top 8' aTrafjLeiftofievos irpocre<f>r) iroBa? a)tcv$ *A%i\Xei*; • 
Oapcrtfcra*; jiaXa elire deoirpoiriop on olerda * 85 

oi) fid yap ^AiroXKeopa Bd<f>CKop, <&re av, Kd\%ap 9 
evxpfievo? Aavaolai Qeoirpoiria^ dpa<f>alpei<:, 
ov rt?, ifiev £coPTo<; teal eVl %0ovl Beptcojievoio, 
col tcoikrj<; irapa prjvcrl fiapeia? %et/oa? eiroierei 
ervpuirdpTODP Aapacop • ovS* fjp 'Ayajiefipopa eiirQ^ 9 9° 

8? vvp iroXXop apicrTO? 'A^accop eir^erai e\vav% 

Kal Tore Brj Odpcrrjcre teal rjvBa pAvm dfiv/juov • 
ovt ap o y e£%a>\?)? €7nfiep,<f)€Tai, ovff etcarofjLfirjs, 

IA1AA02 A, 


iXx* eve/c aptjTtjpo?, bp <qTlptf<r * Ayapepvmv, 

ovK artrekvcre Bvyarpm, teal ovtc direBegaT awotva. 95 

TQvvetc ap aX/ye 1 eBwtcev 'EfeqfioXo'Z, t;S* ert Bma-et* 

dvB* o ye irplp Aavaul&cv aeticia Xotybv d.wdtcret r 

irptv y airo irarpl <j>lX(p Bopevat, eXitcteTrifta tcovpijp 

aTrptarqv, avdiroivov^ ay^p 8* leprjv etcaTopL^p 

e? Xpwrqv * tot€ tciv flip iXaacrdp,€V0L ireirl6otp,ev* 

Agamemnon wrathfuliy consent s^ but insists en obtaining 
another gift in place of her. 

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ijpay; * At petty*; evpvtcpe xW r Ayap,ep,vmv f 
a%iritpL€vos; * pteveoq Se p>eya <f>p£ve<s dpajtpieXaivat 
7ripirXa\rr t owe Be oi irvpl Xap^rerotovrt Uttnjv* 
KdX^avra irpt^Titrra kok ocrcrop^vo^ Trpoo-edtirev ■ lo 5 

MdvTt teatewv, ou irmtrore p>ot to tcprjyvop eliras* 
mlel Tot ra tcate cVtI $iXa ipped pavreveaffat) 
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tca\ vvv ev Aavaokri deo-rrpoTrimv dyopevets 
&$ Btj tovB* epeted vfov * E/C7]f3okQ$ aXyea rev^et, 
ovvett* eya> tcoupjjs Xpvo-f}iBo<? evfkd* awotpa 
ovtc e$G\ov BefcatiBat) iirel woXv fiovXopat avrtjv 
olfcoi e-^etv. teal yap pa KXvraifiPTjwrpT}^ TTpoftefiovXa, 
tcovpiBir}^ aXoX QVt * w & °v £@& v *°~ Tl ' X € P € ^ V * 
ov Bep&s f ovBe <f>vjjv r out 9 &p <f*pepa$ t ovre rt epya* "5 

aXXa tcai oj? edeXm Bopepat irdXtp, el to y apetpop • 
$ouXop? eyw Xabp &6ov eppepat rj dwoXe&dat, 
ainap ipol yepa? clvtI-% eTotpfi<raT t o<f>pa pi) otos 
*Apyetmp wyepacrro^ ew t iirel ovBe eotfcep* 
Xevfr&ere yap to ye irdpre^ S pot yzpaq ep^erat akXp* *3o 


IAIAA0 2 A. 

Achilles says he shall have it when Tray is sacked; Agamemnon 
reviles and threatens him 1 yet orders Chryseis to he restored 

Top 8* ^pelfier hreira iroSdpK^ Sto? *A%tXk€V$ * 
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dXhd rd fiev iroklmu i^tirpadopev, rd SiBa<rrai t **S 

7ulqi)s S 1 ovte iweoace TraXtkXoya ravr ewayeipetP. 
aXkd <ri> pep vvv TtjpBe &€$ Trpoes * avrdp % A%aio\ 
Tpnrkjj rerpawXj} r dirorto-Q^ePt at tci vroOi, Zeu? 
Smut iraktv Tpoif}v evreC^eop i^aXaird^ai* 

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tchJirre votp, iirel oir irapeXevaeat,, ovBe p*e Treitreis, 
i} €u€\et<i o<pp avTos exfiS yepaq t avrap ep aw&<; 
fjtrSat Sevopepop, tciXeai Si p*e r^vS* diroSavpat ; 
akX el fi€P Bw<rovai yipa? peyd8vfiot * Amatol, 135 

apaavTeq Kara 8vpLop t oirwi avr&fjtov etrrat — 
el Si Ke ftij hwwa-iP) eym Si tcep avro? eX&ficu 
t} reap $ Ataman iilav yepa$ t -q *OBvaijos 
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*) Ata$ t ^ 'I8op,epev<z % Sto*; 'OSucrceifc, 145 

f}e a-v, IlrjkeiBr}i irdprmp ijcTraykorar dvBp<ov 9 
S^p* rtfup 'Exdefyyop t\d<ra-eai iepd pe'£a?. 

IAIAA02 A. 7 

Achilles replies : We have fought and toiled for you, and now you 
i threaten to take our spoil from us : I will return to Phthia. 

w /Ltoi, awuoeM)j/ €7n€Lfi€V€, K6poakeo<ppov • - - 

7TW? Tfc? TCM TTp&^Jmi J$7r€<Tt,V 7T€t0r)TCU ^A^aL&P, l S° 

fj 6Sbv ekOefxevcUy rj dvhpdatv l<j>i fid^ecrdat ; 

ov yap iya> Tpcoayp eveic fjkvdov al^TjTdcov 

Sevpo fULXTjaofievo? • iirel ov tl pot aXrioL el<nv 

ov y<ip ircoiroT ipAs ftovs fjkaaav, ovhe aep i7nrovi 9 \ . , ■ * * 

ovSi t\ot iv $0i7] iptficoXatcLy fStoTLaveiprj, *55 

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ovped re o-tcVfevra, daXaaad re ^yfisa aa • / 

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Tip,r)v dpvvpevoi MeveXdqy, aol re, /cvvSnra, — / / 

irpb? Tpdxov — 7W ov tl pbeTaTpkiry, oifS 9 dXeylfcei? — i^o 

teal Srj puoL yepa? avTos d<f>aipr)aeaOat, aTreikels, 

ft) erm 7ro\\' ipboyrjaa, hoaav Si p,oi vie? *Ayai&v* 

ov puev vol irore urov e^ft) yepas, ottttot 5 ' A^aioX 

Tpdxov eicirepG&a d5 vauopuevov irToXiedpov • ' ■ 

aXXa to puev ifKelov iroXvdlicos iroXepboto *6c 

%eZ/oe? ipbal hteirova • drcip r\v ttotc Sac/i-o? LKrjrai, 

aol to yepas iroXif p,€i£ov, iyco 8* okvyov Te <f>Ckop re 

ipX ^ ^X (OV ^ 7r ^ Vr)a^ 9 €7T6t K€ fCapCO 7T0\€pLl£(QV. 

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evOdS* &Tip,o<; id>v, a<f>€VO<; teal ttXovtov axf>v^€Lv. 

Agamemnon answers with scorn, and vows to take Briseis, 
Achilles' captive^ from him. 

Tbv 8* r)pb€l0€T hreiTcu aval; dvSpcov 'Ayapbipbvcov • 
ifcevye fid\*, et toi 0vp,b<? iirecravTcu, ovSi a eyayye 

8 IAIAA02 A. 

\l<r<roficu e f LV€tc ifieto jiiveiv • Trap" efiouye teal aXXoi 

01 K€ fie TLfirja-ovcri, fidXiora Sk iirjrUra Zevs. l 7S 

I^^oto? Si pjol eaai AioTpefyi&v fiacrCXrj&v • 

aiel yap roc epi? re <f>L\r) 9 iroXefMoL re, fid^ac re. 

el fiaKa icapTepos eaav, Geo? irov <rol to y eStoxev. 

oi/caS' loov avv vqvai T€ 077? koX <rot? errdpoiatv 

MvpfiiSovecraiv avaaae • aidev 8' iya> ov/c dXeyl^<o 9 180 

ovS* 80ofiai kot&ovto? • a7r€L\7Jc<o Se toi &S^j^" 

a>? €fi afyaipelrai XpvarjtSa $ol/3o<; 'AiroXXtov, 

rf)v fj,ev iya> avv vrjt r i/nf) kclL i/j,ol<; erdpotaiv 

Trifjuyfrco, iya> Si tc ayco BpicrrjtSa KaXknrapyov, 

avTos l(ov KkLatrjvSe, to gov yipa? • o<f>p* ill etS^9 l &$ 

oo-cov <f>ipT€p6$ elfJLL aidev, o-Tvyiy Se koX aWo? 

laov ifiol <f)do'dcu /ecu Ofiouodtf/JLevat, avTrjv. 

Achilles, doubtful what to do in his wrath, is checked by Athena. 

*fl<; <j>a,To • UrjXet&vi, S* ax ? yiver, iv Si ol fopp ,,.,••■* 
GTrjOeo'Giv Xaaioiai SidvSixa fiepfjurfpigev, 
f) o ye <f>dayavov dj~v ipvcrcrdfievo? irapa fMrjpov '9° 

tou? fiev dvaaTTjaevev, 6 S' 'ATpetSrjv ivap££oi, 
fje xpkov iravcreiev, iprjTvo-eii tc 0v/jl6v. 
do? 6 TaifB* cbpfjuawe ica/va <f>piva ical Kara Qvyuov 
IXkcto 8* etc KoXeolo fiiya f i'</>o?, fjXde S' 'Adtfvrj 
ovpavoQev • irpb yap fye 6ea XevfccoXevo? "Hprj, 195 

aficfxo o/xa>? Ovfjiw <f>iXiovcrd Te KTjSo/jbivTj re. 
arrj 8' oiridev, %ap0fj<; Se ko/atjs eXe UrjXet&va, 

ottp <f>aiV0fJbeV7] • TCOV 8' SXXCOV OVTIS Op&TO. 

Odfiftrjo-ev 8' ^A^CXey?, fjueTa 8' eTpdirer • avrUa b* Syva 
IlaXXdS* Adrjvairjv • Seivco Si ol oaae <f>dav0€P. 20c 

Kal /jbiv (fxovrjaa^ eirea itTepoevTa irpoar^vSa • 

IAIAA02 A. 9 

Tfarf avr\ alyLo^oto A ib$ reicos, elkrj\o%>Oa$ ; 
fj Xva vfipw t8y 'Ayafjue/jLvovo? J Arp€thao ; 
aXX' €/c toi ipia), to 8k Kal reKeeaOat otto • 
$9 vir€poir\irj<ri ratf av iror€ 6vfwv oXeaam^^- 205 

She bids him abate his anger j and he obeys. 

Top 8* aire irpoo-ienre 6ea yXavrccoTrt,? *AQr\vr\ • 
fpsjdov iya> Travo-ovaa to gov fiivos, at zee Trl6r)ai> 
ovpavodev • 7rpb 8e fi fjtee dea \euKcb\evo$ "Hpi?, 
afjL(f><D 6fia>$ dv/jLQ) <f>Ckeovad T€ K7)8ofievrj re. t " s, 

a\\ y aye, \rjy eptSo?, firjBk %L<f>o<; eXtceo %^pL % tv \f X ^ ^'^ 
d\\' fj tol hrea-iv fiev oveiSvaov, a>? eaeral irep. 
&8e yap e£epea>, to 8k teal TCTeXeafievov earai * 
Kal TroTe tol Tpl$ Toaaa irapeaaeTai ayXaa 8£>pa 
vfipio? eivetca TrjaBe • av 8' io")(€o, ireiOeo 8* TjpZv. 
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Xprj fi€V o-<f>G>iT€p6v ye, 6ed, eiros elpvcraaa-Oai,, 
Kal fjuaka irep Ov/aq) Ke^pXeofievov • ©9 yap apeivov. 
09 fee 0€ot<; iirnreiOrjTai, fjbdXa r IkXvov a&Tov. 

*H Kal eif dpyvperj Koyirrj a^ede x&pa ftapelav • j ■■ : ' 
Sty S* €9 KOvXebv &ae fieya l;{<f)o$, oiS* dirlOrjaev '"' 220 
fivOtp 'AOrjvalrj? • rj S* OvKvfiir6v8e fBeftrjicei 
Scofiar 69 aiyibyoio Aibs fieTa Saifiova? a\\ou9. 

Achilles charges Agamemnon with cowardice : and swears by his 
staff that the Greeks will one day find the want of him* 

IlrjXemr)? S' elatm? d\-apTrjboh iiriecraiv k ^ **' * l ** 
'Arpaltyv 7r/oo<r&7rf, KaNoijirajXrjye xo^oio* . 

OwoPades, kwvos SfifiaT efyv, KpaBirjv 8' iwfoio 225 
ovt€ ttoti €9 iroXmioy ap,a Kaa| doDptf^ijvac, 

~ " v J •— u 



ovt€ XcwovS* livai avv aptarrieaaiv ^A^aiayv 

TerXrjKa^ dvfia) • to Si tol icrjp ei&erai elvcu. 

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I Jj&Sa airo&ipelaOai, o<ttl<; <^ifi^Jamf^ cciry^^^. 230 

^* % $r}fioftopo? fiaatXevs, iirel ovrcSavolaiv ava<r<T€i$ • 

*7 V&P & v > 'ArpetSr), vvv va^ara Xcofiiicraio. 
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vol jui roBe <rfci]7rTpov, to^jjjv ovirore (f>vXXa teal #£bu? -^\ \ & 

<f)vcrfis iirecBrf irpcora rofirjv Jf^P^ cr<TI ' XiXocirev, \t?$ ^j 

VwWS* avaOrjXrjaeit 7JY^h yap pa € xaktcb? eXeyfrev Kjr*^ 

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9 rf ttot 'AxiWrjos Trodrj r l%erai vla<$ ^A^amv *" * r -pi|p » 

o-vfjuravra^ • to?? 8' ou t& hvvr^^J^yyv^vo^ irep * 

XpaLCTfJL€LV, €VT &V TToXXol V$ "EfCTOpO? dvBpO(f>6vOLO f\ -fjJ*^ 

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Xooofievos, o't apiarov ^A^accov oihev cricra?. ru.*tVVU-{ -^v 1 

,x /29 </>aTo IlrfXetST}*; • 7roTt 8e crfcfjirTpov fidXe yalg, 245 
Xpvo-eloLs tfXoicri ireirapfjuevoVy e&ro 8' avro? * \ 

The aged Nestor advises moi$ration : let them listen to him. as » 
heroes of ofyihitvwone, and lay aside wrath. K ,\ \?~ 

> e V ° ' « v "V \ V 

'ATpeffirj? 8' erepcodev efirjvie. Tolai Se Nearcop '^ ,v * 

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rod teal airb ykaHTo-rjs fieXtTO? yXv/cmv peev au8i/— J^>*" \ a«~ -t 
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i<j>0iad\ 0% ol 7rp6<T0€v dfxa rpafyev 7)8 iy&vovTO \t* 
iv HvX(p rjyaderjy fiera 8e TpiTarourw avaowev— , * 
S <r<f>Lv iit (f>povicov ayoprjaaro teal fierienrev % > tjj-.'- ■.'"'; 



*iQ ttottoi, ?j peya irevQos J A^auBa yalav Ixdvec 9 
fj Kev yr\dr\crai Uplafio*;, Hpudfioio re TralBes, 2 5S 

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ot irepl fiev fiovXrjv Aava&v, irepl 8' icrre /id^eo-Bai. 
aWa irideaO* • dfi<pa> Bk vecoripa iarbv ifieio. 
•J7&7 yap ttot iyco teal dpeioaiv, rjeirep v/uv, 
dvBpdcnv d>fitkrj<ra, ical oviroTe /i oX y dQepiXpv. 
ov yap 7T0) Toiov? IBov dvepa? ovBe IBcofiai, 
olov Heipidoov T€ Apvavrd re, iroipbeva \acov, 
Kaivea r 'EgdBiov re teal dvrLOeov IIoXv^Tjfiov. 
[Srjaea r AlyetBrjv, iinelicehdov dOavdroiaLV.] *6' 

tcdpTKTTOi, Brj KelvoL iirix^ovlcov Tpd<f>ev dvBpeov 
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ical fiev fiev ftovXecov gvviev, ireiQovro re fxvOcp. 
dXkd irLOeaOe Ka\ ifxfie^ eireX ireiOeaOai a fie Lvov. 
Iirjre ait tovB\ dyaOos irep ia>v, diroaipeo Kovprjv, 275 

aXX' ea, &$ ol irpayra 86<rav yepa? vie? ^A^ai&v • 
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crKTiTTTovx ^ fiaa-Ckevs, &re Zevs kvBo? eSco/cev. 
el Bk aif Kaprepo? iacri, Bed Be <re yelvaro p>i)T7)p 9 28c 

aXK o ye <f>epT€po$ ecrrcv, €7reX irXeovecro-iv dvdaaeu 
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\lacrofi 9 A%iWr}Z fiedefiev %6\ov, $5 jieya iraaiv 
$pKOS J A^aiolaiv irikerai iroXefioio /cclkolo. 

12 IAIAA02 A. 

Agamemnon pleads that Achilles' pride is intolerable : and Achilles 
replies that he will not obey. As for the maiden y he will not re- 
sist her surrender: but he defies them to take any thing else* 

Tbv 8' airafieifiofievo*; trpoGefyy} /cpeieov *Ayap,efiva>v • ^5 
pal Srj ravrd ye Trdvra, yepov, Kara fioipav eenres. 
dX>C oS' dvr)p edeXei irepl irdvrtov e/jL/juevat, d\Xa>v, 
irdvrcov fiev Kpareetv iOekei, irdvreacri 8' dvdcrcrecv, 
7ra<ri Sk arjimiveiv, a rev ov ireicrecrOai 6tco. 
el Be jjlcv alx/JLr)T7)p eOeaav Beol alev eoWe?, 290 

Tovveica ol irpodeovcriv ovelSea fivdrjcracrOcu ; 

Tbv 8' a/)' v7To/3\7]8r)v r)fieipero SZo? \4^\\ei/9* 
fj yap rcev Seiko? re /cat ovTcSavbs KaXeolfirjv, 
el Br) <rol irav epyov vireigofiai, otti kcv €"77779 • 
dXKoicnv Srj ravr eVtreXXeo, /jut) yap e/AOiye 295 

arjfiaiv • ov yap iyd> y en, gov ireiaeadai dtoo. 
a\\o Be rot, ipeco, <rv 8' ivl <j>pe<ri ftdWeo afjaiv* 
%e/00"i }iev ovtol iydo ye pxi'xfjcrofiaL eXveica /covprfi, 
ovre <ro i, ovre rep dXXfp, eirei fi dfyekecrde ye Sovres • 
r&v 8' aWoov, a p,ol icrri Oofj irapa vrjt /j,e\alvy, 300 

r&v ov k dv tl <j>epoi<; dveXcov di/covTo? ifielo. 
el 8' dye ^irjv Treiprjo-ai, Xva yvaxoai teal oZSe* 
alyfrd rot atfjui /ceXawbv ipcorjaeL irepl SovpL 

Chryseis is sent away, and sacrifices are offered* 

A /2? tcS 7' dvTiftloicrt pba^aafievto eireea-aLv, 
dt/OT7)T7jv ' \vaav 8' cuyopi)v irapd vrjvalv ^A^aicov* 305 

TlrjXeiBrjs fiev eirl Kkiata? Ka\ vrja? etaa*^* 
file avv re MevoiTidSy teal oh erdpoiaw • 
ArpetBrjs 8' apa vija dorjv aXaSe irpoipvcraev, 
is 8* hperas e/cpivev eeUoaiv, es 8' i/caTOfijSijv 


IAIAA02 A. 13 

firfae 0e<& • avh, Be XpvarjtBa KaXknraprjov 3 10 

elaep ar/a>v • ep S* a/0%09 efirj iro\v/JL7}Ti$ 'OSuo-cretfc. 
Oi fiev eireir avafidvT6<i eireirkeop vypa tcekevOa, 
Xooi 1 ? 8' ^ArpetBrjs airo\Ajjxalvea0aL aucoyev. 
oi S* aireXufiaivovTO, teal el$ aXaXvfiar efiaXkop* 
epBop 8* * AiroKkxavi, Tekrjeo-cras eicarofi^a^ * 3'5 

ravpcov rjSfcalywp irapa dlv a\b<; drpvyeroto' * A v l 
KPicry 8' ovpavov hcep, eKiaao/jbiprj irepl kclttvco. 

Agamemnon sends heralds to fetch Briseis from Achilles* tent. 

A /2? oi fiep ra irevovro Kara crrparov • oiB' 'Ayafiefipwv 
Xrjy epiBos, ttjv TTp&TOV eirrjirelXrja ^A^ckfjl. 
a\\ J o ye Ta\0v/3i6v re fcal Eypvfidrrjp irpoa-eenrev, 3 20 
Tco oi eaap tctfpvfee teal OTprjpcb Bepdirovre • 

"Epxeadov /ekicrirjp IlrjXrjLdBea) 'Axikfjos* 
%€Lpos ekovr dyi/iep BpurrjtSa KaXknrdprjop* 
el Be Ke fit} Bdbyatv, eya> Be icev avrb? eXwfjicu 
i\0a>v aim irKedveaai • to oi teal piyvop earau 3 2 5 

*/29 elir wv i rpotei, Kparepbv 8' iirl fivOov ereXkev. 

They go reluctantly: but Achilles welcomes them and gives them 
the maiden, making them witnesses of his wrongs. 

to) 8* aeKovre fidrrfv irapa 0lv a\o9 drpvyiroio, 

Mvp/JucBovcop 8' hri re /cXicia? zeal vrjas i/ceo-07)v. 

top 8* evpop irapd re /cXicrirj teal vrjtjieXaivrf 

flfievov* oy&apa -ki ye IBfOP^yqdrjaep 'AwXXevf^ t 230 

TO) flip TOppfjcraPTe kcll criBo/juevfp fiacrtXya 

OTrjTrjv, ovoe ti, fjuv irpoa-eqxopeop, ovo epeopro. 

ainap 6 $yp(o flaw epl <f>pecri t (fxoprjerep re' 

Xaipere, tcr)pviee$ $ Aib? ayyeXoi rjBe teal dvBp&v 9 


14 IAIAA02 A. 

ctaaov it • ov n fioi v/jl/jlcs iiralrcot, a\V 'Ayafiejipcov, 33S 

b (T(j>(ol irpotei, B pco-rjtSos eive/ca Kovprj^. 

aX>C aye, A toy eves Harpoickei,*;, e^aye Kovprjv vV 

real a<f>(olv So? ayeiv. to> 8' avroD fjbdprvpoc earav \ " • 

irpo? re decov /jua/cdpow, irpos re Ovtjtcov av0p<oir(o&ty " 

ical 7rpo9 rod fiacriXrjo? aTrrjvio?, el irore 8rj ^$1$,^ 34° 

j(p€i<b kfjueio yivrfTat aet/cea Xoiybp a/ivvai * 

toI$ ak\oi$. fj yap o y oXoltjo-i <f>pe<rl Qvei % 

ovSe ti olBe vorjaac d/ia irp6<r<ra) /cal dirlaaa, 

oirirax; oi irapa vrjvcrl aooi ^a^eoiVTO ^AyaioL 

tV /29 <f>dro • ndrpoK\o<; Se <f>t\<p eireireiOeff eralptp • 345 
eic 8' ay aye rc\i<rirj$ BptcrrjtSa KaXkiirdprjov, 
$a>/ce 8' ayetv. tg> 8' aims Ittjv irapa vr)a$ *Ayat&v* 
7] 8* detcovcr dfia tolgl yvvrj Kiev* 

Achilles sits alone on the shore, and complains to his mother Thetis* 

Airap 'AxiWev? 
8atepv<ra<; erdpcov a<j>ap e^ero vocr<f>c XtaaOeis 
67v e<j> d\bs ttoXit)?, opocov iirl o lvoira i rovrov* 35° 

iroWa Se fjurjrpl <f>l\rj rjprjcraro, X € fy a< > opeyvvs • 

Mijrep, eirel fi ereKe? ye fiivvpBdSiov irep iovra, 
TL^rjv irep fiot ocjteWev * OXv/jlttios iyyvaXlgai, 
Zevs vyfril3p€/A€T7i<; • vvv 8' ovSe fie tutOov erurev. 
J) yap fjb ^Arpet&r)? evpvicpeitov ^Ayafiifivcov £jj 

rJTi/JLrja'ev • iXoav yap e^ei yepas, avrb<; dirovpav 

She asks him the cause of his grief 

*Sl$ <f>aTO Sd/cpv %e<ov • rov 8' e/eXue irorvta pJ\Tt\p % 
r\pAvri ev fievOeaaiv d\b<; irapa irarpl yepovru 
tcapiraXlfiax; 8' aveSv iroXify d\6$, 7)$t o/ii^fi 9 

IAIAA02 A. 15 

I teal pa TrdpoiO' avrolo KaOe^ero Sdxpv xeopro?, 3&> 

■ %eipl re fiLv /carepegep, 67T09 t' e<f>aT, etc r dvo/jba^ev 
J Tetcpop, rl /cTuilet,? ; tI Be ae ifipeva? t/cero irevOo^; 
\ igavBa, fir, tcevOe vb<$ • Xva etBopep a/jufxo. 

He tells the tale, how Chryses took his daughter back, and 
Agamemnon stole away Briseis. 

Trjv Bk ftapv <rr€vcb)(G>v irpoae^r) 7roSa? aotevs 9 A^iXXev^* 
olcOa* riff rot, ravr elBvCy iravr dyopevco ; 3*>5 

(pXpfieO* 69 Otj^tjv, ieprjv irokip 'Hericopo?, 
', ttjp Bk Sc€7Tpd6ofiiv re, /cal fiyo/iev epOdBe irdvra* 
teal ra /iev ei Bdaraapro peril (r<f>l<rcv vte? ^Ayai&Vt 
i/c 8' eXop 'ArpetSrj XpvarjtBa /caWnrdpyop. 
Xpvo-rj? 8' av6*, lepeit? etcarriftoXov * AttoXK&pos, 37© 

fjXBe 0oa$ eirl vr\a$ 'Axaccov ^aXKO-^Lrwvtov, 
Xuaofjuevo? re Ovyarpa, <f>epa)v r direpeiaC airoiva, 
arififiar e^tav ev ^epalv etcrifSoXov 'AiroWcovo? 
'Xpvaetp dva a-tcq7rTp<p, teal ekio~<reTO irdvra^ 'A^cuovs, 
i *Arpet8a Se jxaXia-ra Bvco, Koa-prjrope \acov. 375 

; €V0* aKKoi pep irdvre<i eirev^>r)\it]crav 9 A%aiol, 
alBelaOal 6* lepfja, tcai dykaa Be^dai airowa* 
alOC oiftc 'ArpetBrj * Ayapkpjvovi rjvBave Ov/jlS, 
aWa Ka/ca>$ d<f>iet, /cparepbv 8' eirl fivBov ereWev* 
» ytoofievo^ 8' 6 yipcov iraXip <px eT0 • toco 8' 'AiroXhav 380 
\ evgajievov fj/covo~ev, eirei fidXa ol <f>iXo<; Tjev. 
[ fj/ce 8' hf 'Apyeloia-i, tea/ebv fie\o$ • ol Be pv Xaol 
I Oprjaxop iirao-a-vrepoc rd 8' i7r<p%eT0 /cfjXa 0eolo 
1 rrdirrp dva arparop evpvp ^AyaiGap. dfi/Mt 8k fuLpri? 
■ cS €*8a>9 dyopeve Oeoirpoirlas 'Efcdroto* 385 

jj avrlfc iya> irptaro^ tceXo/jurjp Oeop ikda/cecrdai' 

l6 IAIAA02 A. 

'Arpetayva 8' eirecra *)(pXo<; Xcuftev • alyfra S' avaoTa? 

rjiretXrjcrev fivOov, h By rereXecrfievo^ early. 

rrjv p*ev yc\p crvv vrji Oojj e\//ca>7re9 'Amatol 

€? Xpvarfv itepnrovcriv, arfovcn Be B&pa avcucri,' 39° 

rrjv hi vkov tcXicrlrjOev efSav tcrjpv/ce? ayovres 

tcovprjv Bpurfjo?, ttjv jjloi Bocrav vU$ 'Axcu&v* ^^^ 

And bids her intercede with Zeus, by her former services to Mm, 
to aid the Trojans. 

aXXa crv, el Bvvaaal ye, ireplcr^eo iracBb^ efjo? • ^ 

eXdovcf OvXvfnrovBe Ala Xlaai, el iroTe &y t* 

fj eiret, &w)cra$ /cpaBlrjv Aids, rji /cal epytp. 395 

iroXkd/ci yap ceo irarpb? evl fieydpounv a/covcra 

evxp/jbivris, or e<f>7ja0a K€Xaive<f>ei KpovUovi 

oXi) ev aOav&ToiGiv dei/cea Xoiybv dyJvvai, 

oinrore /uv gvvBrjcrat, 'OXufv/noi fjdeXov dXXoi, 

"Hprj t rjBk HoaeiBdwv teal HaXXa<; *A6rjvr}. 4 00 

aXXa ait rov y eXOovaa, Bed, vireXvaao Bea[i£)v $ 

&% eicaroyxeipov /caXeaaa e? fiatcpbv "OXvfAirov, 

bv Bpcdpecov tcaXeovai Oeol, avSpes Be re irdvres 

Aiyalcov — o yap avre {Hy ov Trarpb? a/juelvtov — 

#9 pa irapa Kpovuovi tcaOe^ero, /cvBel yaltov • 4°S 

rbv teal vTreBevaav pa/capes Oeol, oiBe r eBrjaav. 

r&p vvv /jllp /ivqaaaa irape^eo, /cal Xa/Se yovvcov, 

at Kev 7ra)9 iOeXgaiv eiri Tp&eaaiv dprjgat,, 

Toi>? Be Kara irpitfiva^ re /cal dfMff aXa eXaai 'A)(cuofc 

tcreivo/jLevovs, ha irdvre^ iiravpcovrai fiaaikrjo?, 4*<* 

yv& Bk teal *ArpetBri<; eipvKpeUov 'Ayafie/juvcov 

fyv &Tt)y t 8 r apiarov ^Ayai&v ovBev Sriaev* 

^^t O^-t-c w-^.. 



She grieves for him, but promises to pray Zeus, when he returns 
from his banqueting with the Aethiopians. Then she departs, 

Tbv 8* rjfieiPer eireiTa Gin? /card, 8d/epv yeova-a* 

& flOC, TCKVOV ifJLOV, tL VV <T €Tp€(f>OV 9 alvct T6K0V<Ta ; 

alG* o<f>e\€$ irapa vrjvalp d$d/cpvTO<; teal airrjfitov 4*5 

fjcrOav eirei vv rot, alcra fiivvvOd irep, ov rlTp,dXa hrjV 

vvv 8' a/ia r w/evfjuopos teal olfypb? irepl iravrow 

hrXeo • t$ <re /ea/cr) alar) tckov iv fieydpoiaiv. 

tovto Be rot ipeovaa eiro^ Alt repinicepavvcp 

elfi avrr) 7Tjoo? "OXvfnrov dydvvi<f>ov, aX ice TrlQiyvau 42* 

a\\a <rv fiev vvv vrjval iraprjfievo<; totcvrropoiaiv 

firjvi 'AxaLQiaiv, iroXlfiov ^dnroTraveo irdfiirav, 

Zev$ yap ej jfyeavbv fiepy&fii fiova? AWLoirfja? 

%&£o? efirfl/caTcmaifa, veoi 8' a/ia irdvTes errovro* 

BaBe/caTy 8e roc at* 9-iKevaeT it OvKvfiirovBe^ 4*5 

teal tot hfeiTdxqi e jit, sA 10$ n -ot\ yaXjcoftaTk? B&, 

Kai fiLv yotyd&o/iai, xaryhv 77 eiaeadai otto. 

Jl? apa <pcovrfcra <r a rrepf ^TO • tov e\nr avrov 
%j&6fjL€vov tcaTct Ovfjibv iv£a>vot,o yvvaiteos, 
ttjv pa fily di/eovTos dirrfiptov. h ""/• ; - V 43° 

Odysseus arrives at Chryse, and restores Chryseis. 

AvTctp 'OSva-aevs 
e? Xpvarjv ftcavev, &y<av leprjv efcaTO/ifirjv. 

01 ^ OTe Btf \lfJL€VO$ 7TO\v/3€V0€O$ ivTO$ %KOVT0 9 

larva fiev areiKavro, Oeaav 8' iv vqi fieKaivrj • 
iarbv 8' laToBo/cg ireXaaav, irpOTOvoKriv v<f>evTes, 
Kap7ra\lfjLa>v ttjv 8* eh opfiov irpoipea-a-av iperfioi?. 435 
he 8' eivds efiaXov, /caTa Be irpvfivrjai k'BrfO'av 

18 IAIAA02 A. 

i/c 8£ /cal avrol fiaivov iirl pr/y/uvt, 0a\d<r<rri$* 

i/c 8' i/carofjifiriv fifjaav i/crjfiokip 'AiroXkmvi* 

etc 8£ XpvarjU vrjb? fir) irovroiropoLo. 

rr)v fiev hreir eVl ficofibv 070)1/ 7ro\vfir)Ti$ '08v<r<rev$ 44° 

irarpl <f)c\<p iv %e/9<rl TiOei, /cal fiiv irpoaeei/irev • 

*/2 Xpv<TT], irpd fi eirefiyfrev aval; avhpSiv 'Ayajt&fivwv, 
iraiSd T€ <rol dyi/juev, $otfia 8* lepr)v e/caTOfifirjv 
pegat virep Aavacov, o(f>p* tkaaofieada ava/cra, 
09 vvv 'ApyeloMrt, irokvarova icrjhe i(f>f}/cev. 445 

Chryses receives her gladly \ and prays Apollo to avert the plague. 

*/29 elirwv iv X e P a ^ T ^ el * ° 8' iSejjaro ^aipcov 
iraiSa <f>Ckr)V tol S* &tca 0eq) /c\eirr)v e/carofifirjv 
igeirj? earrjo-av ivhfirjrov irepX fico/juov 
%€pvlyfravTO 8' eireira teal ovXo^vra^ avekovro, 
Toiaiv S£ Xpv<rr]<; /jueydx! ev^ero, %efy>a9 avaoymv * 45° 

EXvOi fiev, 'Apyvporol;, &9 Xpvcrjv afifafiefirj/ca?, 
KiXXav re £a0ir)v, TeveSoco re l(j>i avaao-ew 
r)fikv $7) 7tot ifiev irapos e/c\u€9 evgafievoio, 
Tlfjuqaa<; fiev ifie, fieya 8' tyfrao Xabv 'Axai&v 

l}8' €Tt KCU VVV fWL t6S* ilTLK pTjTJVOV H\8a)p ' 455 

ffhrj vvv Aavaoldiv aei/cea Xocybv a/ivvov. 
A if29 €(f>ar €vx6fi€vo$* tov 8' e/cXve $0^809 % AiroXKwv. 

They sacrifice, feast, and go to rest. 

airap hret p ev^avro fcal ou\o^ura9 TrpofidXovro, 

avepvaav fiev irptora /cal ea(f>a^av /cal eSeipav, 

firjpov? t igirajiov, Kara re Kvia-arj i/cdXv^frav, 460 

8^7TTu^a iroirjo-avres, iir avrcov 8* mfioOeTqaav. 

Kale 8' iirl <rx%ys o yep<ov, iirl 8' aXQoira olvov 

IAIAA02 A. 19 

\eifie * veoi he irap avrbv fyov TrefiTrebfidXa yepalv. 
avrap €7rei /card, fjufjp' itcdr), real aifKAyyy eirdaamo, 
fiiarvXKop r apa TaWa, /ecu a/ju<f> ofiekolaiv eireupav, 465 
&Trrr)adv tc irepufrpahews, ipvaavro re irdvra. 
avrdp iirel iravcavTo irovov, tctvkqPto tc Salra, 
Balvvirr, ovSe ti #17409 iheveTO Scuto? itar)?. 

aVTCtp €7T€l 7TO0YO9 KOi i$7)TV0$ if; €pOV €VTO, 

Kovpoi [ikv KprjTijpa<; eireare^avro irorolo • 470 

waftr/aav 8' apa irdaiv, hrap^dfievoi heiraeaaiv. 
I oi Se 7rav7j/jb€pioi fioXirfi Oebv IXaa/covTO, 
I fcaXbp aelSovTe? irairjova, Kovpoi f A%at,a>v 9 
I fi€\,TrovT€<; 'E/cdepyov 6 Bk <f)peva repirer clkovwv. 
/ *Hfio$ 8' iJeXw fcar&Sv, fcal eVi fcve<f>a<t fj\0ev, 475 

V Sff tot6 KOifiijaavro irapa irpvpAfr\Gia 1^09. 

And at dawn return. 

»}/<K)9 8' rjptsyeveia <f>dvr) poSoSd/ervko? *Hd><;, 

koI tot hreiii dvdyovro fiera GTparbv evpvv ^A^amv* 

rouriv 8' l/cfievov ovpov m etcdepyo? 'AttoWcov. 

oi 8' Urrbv arqaavT, dvd ff Urrla Xevtca, ireTacaav. 480 

ev 8* avefio? irpfjo-ev fieaov iariov, dpxf>l Sk tevfia 

oreiprj irop^vpeov /jueydX fa^e, vrjb? lovarjs • 

7) 8' eOeev Kara kv/mi, hiaTrprjaaovaa KekevOov. 

avrap hrei p ikovto Kara arpaTov evpvv *Ayai&v $ 

vrja fiev 0% ye fieXaivav eir ryrrelpoio epvaaav 48 S 

tnfrov €7rl yjra/JudOois, inrb 8' epyuara fia/cpd Tavvaaav * 

avrol 8' eaicihvavTo Kara Kkiala*; T€ via? t€. 

Achilles pines in solitude. 

Avrap 6 /jLijvie, vrjv&l 7rapijfi€vo$ ooKwiropourw, 
dtoyevrj? IlrjXfyx; v/09, 7roSa9 a>/cu9 'AxiXkefc* 


ovre 7T0T eh dyoprjv ircSXAaKero tcvScdvetpav, 49° 

ovre 7Tor e? 7ro\€fiov aWa <f>0iiwde<rtce <f>Ckov tcrjp, 
av0i fjuevoav, iro0eeaice 8' dvTr\v re TrToKejAOv Te. 

The gods return, and Thetis makes her prayer to Zeus. 

AXX OT6 07} f> €/C TOLO OV(00€KaT7) ry€V€T ^0)9, 

teal Tore Btj tt/009 "OXvpsirov laav 0eol alev iovre? 

irdmes afia, Zei/s 8' VPX € ' ®£™s 8* ov Xr^Oer i(f>€Tfii(ov 495 

7ratSo9 eou, a\\' r) y ai/eSuo-ero /cO/Lta OaXdo-arj?, 

rjeptr) 8' dvefir) fieyav ovpavbv OvXvfiirov re* 

evpev 8' evpvoira KpovlSrjv arep fjfjuevov aXXcov, \ 

aKpoTOTT) Kopv(f)fj 7roXv$eipd8o$ OvXvfnroio. <ffc/^ 

/eat pa irdpoiB* avroco fcade^ero, teal Xdfie yovvtov 5°°^ 

cKaifj' Beg crept) $' &P V7r * dvOepewvo? eXovcra, ^ 

Xiaaofieirq irpoceeiTre Ala Kpovicova dvatcra'^^ ^ y 

Zev Trdrep, el irore hrj ae fier dOavdroKTiv ovrjaa 
fj erret r) epyw, roSe fioi fcprjrjvov ieXScop • 
rifiviaov pot vlov, S9 Q)tcvfjLOpd>TaTo<; aXXcop 5°5 

€7r\€T • drdp /uv vvv ye ava% dvhpcav 'Ayafiifivav 
rjTLfirjaev • eXiov yap e^ei yipas, airo? dirovpa^, 
dXXa ait Trip fiiv rcaov, 'OXvfiirie fjLrjTlera Zev • 
r6<f>pa 8' iirl Tpcoeaac rLQei tepdros, afyp ap^A^acol 
viov ifjbbv rlaoxriv o<£eWa><x«/ re e rifiy. 5 10 

He sits silent: and she prays him a second time to reply. 

A /29 (frdro • ttjv 8' ov Ti irpo<je<f>ri vecfyeXrjyepera Zeis, 
aX)C dieecov hrjv fj<TTO • Gens 8\ d>9 y yJraT O yovvtov, 
2>9 &X,€T ifjL7re(f)vvLa t /ecu etpero SevTepfA/avTi? • 

NrjfJApTe? fiev Zt) fiot vtt6<tx €0 Ka ^ fcardvev<TOV 9 
f} aTToenf, iirel ov rot err^Beo^ 6<f>p ev el8&, S t S 

o<T<rov eyia fierd ttclctiv aTifioTdrr) 0e6$ elm. 

IAIAA02 A. 21 

He in wrath bids her depart, for fear of Hera : yet assents 
to her prayer. 

Trjv Sh fiey o^Oyaa? 7rpo(ri(f)rj ve^eXrjyepera Zev? • 
t) Brj \otyia epy, o re /jl €^0oBo7rrj(raL tyrjaei? 
Hpg, ot dv fi ipefJyaiv oveiBeiow eirke<r<riv. 
f) Be Kal aura)? jj? alel ev dSavdroKTi Qeoia-iv S 2 * 

vni/cel, Kal re fie (tyo-i fid^tf Tpd>e<r<riv dpr\yeiv* 
ah\h aif fiev iwv aSrt9 djroaTi^e, firj ti vor\<rri 
*Hprj • ifjiol Be K€ ravra /jbeX^a-erac, 8<f>pa reXeaaa), 
ei 8' aye rot K€<f>a\fj Karaveuo-ofiai, 8<f>pa ireiroldr)? • 
tovto yap i£ ifieOev ye fier dQavdroiai fieyiarov 5 2 5 

T€Kfi(op • ov yap efiov iraXivdrfperov, ovK airaTrjXov, ^ I ^ 
ovB' aTeXevrrjTov, o n Kev K€<j>aXrj Karaveiato. { *i 'I 

After he has nodded, and Thetis has gone, he returns to his throne j 
but Hera, observant, asks him who has been in counsel with him, 

*H, Kal Kvavirjacv iif o<f>pv(Ti, vevae Kpovlcov • ■* * , 
a/jLJSpocriai 8' apa ^alrat, iireppdxravTO avaiCTOs 6 * 
/cparo? dtr dOavdroio • fieyav 8' eXeXifjev "OXvfnrov* 53° 

Ta> y* &? fiovXevaavre BteT/iayev • f\ fiev eiretra S w 
eh aXa SXto ftadelav dir^aly/dfahro^ 'OXvfnrov, * **''■ 
Zeit; Be eov irpo? Bcofia. Oeol 8' ajMt, irdvre^ dvearav "' ^ - 
€% eBecov, <r<f>ov iraTpb? kvavrlov ouBi ™? <-tXt) * \ w ' 
fietvai hrep'Xpfjbevov, dXX' dvrlov earav airavre^^J^^^ S35 
&9 o phr evda KaOe^er eirl Qpdvov • ovBe fiiv *Hpr) * * V . 

7fyvoi7\aev lBovcr\ ort oi avfi^pdaaaro fiovXd? S"* * \i s *;- 
af/yvpoTrefr Qeri^, Bvydrrjp dXtoio yepovro?. ) * * \f 
avrUa Keprofilowi Ala Kpovlcova TrpoarjvBa • V/cN V 

T/9 8 ad rot, BoXofiffra, 6e&v av^pdaaaro fiovXd? ; 54 o 


22 \VP' IAIAA02 A. 


aiei rot <f)tKov iarlv, ifjuev airov6a<f>w iovra, 
tcpV7rrdBca <f>poviovra Suca^i/iev * oifSi rt ttg> jaq$ 
7rp6<f)p(ov TerX^/ca? eiireiv ihro$ orrt voqcry?. 

Zeus rebukes her curiosity. 

Trjv 8' rjfielfieT hrena Trarrjp dvSp&v re Oe&v re* 
*Hpr), firj Srj irdvTa? i/Jbovs iirUXireo fiv0ov? 
eihriaew • %aXe7ro£ rot eaovr, aX&fflp 7rep iovo-y. / *^ 

aW' Si; fjuep k emec/ck? oucovifiev, ovtw hrevra A* 

ovre Oecop irporepo^ rov y eiaerat, ovt avBpcoTrcop -nT / -JJ 
ov Si k iyebv airdvevOe de&v iOiXwju vorjcraL, \i . tf 

lt/q ti <rv ravra acqcrra Sieipeo, fjurjSe ixeraKKa. f \^ 55° 

*- She discloses her suspicions of Thetis. «A» 

Tbv 8' fifiel^er eireiTa fJo&iris iroTvia "Hpy • k V 

aivorare KpovlSrj, irolov tov fivOov eenres • s> 

zeal \(tjv (re ndoosy ovt etpoficu ovre /jl€toXK& • 
dXka fiak' eS^j\of)ra <f>pd£ecu aaa i0d\t)(r0a. 
vvv 8' alv&$ SeiSoiica Kara <f>piva pJ\ <re irapefarr) 555 

apyvpoire^a Qeris, Ovydrr/p dXloio yipovTO?. 
rjepiri yap croc ye irape^ero teal \d/3e yovv(ov • 
tt) <f ot(o fcaravevaat Itt\tv\iov ©9 'A^iXija 
niiqaifi, 0X60779 8e* Trdkias iirl vrjvaXv y A%cu&v. 

With angry threats he silences her. 

Trjv 8' diraiieL^opsvo^ irpoaetfyrj vefeXrjyepira Zev\ • S^ 10 
Sacfiovirj, alel fiev oteai, ovSi ae \ri6<o • 

irprjgai 8' efjLTTT]? ov tl .Swrfaetu, a\V diro 0v/jlov 
fiaXXov i/jbol ecreai • to Si toi teal ply cop earat,* 
€t 8' ovtod tout iaTiv, ifjuol fiiWet <f>C\ov elvat. 


IAIAA05 A, 23 

a\X* dteeov&a tcdBijtro, ip,d> S* iirnreiOeo pLvdtp* $&$ 

fiij vv rot ov yfpaio'fiWG'tVi qo-q& Oeoi eia iv ^OXvpLinp, 
aa-crov lov$\ ore tcev rot ddirrov^ ^etpm ifaico* 
*/2? ecfyar* " eBetcreP Se ^omirt^ Trorvta "Hpy ■ 
teal p cucmv&a tcadijtrTQ, iirtyvaptyatra <f>iXap xijp ■ 
A^Brjoav S* dvd B&fia Atos Seal Qvpaviwves* ^^^ 57° 

Hephaistos counsels submission : 

TOlCiP S 1 "HtftatCTTQS feXvTQT€X Vf }^ %PX dyop€VeCP B 

t&i}Tpl <j>tX$ iwl rjpa <f>£p&v, XevKwXepqs ^Hpij* 

£i otj Xoirfta epya Tab eaaeratr, ovb er ave/cra, 
el Srj a<f){& ivetca Owijtwv ipiSaiverov &&e, i&f* 

iv Si 0€oi<n KoktpQir ikavverov ov&e re Bairos 575 

itr0Xrj$ ecrtrerat, *}So?j iwel ra ^epetopa Ptxa. 
firjrpl £* iy&> wapd$T}jj,t, /cat avry *rrep paeov(rtj t 
irarpt tfttktp iirl %pa rftepetv Ait % ofypa pi} afire 
pctjceljja-i irarj]p t oi/p S 1 t)pXp Baira Tapdfy. 
elirep yap tc iSiXr^atv *Q\vfjLiria$ d<TTep07rr}Tr}$ 5^° 

i% i&ettiv arvfaXl^at - 6 yap iroXit fpipTaros idTiv. 
dXXa &v top y iirieani tcaBairreaQai paXateounp ■ 
avTitc twetd* tXao? ^OXvft,7no^ eercrerat $fuv t 

Gives her the cup t and warns her by his own punishment 
£0 endure. 

*/2? ap e^j}" teat avattjas Bena? dpL^ifcvTreXXop 
p,i}Tpl 0/Xij iv Xepvl Tt$€h tcai jmv irpoGeenrev* 

TerXadt, fiijrep ip.ij f Kal dvdo-)(€o^ KrfBafievT} irep t 
yj\ <re 0t\ip irep iovaav ht 6<pBaXpLol(Tip tBoypLat 
0€tvop>€prjv " rare S 1 01! rt 8vvi]trofiai 9 d^pvptepos *trep, 
Xpaiarpup* dpyaXio? yap 'OXvfnrtos avrtfyepeaBau 


24 IAIAA02 A. 

rjBri yap fie fial SXKot aXe^efievav fjue/juaAra 59° 

plyfre, iroBbs reraycov, dirb ftrjXov de<nre<rloio. 
irav S' fjfiap (frepoprjv, dfia 8' rjeXlq) KaraBvvri 
tcainreaov ev Aifavco, oklyo? B' eri, 0vfAO<$ ivrjev 
evOa fie 2 farces avBpes d(f>ap tcofiiaavTo rreaovra, 

*/2? <f>dro ' pbeiBrjaev Be Oed Xevtcdokevos r/ Hprj • 595 . 

fietBrjaaaa Be TraiBbs eBegaro x €L P l xvireXkov. 

The gods, with laughter at Hephaistos, banquet till sundown, 
and then retire to rest, 

avrap 6 rocs aXXocac deocs evBe^ca rraacv 

(pvoypei, yXvKv veicrap airb Kprjrrjpos d^vo-acov, 

acr/3e(7TO? 8' dp ivcopro ye\a>? pa/capea-ac Oeolacv, 

tt>? XBov " H<j)ai<TTOv Bid, Bdapara rrocirvvovra. 6oo 

*/29 rore fiev irpoirav rjpap e? rjekcov icaraBvvra 
Balvvvr, ovBe re Ovpbs eBevero Bacrbs itar)<s 9 
ov fiev (f>6p/Juyyo$ TrepcKaWeos, f)v erf 'AttoWcdv, 
Mov&dcDV 6\ at decBov ape c/3 6 fiev at oirl /cakr). 

Avrap iirec xareBv Xaprrpbv cf)do$ rjeXioco, 605 

ol fiev /ca/c/cecovre? efiav olfcovBe €/cacrro<;, 
Xiyj, eicd(TT<p Ba>pa 7repc/cXvrb$ * Apfycyvqecs, 
H<pacaro<; t Troirjcrev IBvtrjac TrpairiBeaacv. 
Zev$ Be 7r/)o? ov Xe^os fj'c ^OXvpirco? dcrepoirrjTrjs, 
hfda irdpos Kocpa6\ ore pcv yXvicvs virvo^ c/cdvou 610 

ivOa KadevS dva($d\ • irapa Be yjpvaodpovos "Hpr], 

r> &~ 





Zeus sends a false Dream to Agamemnon, encouraging him 
to attack Troy. 

*A\\oi fikv pa 0eol re teal avepes hnroKopvaraX 

ev&ov iravvv^ioi, Ala 8' ovk eys vtfSvfw? virvo^* 

aXX' o 76 fjL€pftrjpi,£e Kara <f>p£va, a>? 9 A^L\r)a 

rip/qari) dXeay 8e 7ro\€a? iirl vrjvali/ 9 A^ac&v» 

fj8e 8e ol Kara dvfwv apiarrf fyaivero ftovXrj, 5 

Trifiyjrcu iir 'ArpeiSr) 'Ayajiifivovt, ovXov "Oveipov 

Kai jjliv (fxovtfaas eirea irrepoevra irpocrrjvSa • 

BdcrK Wi 9 oi\€ *Oveipe t 6oa$ iirX pr}a<$ ^A^amv 
ikOcbv €9 fckurlrjp 'Ayafiifivovo? 'ArpetSao 
nrdvra fia)C arpereicos ayopevifiev, <&? iiriTeWay. io 

Otoprj%al i Ke\eve xdprj /cofiocoirras 'A^atoif? 
iravtrvSly vvv yap xev itkot, irokiv evpvaryviav 
Tpaxov ov yap eV ajjL<f>l$ 'OXv/jlttui ScofiaT fyovre? 
aOavaroi, <f>pd£oirrat, m hreyvafiyfrev yap airavTa^ 
*Hpr) Xiaao/jLevr) * Tpa>€<r<n 8e icr}he itfrfjirrai. 1$ 

*/29 <f>aTO • fir) 8' ap "Oveipos, iirel top fivOov a/eovaev. 

The Dream finds him asleep, and in the form of Nestor tells him 
the gods are now at one to aid the Greeks. 

tcap7ra\lfjL<o<z 8' txave 0oa<; eVi vr)a<; ^A^au&v* 

fir) 8' ap 9 iir 9 ATpei$rjv 'Aya/jLefivova • top 8' ixl^avev 

26 I A I A A O 2 B. 

evBovr iv feXurlg, irepX B 9 afifipoaio? Ke'xyff vttvo?. 
ott] 8' dp inrep /ceipaXfy, NrjXrjttp vll ioitcd)$ t *> 

Nea-ropt, tov pa fidXia-ra yepovTtov tV 'Ayafiifivw 
t^S fiw ieMrdfievos irpoaetfxovee Oelos "Oveipos* 
EvBeis, 'Arpeo? vie Bafypovos ImroSd/JLOio ; 
ov XPV Travvvxiov evBeiv fiovXr)<f>6pov avBpa, \ 

^5 Xaol t i7rtT€Tpd(f>aTat, teal TO<r<ra fieiirjXev^^'-^ 2 * 

vvv 8' ifjbidev ^vve^lofca' A cos Be roc 0776X09 eifu, 
o? <T€V, dvevdev icov, fieya K^BeraL 778' ekeatpeu 
Oaaprj^al a ifceXevo-e xdprj tcofioavTas 'A^aiov^ 
iravavBiy vvv ydp tcev eXocs ttoXlv evpvdr/viav 
Tpdxov ov yap It' dfi<f>h 'OXvfnria Bwfjbar kypvres 3° 
dddvarot, <f>pd^ovrav * eireyvap^ev yap airavra^ 
w Hprj Xiaaofievrj • TpcoecaL Be /r?;oV i<f>rj*rrrai 
ifc A cos. dXXa <rv afjaiv e^e (ppecru, firjBi ae X'^07) 
alp€LT(o, evT dv ae fieXtypcov vttvo? dvr\r). 

In false confidence^ Agamemnon awakes, arms himself and at 
dawn summons the host to an assembly, 

*f2$ apa ipcovfoas dire^aero • tov 8' eXcir avrov 35 

ra (f>poveovr dvd Ovfiov, a p ov reXeea-Qai. ejieXXov. 
<f>fj yap y alpr\aew Ilpidfiov ttoXiv fjfULTi ^a,, ' . >S 

VTJ7TW oiBe ra fjBrj, a pa Zeis firjBeTO epya. J v v ' ' ' * 

Orjaeiv yap er efieXXev iir aXr/ed re arova^ds re *^\ VC"* • 
Tpcoa-c re KaX Aavaolai Bed tcpaTepd? vafiivas* \ ^ 4c ,\ 

eypero 8' e% virvov • Oevrj Be ficv d^eyyT 6fi<f>ij. , 1 ^ 

e&TO 8' opOcoOek • fiaXatcbv 8' evBvve %ir&va, ^ 

tcaXov, VTjydreov irepl Bk fieya fidXXero <f>apo? 9 \, 

iroavX 8' V7T0 Xnrapolaiv eB-qaaro /caXd 7reBiXa m \. ** 

d/i<f>X 8' ap' wfioio-iv {idXero ^/^>o? dpyvporjXov. '45 







eiXero Be aKrfirrpov Trarpmov, afyQirov alel* \ vv ^ 
avv Tc5 efirj /caret vrjax 'AyaiSiv yaXKO^LrcovoDV, 

'Ho>9 p>ev pa 9ea irpoae^rjaero fiatcpov "0\vjj,irov f 
ZtjvI </>oo)? epeovaa teal aWot,? dOavdroitriv • 
avrap 6 Krjpvfce<r<rt \iyv<f>06yyoi<ri /ceXev<rev, 5° 

KTipvaaeiv ayoprfvBe /capr) tco/juocovras 'A^aiou?. 
oi pev iKTjpvaaov, rol 8' rjyelpovro fid\* &/ca. 

First y however, he calls a council of elders and tells them 
his dream. 

Bov\rj Be* irpforov fieyaOificov l£e yepovrcov, 
Nearoperj irapa vrft IlvXoiyeveos fiaaikrjo? • 
tov<s o ye <rvyKaXe<ra<s irvKivr\v rjprvvero ftovXtfv • 55 

KXvre, <f>tKoL • Oelo? jjloi evvirviov fjkQev "Oveipo? 
ap,f3pocri7)v Sect vvtcra • fiakta-ra Be Nearopi Bi<p 
elB6$ re fieyeOos re <f>vr]v t ay^iara ecpfcei. 
<ttt) B f ap virep /ce<l>a\rj$, tcai fie irpos yJuQov eeiirev • 
evSeis, 9 Arpeo<; vie Bafypovos i7nroSdfioio ; 6o 

ov xprj iravvvyiov evBew fiov\r](f)6pov avBpa, 
& Xaol t iirtTerpd^araf,, teal roaaa fiifirjXev. 
vvv 8* epeOev %vve<s &tca • Aibs Be tol ayyeXo? el/u 9 
8$ <rev, avevOev ed>v, fieya /cijBerai 778' ekealpei, 
OcoprjgaC a ifceXevo-e xdprj tco/jLocovras 'A^atoix; 6$ 

iravavBlrj • vvv yap tcev e\ot9 iroKiv evpvdyviav 
Tpdxov • ov yap er dfuf>U 'OXvfiina BcofiaT eyovTe? 
dddvaroi <f>pd£ovTai • eTreyvaptyev yap diravra^ 
*Hpr) \i<r<rofievr) • Tpoaeaai Be icrfBe* effiirrat, 
i/c Atov aXka <ri) o-yaiv e%e <f>pe<TLv. — :N /29 6 fikv €ltt(ov 70 
$Xer anroirTdp,evo<i % ep>k Be* yhvicm virvos dvrj/cev* 

28 IAIAA02 B. 

He will make trial of the Greeks spirit, bidding them sail 
away, while the chiefs must restrain them. 

aXV cuyer, at tcep 7r&>9 Ocoprj^o/juep via? 'Ayai&p. 

irp&ra 8' eyiop e*Treaip ire vpr\<TQ fiat, r) 0i/u<; early, 

teal <f>evyew <rvv prjval TroXvfcXrfiai, tcekevato • 

iWfc 8* aXXoOep aWos epryrievp eireeaaip. 75 

Nestor replies ; Another man we had doubted, but the 
King's dream must be obeyed 

"Htoi o y &>9 eliroDV tear ap e^ero. touti 8* avian] 
Nearap, o? pa Hvkoio aval; f\v rjfiaOoevros • 
o atf>cv iv <f>popecop dyoprjaaro teal /jbereenrep • 

*fl <f>t\x)i, 'Apyelow T}yf)Tope<; rjBe fieBopre?, 
el fiev rt9 top oveipop ^A^atcop aWo? epecrwev, 8o 

yJrevBos /cep (fyalfiep teal poa<f>i£otf460a (jlolXKop • 
pvp 8' cBep, $9 fiey apiaro? ^A^ac&p evxerat, ecpau 
a\V ayer, at tcep 7r&>9 Oayprj^ofiep vla<$ 'A%ai&p* 

*/29 apa efxopTfaa^ /3ov\r)<$ if; VPX € v ^a0ac. 

The people swarm in like bees, and the heralds make silent* j 
Agamemnon, with his sacred sceptre, stands up,\ \ ' 

oi 8' eirapea-Triaap, iret6opr6 re iroifiepc Xa&v, „1 85 Vs 

a-/c7)7TTOvxot, fiacrtXfjev eireaaevopro Be* XaoL ^ \vN*> 

r)ire eOpea etai fjueXcaadcop aBwdcop J ^ '^ 

7T6T/W79 etc y7uz(f>vpfj<; aiel peov ip^ofiepdcov • 

fiorpvBbp Be ireroprai eir apOeviv elapwolatv • 

at pep t ep0a aXis ireirorrjaraL, al Be re evda * / -V - 9° 

&9 t&p eQpea iro\Ka petop airo teal fcXuridcop 

rjiopos irpoirdpoiOe fiaOeir)? eaTi^ofOPTO VvA 

^ IAIAA02 B. ^ 

kS . 

iXaBov els dyoprjv • fiera Be afaaiv oaaa BeBrfei, * % ^ 
orpvvova levcu, A cos 0776X0? • 01 o° dyepovro. \/ 
Terprrxet, 8' ayopri, u^ro 8e areva^i^ero 7at<x, 95 

Xaa)i/ I^ovtwv, Ofiaoos 8' ^u • ewea 8e a<f>ea<$ 
Krjpvices fioocovres eprjrvov, eliror dvrrjs 
o"XpcaT, dicovaeiav Bk At,OTpe<f>€cov fiaaiXrjwv. 
airovSfj 8' €&to \ao$, iprjrvOev Be Ka&* eBpas, 
iravadfievou Kkayyrjs • dvd Be icpeicov 'Ayafjuifivav l °o 

eaTTj, mcrprTpov e^oov, to fiev " H<j>cu<tto<; tcdfie Tevy&v * 
" H(f}at,<rTO<; fiev Bcotee Ad Kpovicovv avatcrv 
avrap apa Zeus Bco/ce Bia/cropq) dpyeltfrovrrj • 
'Ep/juetas Be aval; Bcotcev IUXoin ifKrj^iinrtp • 
avrap 6 aire IleXoyfr Bco/c *Arpel, iroifievi Xa&v ' I0 5 

^Arpevs Be* Ovtfatcmv ekiirev iro\vapvi QveaTtf • 
avrap 6 aire Qvear 'Ayajiifivovi Xelire <f>opf)vai, 
iroXKfjaw vr\aoi<ji kcu "Apyel iravTt dvdaaecv. 
t© o y epeiadfievos eire 'Apyeloiai fierrjvBa ■ 

and speaks : Zeus will not let us win, as he promised, and we must 
^^jteiurn, — disgraced, for the Trojans are fewer than we. 

*/2 <f>£\oi, fjpcoes Aavaoi, depdirovrf; "Aprjos, .... II0 

1 * ; 


I */2 <f)C\oi, fjpwes Aavaoi, depdirovrfi "Aprjos, . , 
^ Zevs fie fieya KpoviBrjs arrj eveorj&e* fiapely • l / 
cr^erXto?, 8? irplv fiev fioc inrea-^ero real /caYevevaev 
"I\iov itC7riparmvT £VTelyeoy diroveebQai • 
wvjbe KaKnv airaTTjp povAtvo-aro, /cat fie /ceXevet, 
Cv^r/cAea Apyos iKeaOau gtzgI iro\vv &\e<ra Xaov. i\$ 

[ovra> irov AirpMA^t%7r€pfievel <f>i\ov elvac, 
89 Bif iroXXdayv iroXicov KareXvae tcdprjva, 
178* Sri koX Xvaet • rov yap /cpdros earl fieycarov.'] 
aUrypov yap roBe y earl koX eaaofievoiav irvOeaOai, 

30 IAXAA02 B. 

fiayfr ovtq) Tovovie rocrovSe re \abv *A%ai&v *ao 

airpr)KTOv iroKefiov irokcfii^eiv fjhe pAyeaQai 

avhpdai iravporepoicn, ri\o<; 8' ovirto tl 7ri<f>avrai* 

efarep yap k iOikouxev ^A^aioi re Tpcoe? T€, 

opKia inert a Tafi6vT€$, dpidfiTjdrjfievat afjucfxo, 

Tpa>€<; fJLev XigacrOai, icfyicmot, oacroi eaaw, 1*5 

i}/i€?? 8' €? Setcd&a? 8ia/cocr/jL7)0€L/JL€P 'Amatol, 

TpGxov $' avhpa %KaaTOV iXoi/jueOa olvo%o€V€t,v • 

woXKal Kev Se/cdSe? Sevolarc olvoypoLo* 

toggov iyd> (fry/Mi 7r\ea$ e/ju/juevat, via? J A^at&v 

Tp<b(ov f ot valovcn Kara irroKiv • ahX iiriicovpoi *3° 

iroXKe&v i/e irokltov €7^€<T7ra\oA avSpes eacriv, 

ol fie pkya irXd^ovcrv, /ecu ovtc elcocr ideXovra 

9 I\(ov itciripcrai Of vaiopevov irroXieBpov, 

j evvea 8rj fiefidacn Aib$ fieyakov iviavrol, 
teal Sty Sov£a crearjTTe ve&v /cat tnrapra X&Xuvtcu* '35 

al Be irov f^pirepal t aKo'Xpt, teal vrjirta re/cva 
eCa/f evl fieyapois TroTiheyiieyai, • dfi/xc Se epyov 
afirco? a/cpdavTOV, ov eive/ca ScOp* l/c6/j,ecr0a* 

' ak\* aryeff, a>? av iycov et7ra>, 7rei0<bfie0a irames* 

V<f>€vya>fi€P crifv vr\vcr\ <j>t\rjv €9 irarplSa yaiav • 14° 

w yap en Tpolrjv alpi?<TO/i€v evpvwyviav. 

The gathering is stirred, like waves or like heads of wheat by 
\ the wind, and the Greeks rush to launch their ships. 

*/2? <bdro\ xolcn 8k Oyfibv fyl arnd eacriv Qpivev 
trace fiera ^rkrfOvv, ocroi ov BoV^rjq inQKovaavX XV ^T 

Kwrjfir) 8 chiprj, 2>$\tcvfjuLTa*/ia*&pa OcbjuQarj^ y*Y\j^\ 
ircvTOVif/captoio, ja, jiev r.Evpo? re Tfqro? re JK *45 

&ffOp ktat%a$ iraTpo? Aio^ix vefyekacov. ^ 

„*l*^ • V*\g** 



<»? S' ore V*vwi7 Zk$V\oos jBaBu Xijiovt i\8mp t 


io$ t€>v Tratr ayqprf kSwjSij J rot S* aXqX<n™ {J* v 

* 11 1 A_ tu - L r * [ Q 1 j / pU-mT 

,/OJU^Aj ^^VT^ *fcil. *.. /ilk V 

jo-rar jdjF/po/jtfciln ^ ral\§ aXkiiKoto'i xt\GVav tt C 

tt7TT€<7Pa> V1)0}P 1J& €k/C€/l€W€l^ oXo* QtMP t 

oupous r tgetcauatpQV ■ avrrj b ovpavov ucep 

There might have been mischief/ but Hera stirred up Athena 

y Ev8a tcev ' Apyeioio-tv {rrrepfiopa potrros irv)($ij w ' i*55 
e* /iV 'ABrjvatTjv "Spi} irpo^t jlvBop eetwev • . , glN^ 

II iroTTQt, atyLoxpLo a los Terns r aTpyrmirq* 
ovrm Zr) oI/c6vSe t <f>tkrjv e? waTptZayalav, 
f Apyetat <f>£tr%Qi'Tatm&r J evpea fmra Oakdat 
kclB Be Kev £v^^7jpltptdfi<p teal Tpwvl Xhrotep 

'Apyeifjp r EXm?7]V f fy uvetca iroWol *A^aiSip 
€P Tpoljj airoXopro <f>i\i}% airb irarpiBo^ afrj? ; 
dXX 1 iOjL vuvtfcara Xaop ^A^amv ^aXfco^irwpmp • 
gqU dya^o^l^iea-atp iprjrve <f>qrrae/caa'Tap* 

*J2<? etpar ^ou&^S^imja^ Sea yXavtewrts Mfljytfif, 
J3tj $& tear OvXvfATTGiQ xaprjv<x>p at^acra' /v/rf2^i 

KapTraXljJLms S' ifcaPE 9oa$ £ttI HJa? *A%aicop* 
eip€P eTreiT 'OSvaija, Atlu^UJf^^kavrop t 

anTCT 1 , ivrel p<iv a^o? Kpa^jprnl^vf^p wcafcvr^ 
a^ou S* larafiipT} irpoak^ yXavK&jri? *A8r]V7}* 

I6 S 



32 IAIAA02 B. 

She bids him for shame restrain the men; he runs to obey* 

Aioyeves AaepridBrj, TroXv/Jurj^av 'OBvao-ev, 
ovrco Brj oltcovBe, (jytkrjv e? irarpiBa yalav, 
<f>€vf;€<r0 f , iv vqeaai 7ro\vtc\i]lo-t, ireaovres ; *75 

icaB Be tcev eixcoXrjv IIpidfiG) teal Tpwal \hrotre 
y Apyebr\v 'EXevrjv, fy eXveica iroXkal ^A^aiSav 
iv TpoLy airokovro, <f>t\r)<; airo irarpiBo? alrjs ; 
aXX Wi vvv Kara Xabv x Ayai&v, firjBe r ipcoec 
aol$ 8' dyavol? iireeaaw ipryrve <f>coTa etcao-rov, 180 

firjBe ea vrja<; akaB* eX/ce/juev a^ieXiaaa^. 

A /2? §dff • 6 Be %vv67}K€ dea<; oira ^xovrfadarj^. 
$7) Be Oeeiv, airb Be xXalvav fidXe* rip 8' i/co/Mtcraev 
fcfjpvj; Evpv/3a,TT)$ ^Idaicqaio^ o? oi dirrfBei. 
avTo<; 8' *ArpeiBea) ' Ayap,e/j,vovo$ avrlos eXdcov l &5 

Be^aro ol o-tcfjirrpov Trarpdlov, a<f>0t,Tov alei* 
avv to3 efirj Kara vrjas 9 A^aca>v ya\Koyyr<i>VG>v. 

The chiefs he warns to beware lest they mistake Agamemnon^ and 
make him wroth; 

" Ovriva fiev flacriXrja teal e^o^pv avSpa KV)(eb} 9 
rov 8' dyavoZ? eireecTCTiv ipr^Tvaaa-Ke irapaard^ • 

Acufiovi, ov ae eouce, kclkov &>?, BeiBUraeadai 9 '9° 

aSX avTO? re /cdOrjao, teal aXXov? iBpve Xaov? • 
ov yap 7r<o <rd<j)a olaff, olo? i/oo? ^Arpetcovo^* 
vvv fiev ireiparai, rd^a B* tyfrercu vla$ *A%auav. 
iv fiovky 8' ov Trdvres dtcovcafiev olov eenrev* 
wh Tl XoXxoadfievo^ pejjy teatcbv via? 'Axac&v • '95 

Ov/jlos Bk fieyas iarl At,oTpe<f>eo<; fiao-tXfjof; • 
Tip.}] 8' itc Aib<$ iarc, <f>i\ei Be e yuryrieTa Zeis. 

IAIAA02 B. 33 

the people, more roughly > to be quiet and obey their betters. 

*0v 8' ab Sijfwv r avSpa IZoi, /SooewTa r i<f)€vpoi, 
rbv cncrjTrrptp iXaerao-teev ofio/cXrjcrao-tee re fiv0<p • 

AatfJbovC , arpe/jLa? fjcro, /ecu aXXcov fiv0ov a/cove, 2 ^o 

ot aeo fyepTepoi elai • <rv 8' dirToXefio^ teal avaXfct?, 
ovt€ iroT iv TrokefMp ivaplOjxLo^y out ivl ftovXr). 
ov flip 7TG>9 7raj/T€9 ftao-tXeiKTOfiev iv0dK ^Ayaiol* 
ov/c cuyaObv trokvicoipavir) 9 efc tcoipavos earco, 
el? fHaaikevs, eS eScotce Kpovov iral? dy/cvXofii]T€(i>. 
{atcrjiTTpov r tjZe 0e/u<rra9, iva <j$i<ii fHovXevrjai^ 

The people return to the assembly, all but the hideous wretch Thersites, 

*f2s o ye Koipavetov hleire a-rparov • oi 8' dyoprjvhe 
aims iire<r<revovro ve&v airo teal /cXtcrcdcov 
VXV> ®* ° Te xvf 1 * 1 TTo\v$\oLcr{ioio OaXdcrcrr)? 
aiylaXcp peydXtp fipifierai, a/napayel Se re 7T(Wo9. 2l ° 

*AXXoi fiiv p €*£opto, ipr\Tv0ev Se xa0* IS/oa9. 
GepcriTrj? 8' eri fiovvo? dfierpoeirr)^ itcoXaxi, 
09 p eirea fypealv fjat,v a/cocr/uL re iroXXd re 17877, 
fidyjr, drap ov Kara k6<t/j,ov, ipi^ifievat, ftaaiXevo-iv, 
a\\ Ti oi etcraiTO yeXouov * Apyeioiaiv 215 

€fifi€Pai, aX<r)(icTTo$ 8e dvrjp virb "IXiov f)\0ev 
<f>o\fcd? erjv, j£ft>\o9 8' erepov iroBa • to> Se oi &/ko ., 
KVpT<i>, hrl OTr)0o$ avvo^ayKOTe* abrdp virep0ev^ 
<f>ot;b<$ erjv teetjxiXrjv, yfreSvr) 8' iirevrjVoOe Xdyvr). 
e^^wrro? 8' 'AxiXfji /juLXutt fy 778' 'OSvcrrjl* Mo 

to> ydp veifceUcrtce* tot avV ' Ayap,6/ivovi 8^> 
of ea /cetcXriycos Xey oveiSea • rc3 S* dp 9 ^AyaioX 
iicirdryXtof; kotcovto, V€fieo-o-7f0iv r ivl 0v/j,&. 
avrdp fia/cpd ftocov ' Ayafiifivova vel/cee fiv0<p* 

24 IAIAA02 A. 

IjBrj yap fie naX SXKot ake^efievai fie/na&ra 59° 

pfye, 7ro8o9 reraycov, airo ftrfKov de<rnre<Tioio. 
irav 8* fjfiap (f>ep6firjv, cifia 8* rjekia) /caraBvvTi 
Kannreaov ev Arjfivq), 0X4709 o° en dvfib? ivrjev 
evOa fie %ivrie<; avBpes a<j>ap KOfiiaavTo ireaovra. 

*S2<; <f>dro • fieiBrjaev Be Oea Xev/ccoXevos "Hprj • 595 . 

fieiBrjaaaa Be 7r<wSo9 iBe^aro X €L P L xvireXXov. 

The gods •, with laughter at Hephaistos, banquet till sundown, 
and then retire to rest. 

avrap 6 to 69 aXKoiai deois evBefya iraaiv 

wvo^oeii y\v/cv vi/crap airb KprjTrjpo<; a^vaacov* 

aafieaTos S' dp ivcopro 76X0)9 ficucdpeaGt, deoiaiv, 

o>9 IBov "HfyaiGTOv Sea Bcofiara ironrvvovTa. 600 

*S2<Z Tore fiev irpoirav fffiap €9 rfekiov KaraBvvra 
baivvvT , ovoe ri uvfios eoeveTO Cairo? etarj<; 9 
av fiev <j>opfiiyyo$ TrepifcaWeos, f)v €% * AiroXkcov, 
Movcrdayv 0\ at aeuBov dfieifibfievai oVl /ca\r) m 

Avrap eirel /careBv Xafnrpbv <f>do<; r/eXtoio, 605 

ol fikv /ca/c/eetovre? eftav oltcovBe e/caoTo?, 
$j(L eicdoTGi Ba>fia 7repifc\vrb$ * Afifyiyvrjeis, 
*H<f>ai<rro$, 7roL7)(T€V IBvlrjai irpairiBeaaiVn 
Zei/s 8k 7T/309 ov Xe^09 ffC *0\vfnrio$ daTepoirryrfci 
hfOa 7rapo9 Kotfid0\ ore fiiv yXvicvs v7rvo$ l/cdvou 610 

ivOa KaOevK dvaftd? • rrapd Be ypvaoOpovos "Hprj* 


c U t - 






Zeus sends a false Dream to Agamemnon, encouraging him 
to attack Troy. 

9 A\\oi fiev pa Oeol re teal av&pes hnroKopv<rra\ 

evSov irawv^Lot, Ala 8' ovk €%e vrfSv/juos v7rvo<:* 

aXS? o ye fiepp/qpi^e Kara <j>piva, &>9 ^A^tXrja 

rifjujo-y, 6\ia"p Se iroXeas iirl vr\va\v 'A^av&v. 

fjSe Be oi Kara Ov/jlov dpla-rrj <f>alvero j3ov\i] 9 $ 

vrreptyai €7r 'ATpetSy 'Ayafiifivovi ovXov "Oveipov 

/cat fuv <f>a>vri<Ta<; eirea irrepoevra 7rpo<rr}v8a* 

Bda/c Wi, oi\e "Oveipe, doa? iirl vija? *Ayamv 
iXdobv €? kXktItjv 'Ayafii/jLvovo? 'ArpetSao 
irdvra fid\* drpeidm dyopevifiev, w eV^TeWft). io 

6<oprjf*al e /ceXeve fedprj KOfJboodvras 'A^aiou? 
iravavhly vvv yap icev ekot, irokiv eipvcuyviav 
Tpaxov ov yap er dfufus J 0\vfi7na Bco/ult eyovre^ 
aOdvaroi <f>pd£ovrai' hreyvapAJrev yap diravra^ 
*Hp7j \i<T<Top&vr) % Tp(i>€<r<n Se tcrjZe iffim-ai. 15 

A ifiJ5 (j>dro • firj 8' ap "Oveipos, eirel tov fiv0ov atcovaev. 

The Dream finds him asleep, and in the form of Nestor tells him 
the gods are now at one to aid the Greeks* 

KapiraXlfMos 8' Zteave 0oa? inl vfja? 'Axai&v 

&rj 8' ap' err 'ArpetSijv ' Ayajie/ivova • tov 8' ifcfyavev 


evSovr iv /cXurlr}, irepl B* afiftpocrtos Ke^vff wivo?, 
ottj 8' ap irrrep fce<f>a\fj<;, Nrj\rjt<p vli ioucd)?, *° 

Nia-Topt, rov pa /JbaXLara yepovTwv rt 'Ayafiifivw 
r<p fuv €€L<rd/JL€vo<; 7rpoa-€(j>(ov€€ delo? u Oveipo<$* 
EvBeis, 'Arpeos vie Bafypovo? hnroBd^oio ; 
ov xprj izavvvyiov evBeiv /3ov\rf(j>6pov avSpa, -\ 

oS Xaoi r i7riT€Tpd<l>aTat, /ecu rocraa iiep/rfX^v^^' 2 * 

vvv 8' ifiiOev £vv€<z co/ca* A 409 Be tol 0776X09 elju, 
09 aev, dvevOev icov, fiiya /cqBerat, 778' iXeaipec. 
6(oprj^al a iicekevae tedprj Kofjuocavra^ 'Abator*? 
iravovhir)* vvv yap /cev e\oi9 iroKtv evpvdr/vtav 
Tpdxov ov yap er d/jb<f>l<; 'OXv/jLiria Brnfiar expire? 5° 
dOdvarot <f>pd£ovrai • iireyvafi^ev yap airavra*; 
"Hprj Taaaofievr) • Tpoaeaai Be icySe i<j>rJ7TTai 
i/c Ato$. dWa av a-fjatv eye <f>pe<rl, firjBi are \ij$ff 
alpeLT(o*evT dv ae fieXfypcov v7rvo<; dvtfy. 

v ' ' 

In false confidence, Agamemnon awakes, arms himself, and at 
dawn summons the host to an assembly. 

A /29 apa (f>c0vij(ras direfirja-eTo • rbv 8' e\nf avrov 35 . 

rh fypoveovT dvd Ov/aov, a p ov reXeeaOai efieXXov. "- 
fyrj yap o y 9 alprjaeiv Hpidfiov ttoXiv fjfiaTt Keivtp,^^ ' "■ K - ; \Jv 
yrfirw ovBe rd 97817, a pa Zeix; fitfSero epya. * J . V. : "" <-^~ 

Orjaeiv ydp er ejieWev iir a'Xr/ed re arovaydx re ^\ V^* * * 
eypero 8' ef virvov Qelr\ Be fiiv dpfyeyvT dp,(j)i]. \y.\ 

Tptoal T€ Kal Aavaolcru 81a tcparepd? vo-filva?. 

fijero 8' 6p9co6ec<; • fiaXa/cbv 8' evBvve yir&va, ^ 

koXov, vriydreov irepl Sk /jueya fidXkero <f>apo<:* ^\ 

mxrirl 8' vtto Xnrapolaiv iB'qaaro fca\d ireBiXa* v ^ ^ v - v 

Aptpl 8' ap &fLowrw ftdXero f ^09 apyvporjkov. "45 



eiXero Be aKrjirrpov 7rarpa>lov, a<f>0iTov aleL* ^ vV 
avv t& efirj Kara vr\a^ *A-)(aiG)v yaKKo^iroivtov. 

'Ha>9 /lip pa 0ea *rrpo(T€ftriG€TO fiatcpbv "OXvjwrov, 
Zrjvl </>6o)9 ipeovaa teal a\\oi<z adavaToiaw • 
avrap 6 Krjpvfceaai \iyv<f)66yyot,<ri xeXevaev, 5° 

KripvaaeLV dr/oprfvBe /cdprj Ko/jLO&vTas * Ayaiofc* 
ol ph/ iKr)pv<r<rov, rol S* rjyelpovro /xaV coxa. 

First, however, he calls a council of elders and tells them 
his dream. 

BovXrj Be *rrpS)Tov fieya0v/i(ov l£e yepovr&v, 
Neo-Toperj irapa i/rjt HvSjoiyeveo? /3a<T(Xr)o<; • 
row o ye avyicaXeaas vrrvtavrjv rjpTvvero ftovkrjv • 55 

Kkvre, <f)Ckoi • 0el6<; fiot, evinrviov rj\9ev "Oveipo? 
afiftpoatrjv Bt,a vv/cra • fidXiara Be Nearopc Blg> 
elB6$ re fiey€06<z re (frvrjv r ay^ia-ra i<p/cei. 
a"rrj B 9 ap virep /eecjxikfjs, /cat fie irpbs fivOov eenrev • 
evBeis, 'Arpeo*: vie 8at<f>povos linroBd/jLOLo ; 6o 

ov ypr) iravvv^iov evBeiv /3ov\rj<f>6pov avBpa, 
c5 Xaoi r eiriTerpdfyaTai, zeal Toaaa fie/jurjXev* 
vvv B* ifiedev fjvves &/ea • A cos Be roc ayyeXo? elfii, 
09 <rev, avevQev ecov, fieya fcrfBercu 778' ekeaipet,. 
0a>pf}j~at a ifceXevae /cdprj /co/ioowTas ^A^cuov? 6$ 

vrravavBLr) • vvv yap /cev eX.049 irokiv evpvdyvcav 
Tpcocov • ov yap er dfi<f>U ^OXifJuria Bcofiar e^ovres 
dOdvaroL <j>pd£ovTai • enreyvaydfev yap airavTas 
w] \i<r<rop,evrj • Tpdaeaai Be /ctfBe' i(j>fJ7TTai 
4k A10V dXKa <rv a{j<riv e^e <f>pe<rlv. — *f2? 6 fikv eliriov 7° 
$X,er airoirrd^ievo^ ifii Be* y\v/ev<; virvo? dvrjicev. 

28 IAIAA02 B. 

He will make trial of the Greeks spirit, bidding them sail 
away, while the chiefs must restrain them* 

tt\\' ar/er, at Kev 7ro>9 Owprfgo/jLev via? 9 Aj(ai&v. 

irpcora S' iya>v eireatv irebprjcro/jLai, fj 0£/m<; iarlv, 

teal <f>evyeiv <rvv vqval iroXvKKrjlaL KeXevaco • 

?4U€69 8* aXKoOev aXko<$ iprjrveiv eireeaacv. 75 

Nestor replies : Another man we had doubted^ but ths 
King's dream must be obeyed. 

*Htol o y 2)? elircov tear ap e%ero. rouri 8* avian) 
Necrrayp, o? pa JJvXoio aval; rjv rjfiadoevros • 

a$w eb <f>pov€(ov ayopijaaTO teal fiereeiirev • 
*/2 <f>£koi, 'Apyelcov rjyrjTopes rjSe fieSovres, 

el fiev rt? top oveipov J A^aicov a\\o? evMrirev, 8o 

yfrevSo? Kev <f>at/JL€V ical voa<f>c^oifie0a fiaXXov • 
vvv 8' ISev, 89 fiey apiaro? ^A-^ai&v ev^erai elvai. 
a\V ayer, al Kev 7ra)9 0oypi]^ofiev vta$ ^AyaiGav* 
■\f29 apa <f>(ovi]<ra<; /3ou\rj<; e£ %px € veeadai* 

The people swarm in like bees, and the heralds make silent* j 
Agamemnon, with his sacred sceptre, stands up,% > ' 

01 8' eiravea-TTjaav, ireldovTO re iroifjuevi Xacov, ^ 8j V^ 
a/crjTTTOvxoi ftao-tXqe? • eireaaevovro he XaoL ^ \\>* 
rjire eOvea elcrt jie\i<T<rd(ov aBcvdcov 9 ^ ^ 
irirprjf; i/c yXafyvprjs alel veov ipxp/ievdcDV • y^ V 
fioTpvhbv he irerovTai eir av9e<nv elapivolaiv • y -**- 

al fiev t evOa a\t9 ireTrorrjaraL, al he re evOa * / V • 90 

&? t&v eOvea 7ro\\a ve&v airo real tcXiatdcov 

fjiovos irpoirdpoiOe /8a0€My9 eaTL^ooavTO t . \\J% 



^ IAIAA02 B. v ^ 

iXaBbv eh cuyoprjv • fierd Be <t$mtiv oaaa BeBrjei, 
6rpvvov<r levcu, A 409 0776X05 • oi o° dyepovro* ' 
T€Tptf)(€i S' 070/977, vfrb Be (TTevayj^ero yala, 95 

\a&v VCpvT&v, 6/aooo? o° *7i> • eVi>eo Be a<f>ea<s 
Krjpvfces /Soo&vres iptfrvov, eXiroT dvrrjs 
o-'xplar, atcovaeiav Bk AioTpe<f>i(ov ftao-tXtfcw. 
airovBf) 8' €%€T0 Xoo5, iprjTv6ev Be Ka6* eBpas, 
7rav<rdpL€voi K\ayyr]<$ • ava Be /cpetcov 'Ayajiefivew I0 ° 

€<TT7j, acrprrpov e^cov, to fiev " H<f>at,o-To<; xdfie revj(€ov • 
H H<f>at,<TTO<; fiev B&tce Ad Kpovicwt, avaKW 
avrap apa Zev$ Bco/ce Bia/cropqy dpyei(j>6vTrj • 
'Ep/ieia? Be* aval; Bco/cev Hekoin ifKri^lmrtp • 
avrap 6 aire IleXo-ty B&tc 'Arpei, iroifievi Xacov • 105 

'Arpevs Be Ovrjaic&v eknrev irokvapvt, Oveary • 
avrap 6 avre @ve<rr * Ayafikfivovi Xei7re (poprjvai, 
iroXkrjo'w vr\<roi<ri teal "Apyel iravrl dvd<r<rei,v. 
rip o y 9 epeiardfjbevos hre * Apyelouri fieTrjvBa ■ 

and speaks: Zeus will not let us win, as he promised, and we must 
tturn, — disgraced, for the Trojans are fewer than we. 


*/2 <f>Ckoc, rjpa>e<; Aavaol, OepdirovTe^ "Apyos, . 
Zeis fie fieya KpoviBqs dry eveS'q&e' ^apelrj'' l ','.;* ».* 
oyerXios, 05 irpiv fiev fioi imeGyero fcal /car'evevo'ev 
"I\j,ov i/nrepaavr fVTelyeov diroveebQai • 
pvv JBk tcatcrw dTraTrjp povk^vaaro, Kai fie /ee\evei 
cvJnckea Apyo? iKea-Oav^eireX irokvv &Xeaa \aov. itc 

[ovrto irov Act fjl^Miitvirepfievel <f>ikov elvat,, 

69 Sff iroXKa&v iroXlcov Karekvae /cdprjva, 

178* ere /cal \v<rei • rov yap /epdro? earl fieyiGTOvJ] 

aUrxpbv ydp roBe y ia-rl koX i<raofievoi<ri irvdeaOat, 

30 IAIAA02 B. 

fiayjr ovrco roiovBe rocrovBe re \abv ^A^ai&v **> 

airprj/crov iroXefiov iroKcfil^eiv tjSe pA^eadat 
dvBpdcn Travporepoicri, Te\o? B f ovtto) tl Trecfxunai. 
etirep yap k i0e\oijiev 'Amatol re Tp&e? re, 
opKia TTLOTa Tafiovres, dpiOfirjdtf/ievai dficjxo, 
Tp&e? fiev \egacr0ai, €<j>ecrTt,oi oaaoi eacrcv, i*S 

17/iet? 8' €? Be/cdBa? BiaKocr/nrjOeifiev *Ayaiol> 
Tpcocov 8' avBpa gkcuttov eXoljieda olvoypevew • 
iroXkai /eev BetedBe? Bevolarc olvo%6oio. 
toctctov iyco (prjfu TrXea? e^ifxevai via? *A*)(ai&v 
Tpdxov, oi vaiovai Kara irrokiv • ak\* iirUovpoi 13° 

iroWecov e/c irdkltdv eyxecnrakot avBpe? eacrcv, 
ot fie jieya irkd^ovcri, /col ovtc el&cr eOekovra 
*TKlov eKirepaai ib vaio/xevov irrdkieOpov. 
levvea hi] fieftdacri Aib? fieydkov eviavrot, 
] teal Sty B ovpa aearjire ve&v teal airdpTa XeXinrrcu* <35 

i ai Be irov rjfierepai r ako'xpi /cat, vryma re/cva 
. etar ivl jieydpot,? iroTiBeyiieya^ • cififu Be epyov 
i afira>s atcpdavTov, ov eive/ca Bevp* l/cofiecrOa. 
! aXX* cvyed\ a>9 av iycov enno, ireidwfieOa Trdvres • 

Vi>evy(op,ev crvv vrjvcrl cfytkrjv e? irarplBa yalav • 140 

)pv yap en Tpolrji/ alp^crofiev evpvdryviav* 

The gathering is stirred, like waves or like heads of wheat by 
\ the wind, and the Greeks rush to launch their ships. 

^•fij? <bdro\ xoiai B& Oviibv hit crrnOecacriv apivev 

>Aj3po$ Maty it 



, y" j 1 

j&raTjdsLpofieib} * TollQ aXK^KoL(n /ciAewoi^|t 
a7rT€<rO£i vtjwv ij£ f ikH^fLoJeh oka StkvT 7 
ovpov 9 r e^tKnuatpov * avrr} b ovpavov Itcev 

There might have been mischief j but Hera stirred up Athena 

*Ev$a tcev 'ApyeiQia-w virkpp.opa vqgtqs zTvyBri, x i*SS 
el fit) ^A6r\vaLi\v "Hpy wpos fivdov eetwev U aGP*^ 

JJ "jrowut, aiyto^oto Aio$ twq^ arpVTwii), 
ovra* By olrcoifSe, <f>l\7jp es 7rarpiBa_yaiap t 
9 Apyetot $£v%Qvrau&r evpea vwra 6aXda-<rqs ; 
tcaB Be K€V €V'j^!\^vltp{Ap f fp teal Tpwcrl Xhroiev 160 

*Apyzir}v r E\evi}V 9 7J9 eive/ca TtoXkoi 'Ajpittov 
iv Tpotij dwoKovro (^lXijs airo warp&W a£2? ; 
aXK* idfr vvvjeara Xaov *Aj(fit&v ^aX^o^tTci^iai/* 
aoh arfaXtw$%it&<r<7W ipijrve ^^rrae/caa-rov^ 

Ji? e<paT ^ouo air tuyere uea yXavfcmrts "Aqft 
j8"5 Bk fcaT OvKv^ttoio teaptjpwp at^atra- 
tcapTraXipms 8* wave Bom eVl i*fjaq *Aj(ai&v 
e&pev €*rr£tT ^OBvo-ija* Ailu^tv^akavroPi 

€(7TaOT ' 0VO 7€ J^O? euffft/UfOtO i£€\atP7}$ I/O 

Sirrer', eVe£ ^w &X oq K P a ^v™lI zfopLOp ttcaYev; 
ay%pv S' tCTap,£yr} irpo<r£<pi} ykavKanrtq 'A&tjpi}* 



32 IAIAA02 B. 

She bids him for shame restrain the men; he runs to obey. 

Aioyevh AaepTiaZr), iroXv/Jurj^av ^OBvaaev, 
ovtg) 8% oltcovSe, <f>Ckrfv €9 irarpLha yalav, 
<f>€v^€(r0\ iv vrjeaav ttoXvkXtJlo-l Treaovre*; ; '75 

tca8 8e Kev ev^coX^v IIpidfMp /cal Tpaxrl Xliroi/re 
'Apyehjv 'EX&vtjv, fj$ eive/ca iroXXol ^A^amv 
iv TpoLtj airokovTo, <f>tXr]<; airo TrarplSos cur)? ; 
dXX J 10 l vvv Kara Xabv l A^ava>v 9 ^irj8e r ipcbei* 
©"049 8' dyavoi? eireeaaiv iprjTve (pcora e/caarov, 180 

firjSe €a vrja? aXa8* iX/cifiev dfi^LeXlaaa^. 

A ifiJ9 <f>d0 y • 6 Be f*vv€7]tce Oea? oira <f>covri<rd<ri]<;. 
(Sr) 81 deeiv, dirb 8k xXaivav y8t£\e* rip 8' i/co/iiararev 
Kr)pv% Evpvj3a,Tr)<; y Ida/cq<rio$, 09 oi oirrjZeu 
avTOS 8' 'ArpeiBea) 'Aya/jL&fivovo? clvtios iX0a>v 185 

Bigaro 01 <TKrJ7rrpov iraTpco'iov, a<f>0LTov alel' 
avv tc3 eftrj kcltcl jrija? 'A^aLcov ^aXKoyyrwv&v. 

The chiefs he warns to beware lest they mistake Agamemnon, and 
make him wroth; 

"OvTiva fiev /3a<rL\r}a kcl\ e^o'xpv avBpa Ki^ebj, 
rbv 8' dyavol? iireeao-Lv iprfrvaaa-Ke irapaord^ * 

AaLfiovL, ov <re €OL/C€, tcdfcov g>9, 8et8Ar<recr&M • *9° 

aX\' avro9 re /cd0r)<ro, /cal aXXov? IBpve Xaovs • 
ov yap 7TG) ad<f>a oVrff 9 0I09 voo$ 'Arpetcovov 
vvv fiev TTCLparaL, rd^a 8' lyfreraL via? J A%ai&v, 
iv (SovXfj 8' ov irdvres dicovaafiev olov eenrev. 
fit] tl %oX(0O-dfievo<; pegy /catcbv via? ^A^auSiv • '95 

dvfibs 81 fieya? earl A torpedo? ^9a<rt\^09* 
Tifirj 8' itc A 16$ ea-TL, <f>LXel 8i e firjrieTa Zeis. 

IAIAA02 B. 33 

th* people, more roughly ', to be quiet and obey their betters. 

*0v 8' av hrtfwv r avSpa XZoi, jSoo&vra r i<f)€vpoi, 
rbv <TKr\Trrp<p i\A(ra<TKev 6fio/e\i]<ra,<rtci re fiv0<p • 

AaifJLOVL, arpefia? fjcro, teal aXKcov fivdov a/cove, 2 °° 

ot aeo (f>€pT€poi elcri • av 8* airToXefios teal avaXia,?, 
ovt€ iror ev irdkifMp ivapiOfiios, ovt ivl /8ot/\§. 
ov fiev 7Tft>? iravTes fia&tXevo-ofiev ivOab* 'Amatol* 
ovtc dyaOov iroXv/coipavlrj* eh Koipavbs earto, 
el? /3a<riXev$, g> eS&tee Kpovov iral? dyKvkofjbijTeoi), y *°$ 
[a/crprrpov r rjSe OefiiaTas, iva a<f>i<ri @ov\evr)<ri.] 

The people return to the assembly r , all but the hideous wretch Ther sites, 

<x /29 o ye fcocpavecov StWe GTparbv • oi 8' dyoprjvhe 
afaris eire<T<revovTo ve&v airo teal tc\i<naxov 
VXV> ***> ° T€ Ml 1 * 1 iro\v<f)\oL(rl3oio 6a\daarj^ 
alylaXco fieydXtp ftpe/Mercu, afiapayel he re irovro*;* 2l ° 

"AWoi fiiv p €%ovto, eprjTvOev Se /caO* eSpas. 
OepfTLTTj^ 8' en /jlovvo? ap,eTpoenrr)<i ifco\a>a, 
o? p enrea §pea\v fj<rw axoa-fid re iroXka re 17877, 
fidyjr, wrap ov Kara Koa/xov, ipi^efievac fiaaiXevo-iv, 
aXV Tb ol efoaiTO yeXoUov * Apyeioiaw 215 

efi/iei/ai. ala^iaro^ Se dvfjp vtto "Tkiov fj\6ev* 
<f)o\fcd<z er)v, %<b\o9 8' irepov iroha • tod he ol cb/ieo ., 
/cvpTG), eVi orrjOo? GwoytoKOTe* avrdp virepOev^ 
0ofo? erjv tcefyaXrjVy yfreSvfj 8' eirevr\voQe Xdyyi). 
exdurros 8' 'AxiXfjl pakurr fjv 778' J OSvaijl m Mo 

to) y&p vecKelecrKe' tot avr ' Ayafiefivovi 8/<p 
o%ea Ke/cXrjya)^ Xey oveihea • tS 8' ap 'Amatol 
i/crrdsyXcof KOTeovTo, ve/iea-a-ijOev r ivl Ov/jlS. 
avTap 6 fia/cpa fiocov ' Ayap,ep,vova veUee fivdtp* 

34 IAIAA02 B. 

who reviles Agamemnon for his greed, and the people far their 

'ArpetBrj, reo Br) avV i7rcfiifi<f>€ai 9 rjBe %aT^et? ; 225 

irXelal toi yaXieov kXictlcu, 7ro\\al Be yvvauce? 
ela\v ivl KkLairj^ igalperot, #9 toc 'Amatol 
irpcoTump BIBofiev, evr av TrroXleBpov eKtofiev. 
fj en /cat xpvaov iinBeveai, ov zee tis oXaei 
Tpcb&v hnroBdfioDV if; *I\lov, vtos airoiva, 230 

ov Kev iyco Brj&a? aydr/co, fj aKkos *Ayamv; 
r\\ yvval/ca verjv, Xva fiuryeai hv (frtXoTrjn, 
rjpr avrbs airov6(T<f>L KCLTiayeai ; — ov fiev eoi/eev, 
dpypv iovTa, /catccov iirc/3aa-K€fi€V via? ^A^aiSiv* 
& ireirove^, kclk eKey^i, ^A^adBes, ovk&t * Amatol* 2 35 
oircaBe irep avv vrjval vecofieda • rovBe S' i&jxev 
avTov ivl Tpolrj yipa irea-ae^ev, 8<f>pa iBrjTai, 
r) pa tL oi %^/4efc irpoaapLvvopieVy r)e fcal ovicl* 
S? ical vvv 'A%t,\r)a, eo fiiy afietvova <f>coTa, 
7/tl/jl7]o*€V iXcov yap e^et yipas, aire*? WTTovpa?. 240 

aXXa fiaX* ou/e ^A^ckfjl ^0X09 <f>p€CLV, akXa fieOrffjuav' 
fj yap av, ^ArpetBrf, vvv vo-rara XwfirjGaio. 

But Odysseus rebukes and threatens himj 

A ifiJ9 <f>dro veuceiwv 'Aya/juefivova, iroifiiva Xacov, 
GepcLTTjv t^5 o° &/ca irapicrraTo Bios 'OoWo-eife, 
Kai fiiv xrrroBpa IBiov %a\e7r<p rivtiraire fiv6<p • 245 

Oepalr a/cpirofivOe, \iyv$ irep ia>v ayoprj'nfe, 
io")(€o, p,r)8 €0e)C 0Z09 ipv^€fM€vac fiao-iXevo-iv. 
oi yap iya> ceo (fyrj/u ^epetorepov ftporbv aXXov 
l/ifievai, oao-oi ay! 'ArpetByf; vtto "IXiov r}\0ov* 

IAIAA02 B. 35 

tg> ovk &v fHaaCkrja? dva crrofi e^cov dyopevoi?, 250 

Kai <T(f>iv ovelBed re 7rpo<f>6poi<;, vqgtov re <f>v\da<rot^* 

ovBi rl 7T0) <rd<fxi tBpuev 07tg>9 earai rdBe epya, 

$1 eft tj€ /ca/em voa-rrfaofiev uJe9 9 A-^atcbv. 

[t^5 vvv 'ArpetSy 'Aya/ie/ivovi, iroi/ievi \acov, 

f}<rai oveiBl&v, on ol fidXa TroXXa BiBovacv 255 

fjpfoes Aavaol' av 8k /eeprofiecov dyopevetsi] 

aX\ J ex tol ipicOy to 8k zeal rereXeo-fievov earai* 

et k en, a atypalvovra Ki^qaofiac, a>9 vv irep &8e, 

firjtciT eireir 'OSvo-rjl /cdprj cifiocaiv eVe/17, 

finS* ere Tr)\€fid^oco Trarrjp /C€/c\7)fievo<: etrjv, 260 

el iav iyco <re Xaj3<bv diro /lev <f>lXa eXpLara Svaco, 

%\£uvdv t rj8e xircova, rd r alBco dfifatcaXvirTeh 

avrov he Kkalovra Boh? eirl vf}a<z d(f>i]a(o 

ireTrXriytos dyoprjOev deifceaac TrXrjyrjo'w. 

and smites him, so that he sits silenced and weeping, while the 
others begin to laugh, 

*fl<Z ap etyl * fTK^Trrptp Be fierdxfypevov r}8e real cjfico 20$ 
irXrj^ev • 6 S* IBvcoOrj, OaXepov Be ol eicireae Bd/epv • 
o-fi&Sil; 8' ai/jbaroecraa fjL€ra<j>pevov e^mravearr] 
acrprrpov xnro 'xpvaeov* 6 S' ap e^ero, rdp^aev Te # 
aXryrjo-as 8\ d^pelov IScov, dirop.op^aro Sd/epv. 
ol 8k /col dyyvp,evoi irep eir avT& rfSif yekaaaav* 270 

&8e Be ti? ecTreo-Kev, IBcov €9 ir\ria-tov aXXov* 

*ifij ttottoc, f] Br) fLvpC ' OBvaaevs eaOXa eopyev, 
/SovXa? t* e^dpypv dyaOd?, iroXepuov re Kopvaacov • 
vvv 8k roSe fiey apiarov iv 'Apyetoio-iv epe^ev, 
89 rbv \ta/3i]Trjpa eirea^oXov eo")£ dyopdeov. *75 

ov Otjv fiiv irdXiv aire? dvrjaei #17*09 drfrjvtop 
veiicelew f3acri\rja<; ovecBelois eireeaaiv. 

36 IAIAA02 B. 

Athena marshals the multitude to hear Odysseus. 

A ifiJ9 cfxiarav f] irXrjOvv dva 8' 6 irroXhropOo^ 'OSvaaeb? 
eoTTf, <r/cr}7TTpov ej((ov — irapa 8& yXavK&ir^ 'Adqvri, 
elSofiivrj KTjpvici, aicoirav Xabv dvdyyei, ^° 

&$ dfia ff oi irp&roi re /cat vgtcltoi vUs ^A^ai&v 
fivOou aKovaeiav, teal iirL^paa-aalaTO /SovXrfv — 
$ cr(j>t,v it) <\>pov£(ov arfoprjaaTO, teal /jLerienrev • 

He speaks, of the shame to return empty > and of the great 
sign of the snake that ate the sparrow and her brood. 

'ATpetSrj, vvv Ztj ere, aval;, i0eXov<riv ^A^aioX 
ira<nv iXiy^iaTov di/xevac fiepoTreaa-c ^poToctrcv 285 

ovBi tol itcTeXiovaw v7r6o")(€<rw, rjvirep virearav 

€V0dB J €TL (7T€6^0I/T69 OL1T * 'ApyCO? l7T7rO)8oTOtO, 

"IXlov itciripo-avT evrei'xeov airoveeaOai. 

&<rre yap rj TralBe? veapol, yfipal re yvvaltces, 

dXXjjXoiaiv ohvpovrai oltcovSe vifaOat,, ^9° 

?l fifjv real tt6vo<; icrrlu avitjQivrd vkeaQai. 

real yap t/? 0* eva firjva fievcov dirb fy aKo-^oio 

da^aXda criiv vrjt iroXv^vyco, ovirep aeXXai 

Xeifiepiai etXeaxnv bpivofievq re OdXaaaa* 

rjpZv S* ecvaTo? e<m irepiTpoirewv evvavrb^ 295 

ivOaZe fjLC/jLv6vT€(rcrt. tg> ov ve/jLecri^ofM 'A^aio^s 

da^aXdav irapa VTjval rcopcovlo-Lv • dXXa fcal ejnrr)? 

ala"xjpbv tol Srjpbv T€ fievew, Keveov re veecrOai. 

rXfjre, <j>tXoi, koI fielvar iirl *xp6vov t $<f>pa Ba&fiep 

fj erebv RaX^a? fiavreuerav rjk zeal ovkL 3°° 

ev yap St) roSe tBfiev ivl <f>p€(rlv 9 icrrk Sk irdvres 

fidprvpoi, ofc fifj tcfjpes efiav Oavdroio (j>ipov<rai* 


%0^d T€ /cal irp<ol£, or €? Av\L8a vrjes ^Ayai&v 

rjy epeOovro, ica/ed IIpcd/jL<p teal Tpaxrl <j>€pov<rai* 

fi/Ask 8' afi(j>l irepl Kpr\v7\v Upov? icard ft&ftofc 3°5 

epSojiev aOavdroMri T€\r)€<r<ra<; kKarb^a^ 

icaXrj inrb 7r\aTavioT<p, oOev peev dyXabv vScop • 

eu0* i<f>dv7) fjueya arjfia* Spd/cav eirl v&ra 8a<f>oi,vo$, 

<rfjL€p8a\€o$, tov p avrbs y O\vfnrio<; fjice <j>oco<r8e, 

fico/jLov inrat^a^, irpbs pa irXardvioTov 6pov<rev. 3 IQ 

evda 8 9 iaav <rrpovdolo veoaaol, vrpna ritcva, 

8%(p €7r' aKpordr<p 9 irerdXot,? ir7ro7r€7rrrj&T€^ 9 

6/crdb, drap fJM?T7)p ivdrrj fjv 9 rj ritce re/cva* 

evff* 8 ye tou9 iXeewa Kar^crdce reTpiy&Tas ' 

firfrrip 8' djjL(j>e7roTdTO oZvpopAvq (j>Lka reKva* 3*5 

tt)v & eke\i%diAevo<s irrepvyo*; \d/3ev d^iayylav. 

avrhp hrei Kara tLkv €<f>aye arpovOolo teal avrqv, 

TOV fJL€V dpL^rfKoV 07JK6V 0€O9> 0<TTT€p 6<f>7JV€V 

\aav yap fjuv Wrjice Kpovov irate dy/cv\o/jLi]T€G> • 

i}/x*£9 8' €<7TaoT69 0av/Jbd^ofjL€V, olov irvyQi). 3 20 

Whence Calchas had prophesied success in the tenth year. 

a>9 oiv Seiva irek&pa Oecov eiarjkB* i/carofiftas, 

Kd\%a$ 8' avTi/c erreira Oeoirpoirewv dyopevev 

rlwr av€G) iyivea-06, Kaprj ko/j,6q)vt€<; *A%at,ol ; 

rjfiiv fiev roS* ecfyrjve ripas fiiya p^rlera Zeis, 

oyfnfiov, byfririXea-TOv, oov *\eo9 ovttot dXeirat* 3 2 5 

a>9 o5ro9 Kara t4kv €<f>aye GTpovOolo teal avrrjv, 

okt(o, drap fujrrjp ivdrrj fjv, rj re/ce T&fcva* 

a>9 quel? roaaavT erea TrroXefii^ofiev av9i, 

tc3 Se/edrtp 8k ttoKiv alptfo-ofiev evpvdyviav. 

teeivo? ray; dyopeve • rd 8r) vvv irdvra TeKelrau 33° 


a\\' aye, filfivere wavre^, iv/cvrffiiBe? 'Ayaiol, 
avrov, et? o K6v acrrv fjueya Ilptdfioio e\(op,€V* 

A S2$ €<f>aT* 'Apyeloi, Se fiey laypv — dfij>l 8k vf}& 
afiepBaXiov /covdftrjcrav, avcrdvrayv inr *AyaiG>v — 
fivdov iiraivr\<rav r T&; *08v<roi}o<; Oeloco. 335 

Nestor bids Atreides disregard the foolish agitators y and divide the 
host by tribes for battle. 

rola i 8k /cat fierieiire Tepqvios hmrora N&crr&p* 

*/2 iroiroLy fj Sfj iratalv Ioikotss dyopdaaOe 
vrymAypi^ oh ov ti fiikei iroXcfirjla epya. 
try 8r) avvOeaicu re Kal op/cia fHqaerai r)p!iv ; 
iv irvpl 8r) fiovXat T€ yevoiaro, fitfSed r dvSp&p 9 34° 

airovhal t a/cprjroL Kal Serial, ffc lirkiriOy^cv. 
ai/TQ>? yap p iireeaa ipi&alvojiev, ov&i n fifjx ? 
evpifievcu hvvdfieaOa, 7ro\i/v yjpdvov ivOdS* iopre?. 
'Arpethr), crv 8' e0* d>9 irplv e^cov doT€fi<f>ia fiovktfv, 
ap%€v 'Apyeloicri Kara Kparepa*; vcr/itvw 345 

rovcrBe 8' ea <f>0Lvv0€tv, eva teal Svo, toL icev ^A^ai&v 
vocr<j>iv fiovXevcoa — avvcrw 8' ov/e eaaerai ain&v — 
irplv "ApyoaS* levai, irplv /cal A 10$ aiyi&xpio 
yvcbfi€vcu f\ re yjrev&o? viroa^eat^, f)e Kal ovkL 
(fyrj/xl yap oiv KaTavevaai tnrepfievea Kpovicova 35° 

9\pMTi t^J, ot€ vrjucrlv iir i)Kvir6poiGiv ej3aivov 
'Apyelot, Tpa>€crcri <f>6vov Kal /efjpa <f>epovT€$, 
aarpdirrcov iiriSi^t, ivalcrtfia cijfiaTa <f>alva)v* 
rtp fitj T&9 irplv iireiyeaOco ol/covSe veeaOai, 
irplv Tiva irap Tpcooov aKo^cp /caTa/eoifiTjOrjvcu, 355 

TlxraaOai 8' 'EXivrjs opfjbtjfiard T€ OTOvaywi Te« 
et Si Tt9 i/circvyka)*; iOiXei ol/covSe veeadai, 

IAIAA02 B. 39 

a7TT&0a) fjs vrjbs ivaaekfioio pekalvris, 

Sep pa wpoaff* aXkcov Odvarov teal ttot/jlov inlawy. 

ak\&, aval;, avros r eb firjBeo, ireLQeb t aXK(p • $6° 

ovtol airopkrirov €7ro? eaaerai otti kcv 6?7r© # 

Kplv avBpas Kara <f)v\a, Kara (frptfrpas, 'Aydfiejivov, 

a>9 <f>pi]Tpr} <\>prjTpr]<\)iv dptfyy, <f>v\a Be <f>v\ois. 

el Be Kev w? €/>£#?> fcal rot ireiOcovrai *Ayaiol, 

ryvdxrp eireL0\ o? ff r/yejwvayv /eatcos, o? re vv Xa&v, 3^5 

rjS* 0? k iaffXJo^ egcrt, • Kara a<f>ea$ yap fia^eovrai • 

yvdxreai 8', fj teal Qeaireairj iroktv ov/e dXaird^ei^ 

fj avBpcbv KatcoTi]Ti teal dfypaBlr) iroXe/ioio. 

Agamemnon praises his counsel, and bids them prepare for 
battle, and eat. 

Tbv 8' a7rafi€i/36fievo^ irpoaeffyq /cpeicov 'Ayajiefivav 
fj fidv a&r ayopf) viteas, yepov, via? ^Ayai&v* 370 

at yap, Zev re irdrep teal 'AOrjvaLrj zeal "AttoWov, 
rotovTOt Be/ca fioi avfi<f>pdB/j,ov€S elev *Ayai&v • 
T<p K€ ratf fj/jbvaeie 7ro\fc? Hpidpoio avateTO?, 
j(epa\v v<f> 9 rifiereprjaLV akovad re irepOofJuevr} re. 
aXXd /lot alyio%o<; KpovtBr}*; Zevs ahjye eBco/cev, 375 

o? fie fier dirpr\icTov^ epiBa? teal veUea fidXkei. 
teal ydp iycov '-4^\eu5 re fia^rjadfieB* eiverca tcovpr}? 
dvTifiloi? hreeaaiv, iya> 8' VPX 0V X a ^ ,€ira ^ vtov " 
el Be wot e? 7c filav fiovkevaojiev, ovk&t eirevra 
Tp&alv dvdftXrjav; teaicov eaaerai, ovB' rifiaiov. 380 

vvv 8' epxeaO' ini Belrrvov, Xva ^vvdycofiev "Api\a. 
ei fiev rt? Bopv OrjgdaOw, ei 8' dairlBa 0ea0<o, 
ei Be Tt? fonroiaiv Behrvov Botco oaicxriroBeaaiv, 
ei Be rt? apfiaro? dfuj>U lBa>v iroXefioio fjueBeaOco • 

40 IAIAA02 B. 

o>9 fee iravrjfieptoi arvyepS Kpivcofieff* "Apr)l. 3&5 

ov yhp iravarikr) ye fiericrcrerai, obB' rjftaiov, 
el fiff vv% ekOovaa Bia/cpiviei /xii/09 avBp&v. 
IBpaxrei fiev rev TekajioDV afi<f)l artjOeaaLv 
d<77r/So? afifaftpoTT)?, irepl S' eyxeZ x € ty a Kap&ircu* 
iBpdcrei Be Tev t7T7ro9, ivgoov apfia Tiralv&v. 39* 

ov Be k iycbv dirdvevQe fid^Vf iOeKovra voijcra) 
(Ufivd&w iraph vrjval fcopcovlcnv, ov oi hrevra 
ap/ciov eaaelraL <\>vyeew /cvvas i\S olcovov?. 

The Greeks stir like waves : Agamemnon prepares a sacrifice 
and calls the chiefs. 

Ji9 e<par • Apyetot be fiey taypv, 0)9 ore tcvjui 
a/crf} ifi vyfrrjkr), ore Kivrja-p Notos iX0d>v, 395 

TrpojSXfJTi a/coirektp • top 8' ovnrore Kvfiara \ehrei 
iravroicov avificov, ot av evff fj evOa yevtovrav. 
avardvres 8' opeovro, /ceSaaOevTe*; /carh vfja<z, 
Kairviaaav re /caret /c\iaLa<; /cal Belirvov eXovro, 
a\\o9 8' a\\a> epe^e 6eS)v alevyeveracov, 4°0 

eirxpfievo? Odvarov re <\>vyelv /cal jjlcoKov "ApTjos. 
avrap 6 /3ovv lepevaev aval; avBpwv 'Ayajii/juvcov 
iriova, irevraerripov, vrrepfievel Kpovlcovi* 
fcl/ckrjcr/cev Be yepovras dptarfjas FLavaxaicbv, 
NeaTopa fjuev irpwricrra zeal 'ISofievrja dva/cra, 4°5 

avrap hreir Aiavre Bvco /cal TvSeo? vlov, 
%/ctov 8' airf 'OSvoija, Ail firjrvv ardiXavrov* 
avrofiaro? Be 01 fj\0e fiorjv ayaOb? Meve\ao$ 9 
jjBee yctp /card, Ovfibv aBe\<f>€ov g>9 eirovelro. 
(iovv Bk ireplarrjadv re /cal ovKoyvras aveXovro* 41* 

rotaiv b* eirxpfievos fi€r&<fyi] /cpelcov 'Ayapefivcw • 

IA1AA02 B. 4 1 

Then offers this prayer. 

Zev /cvBiare, fjLeyt<TT€ 9 /ceXawecfres, alQepi vai<ov y 
firj irplv eir rje\iov Bvvai teal iirl /cve<f>a<; i\0etp, 
irplv fie Kara irprjves ftakeew IIpi.dp,oLO pekadpov 
alOaXoev, irprjcrac Be irvpbs Brjtdio dvperpa, 4*5 

'E/CTOpeov Be* yyrS&va irepl OTrjOecrai Baikal 
yak/co) poyyaXeov • iroXees B' d/jufi avrbv iraipoi 
irpr)vees ev kopItjctip dBag Xafrlaro yalav. 

They then sacrifice and feast. 

*/2? e<f>ar' ovS' apa ird> oi eiretcpalaive Kpovlow* 
a\\ J Sye Be/cro fiev lpd 9 irbvov 8' dfieyaprov o<j>eXKev. 420 
aitrap eiret p evijavro, /ecu ov\o%vra<; 7rpoj3d\ovTO $ 
avepverav fiev irpa>ra, koX e<r(f>a^av KaX eBeipav, 
fjwjpov? r igerajiov, Kara re Kviaar) e/caXvyfrav 
tiirnr)(a irottfcravres, eir avrwv S' ebfiodemjo'av. 
teal ra p,h> cLp cx^V aLV d<f>v\\oicriv KareKaiov 4*5 

<nr\6rfyya 8' ap dfiireCpavres virelpeypv * H<f>alo-roio, 
avrdp iirel Kara, fifjp' i/edrj KaX aifkdyxy eirdcravro, 
fjLiorvWov r apa raXka, teal dfi<f> ofteXolaiv eireipav, 
&nrrqadv re irepitfrpaBeax;, epvcravro re irdvra. 
avrdp iirel iravaavro irovov rerwovro re Baira, 43° 

SalvwT, oiBe n 0vp.b<z iBevero Bairbs ito"rj<;, 
avrap eirel ttoctio? zeal iBrjrvos if* epov evro, 

Nestor bids Agamemnon linger not, but gather the host for fight. 

to?? apa fivOcov ?lpX € Teprjvios imrora Nearcop • 

'ArpetBrj KvBiare, ava% dvBp&v 'Ayd/ie/ivov, 
firj/circ vvv Brjff avOc \ey<op,€0a /-wyS' eri Brjpbv 435 

42 IAIAA02 B. 

afi/3aXhcbjjL€0a epyov, b Srj 0ebs iyyvaXl^eu 

d\X' dye, Krjpvtces fjuev ^A^atcov 'xaXKO^crdvcov 

Xaov Krjpvaaovre^ dyeipovr&v Kara vrfas • 

rjfJAi? 8' dd pool &>8e /caret arparbv evpirv ^A'XfLi&v 

lofjuev, 8(f) pa xe Oaaaov iyeipofiev ogvv "Aprja, 44° 

*/29 eobar • ovS* airiO'qaev aval; dvSpcov ' ' AyafiepLvw 
avrUa /crjpvteeo'cri XiyvcfrOoyyoiai tcekevaev, 
terjpvcro'eiv iroXefiovSe /capy KOfiocovTas *A)(aiov$* 

They assemble, Athena helping to incite them, 

ol fiev i/ctfpvaaov, rol &' rjyelpovro fid\* w/ca. 

01 8' afi<f> J ^Arpetwva Siorpecfree*; /3ao-L\f}€<; 445 

0vvov /cplvovTes ' fiera 8e y\av/ca>7n$ 'AOyvrj, 

alyiS* e^ova ipiTipuov, ayqpaov, adavdrrjv re* 

tt)? kicarbv Ovaravoi irayyjpvaeoi yepeOovrai, 

irdvres evifXeicees, i/caTOfifioio? 8e exaaro^ 

crvv rfi irai^>daaovaa hteaavro \abv ^A^ai&v, 45° 

orpvvova ikvai* iv 8e aOevo? Stpaev ixdarfp 

KapBlrj, aWrj/crov iroXepul^eiv rjBe fjud^eadai. 

tout i 8' d(f>ap 7To\e/Lto? yXv/ctcov yever, 97 e veeaOcu 

iv vrjvoi y\a<f>vp{jcri <f>tkrjv e? Trarpiha yaiav. 

like fire in a forest, or flocks of birds, or swarms of flies. 

9 Hut€ irvp dthrjkov iintykeyei aairerov vXrjv 455 

O&peos iv Kopva^f}?, e/caOev 8e re <f>alverai avyr\ % 
&9 rebv ip^ofievav dirb %aX/cov Oeanrearioio 
atyXrj irap^avocoaa hi afflipo? ovpavbv t/cev. 

T&v &', &o~t opvlOcov 7r€T€r)v&v edvea woXXd, 
yyv&v f} yepdveov fj kv/cvcdv BovXi^oSelpcov, 4<» 

Aalcp iv Xeifi&vi Kavarplov dpb(f)l peeOpa 

IAIAA02 B. 43 

ev6a teal evda ttotjovtcu, dyaXXo/ieva Trrepvyeaaiv, 

/cXayyrjBov irpoKaQtXpvrwv, apapayel Be re Xetfuov ' 

a>9 t&v eOvea woXXa vewv diro tcai reXtcridcov 

€5 ireBiov irpo^ovro SfcafidvBpiov avrap inro 'xJSodv 4^5 

o-pepBaXeov icovdfii^e ttoBcov avr&v re teal Xttttodv. 

ecrTav 8' iv Xeifi&vi ^StcapuvBpUp avOefwevTi 

fivploi, oaaa re <f>vXXa teal avOea ylyverai &py. 

'Hire fivcdcov dBivdcov eOvea iroXXd, 
aire Kara a-radfibv irotfivrflov rfkdaicovcnv, 470 

&pg iv elapivf), ore re 7X0709 ayyea Bevel • 
rdxrcroi inl Tpd>ea(Tt tedprj /cofioowTes 'A-)(cuo\ 
iv ireBltp Xaravro, Biappalaai fiefiawTes. 

The leaders, like goatherds, order each his own flock : Agamemnon 
in the midst like a bull among the kine. 

Toit<; B f , &ctt aliroXia irXaTe aly&v aliroXoi avBpe? 
pela Bicucptvcoaiv, iirei ice vojup /uyeaxriv • 475 

&9 T0U9 T/y€fl6v€$ Bl€K0CTfl€0V 6V0O, /cat €V0a, 

vcrfitvTjvB' lkvai % fiera Be, /cpelcov 9 Aya/iefiva>v, 

Ofifjuara zeal tce<f>aXr}v l/eeXos Ad Tepiriicepavvtp, 

"Apel Bk {p>vr)v, arepvov Bk Hocr'eiBdcovi. 

tj6t€ $01)9 dye\rj(f)i fiey e£ 0^09 e7r\ero iravTcov 4&> 

ravpov 6 yap re ftoeaai fierairpeirei dypofiivycriv 

toIov ap 'ArpetBrjv drj/ce Zei><z ijfiaTi /cetvtp, 

i/nrp€7re iv iroXXotai koX e^oypv rjp<i>eacriv. 

Muses, aid me to tell the muster/ 

Eairere vvv fioi, Movaac ^OXvfJbina Bcofiar e^ovcrai* 
{spec? yap Seal iare, irapeare re, lare re irdvra, 485 

•qfiei? Be* tcXe'os otov ateovofjuev, ovBe ti iB/jlcv 

44 IAIAA02 B. 

oXrwes fflefwve*; Aava&v /cal teolpavoi fjaav. 

ir\r)0vp S' ov/c av eya> fiv0i?crofuu, ovB' ovofirjvw 

ov8 el fioc 8e/ca /j,ev y\&crcrai, 8e/ca 8k (ttojjlcct 9 elev, 

(fxopi) 8' apprj/CTO?, ^aXtfeoi/ Si pot, fyrop ivelrj • 49° 

el fir) 'OXv/nndSes Movaatr, Atb$ alyioftoio 

ffvyaripes, pw)<raia0\ ocroi Inrb "iTaov fj\J0ov. 

apxpif? av ptj&v ipico, vr\d\ re irpoirdaa^. 

The Boeotians. 

BoLtor&v fiep nrjvekeax; /cal Arjlro<; ?ipxov $ 
% Ap/cealXa6<; re UpoOorfvap re Rkovios re' 495 

oX 6* 'Tpirjv evepovTO /cal AvXlSa irerp^ecraav, 
2xp2v6v re 2/ccb\6v re, iroXv/cvrjjjiov r 'Erecwov, 
&e<r7reiav, Tpaidv re /cal evpvyppov Mv/caXrjcrov, 
oX t afjufi "Apji evepovTO /cal EJXeacov /cal 'Epv0pa$ 9 
oX t 'EXecov' el^ov fjS "TXrjv /cal Ilere&va, 5°° 

y fl/caXit)v, MeBecovd t, ev/CTifievov 7rro\le0pov 9 
Xft)7ra?, Evrprja-iv re, irokvrp'qptova re &laj3rjv, 
oX re Kopcovetav /cal iroir\ev6 t *A\uipTov, 
oX T€ ILkaTaiav ^x ov > V°* °^ T^io'onrr ivejioirro, 
ot 0* € T7ro0i]j3a<; etyov, iv/crl/jbevov irro\le0pov 9 5°5 

"OyxrjaTov 6* iepov, HoaiBrilov wyXabv a\<ro9> 
oX re iro\iKTTd(f)v\op "Apvqv e^ov, oX re MiSeiav, 
Nicrdv re £a0er)v, 'Av0rj86va r ea^arotoaav* 
T&v fiev irevrr\KovTa vees kLov • ev 8k e/cdary 
tcovpoi Boicotcov e/carbv /cal et/cocri fialvov. S la 

The Minyae-realnt : its leaders sons of Ares, 

02 8' 'Aa7r\r]86va valov IS* 'Opxpjiepov Mivveiov, 
t&v ?lpX *A<r/cd\a<f)o<i Kal 'IuXfievos, t/les "Aprjos, 

IAIAA02 B. 45 

ofc ri/cev ^Aarvoyrj, 86 Wp "A/cropos 'A&tSao, 
irapOivo? alSotq, irrrepcblov elaavafiacra, 
"Aprji Kparep£ % 6 8i oi irapeKe^aTO XdOpy 5*5 

Tofo 8e rptrjicovTa y\a<f)vpal vie? iarL^ptavTO. 

The Phokians. 

Avrap $G>tei](DV 2xe8to<z teal 'EiricrTpofyo*; $\p%ov 9 
i/t6€9 *I<J>Itov fieyadvfiov Nav/3o\l8ao • 
ot KxnrdpLaaov e^pv, Hvd&vd re irerp^ecraav, 
Kpladv re fedirjv /ecu AavKiha /cat Havoirr\a 9 5*° 

o% t 'Avefuopeiav teal 'Tdfnrokiv dfi<f>€V€jjbovro 9 
ol t' apa irdp irorapx>v Kq^urov 8lov evcuov, 
ot re AtXavav fyov, irrjyy^ hhrv Krjtyiaolo • 
Tofc 8' dfia recrcapd/covTa fieXacvac vfje? hrovro* 
oi fiev itnK7\(ov art^a? taraaav afK^Uirovres • S a 5 

Bouot&p 8* efiirkrjv iir dpiorepd dtoprjaaovro. 

The Locrians. 

AoKp&v 8* yy€fiov€V€V 'OtXrjos rayy? Atas, 
fielcov, ovti, togos ye o<ro9 TeXa/Jubvio? Alas, 
dXkcL iro\v fietwv • o\lyo<; pev eqv, \cvo0d>p7j^ 9 
iyX € fy & i/ci/caarro IIaveKkriva<; teal *A%aiov$* $30 

ot Kvvov t ivi/iovT, ^Oiroevrd re KaXkiapov Te, 
Brjaadv re 2/edp<f>r)v re teal Avyetd? eparewd?, 
Tdptfyqv re Qpoviov re Boayplov dfi<f>l peed pa • 
r$> 8' apa reaaapdjeovra pekaivcu vrjes hrovro 
Ao/ep&v, ot vaLovcn irepriv Uprj? Evfioir)?. 53 j 

The Euboeans. 

Ot 8' EvjSoiav fypv pevea irveCovre? "A/Sames, 
Xa\tci8a t Elpirptdv re irokvard^vkov ff 'Iariacav, 

46 IAIAA02 B. 

KrjptvOov t €<f>a\ov, Alov r ahrv irroXleOpov, 

oX re Kdpvarov e%ov, 978' ot Srvpa vaterdaa/cov • 

tcov atf0 y rjye/Jbovev 'EXecfrqvcop, o£o<; "Aprjos, 54<* 

XaX/ccoSovTLdSrjs, fjueyadv/xcov ap)(o<s ' Afidvrav. 

tco 8' ap? "Afiavres fhrovro 0ool, oiriQev K0fi6a>VT€$, 

al-xjjiriTai, fiefiacoTes opeKrfjacv fieXt^aiv 

6tiiprjKa<; pijgew 8r)ta>v d/Mpl arriOeaaLV 

tw 8' ayxi reaaapaKovra fi&Xaipcu vrjes eirovro* 54j 

Athens and Salamis. 

Ot 8' ap 'AQ-qvas el^pv, iv/crlfievov irro\U6pov $ 
Srjfiov 'EpexOrjo? fJbeyaXrjTopos, ov iror 'AOrjvn 
Opeyjre, Aibs Ovydrrjp, rifce Be £WS(»po? "Apovpa, 
tcaB 8' iv *A0i]V7)<; el&ev, ec3 ivl iriovi vr\<p* 
evBdBe fiLv Tdvpoiai koX apveioi? iXdovrai $50 

Kovpoi 'AOrjvaiayp, TrepireKKopLevcov eviavTwv 
tS)v avS* rjye/JLOvev vlos Here&o Mevea6evs, 

tS 8' OV 7Tft> Tt? O/JLOIOS imyOoviO? y£l>€T dvtfp, 

Koa-firjaai Xirirov^ re teal dvkpa^ daTriBuaTa?, 

Nearoap 0Z09 epi%ev m 6 yap irpoyevearepo^ fjev. 555 

ro3 8' afia TrevrrjKOVTa fieXacvat pijes cttovto, 

Ala? 8' i/c SaXa/xlvo^ ayev BvofcalBe/ca vija?. 
[o'Trjcre 8' aytov, iv y A6rjva{cov Xaravro <j>d\ar/ye<;.] 

Argos and the neighboring places. 

Ot 8' *Apyo? r elxovj Tipvvdd re Teiyioeaaav, 
pfjLWvrjp, 'Ao-lvrjv re, ftaOvv Kara koXttov i%ovcra$ 9 5^* 
*oi£f)v', 'Hlovas re kol dfjuireXoevr 'EinBavpov, 

r $xpv Atyivav, Mdarjrd re, /covpoi ^Aj(fu&v* 
*r afiff rjyefioveve fiorjv wya6o<s AioprjBris, 

IAIAA02 B. 47 

KaX ISOevekos, Kasiravrjos ayaKkeirov <f>t\o$ vlos* 

Tolat 8' cifi Evpva\o<; rplraro^ Kiev, laoBeos (f>a>$, 5^5 

M7)kiot€o<; vibs TaXaloviBao ava/cros. 

<rvjj/jrdvTa>v 8' riyelro fiorjv ayaOb? AiofjurfBr}? 9 

touti 8' afjb 6yBa>Kovra fieXaivcu vfjes eirovro* 

Oi Be Mvicrjva^ elypv, iv/crtfievov irrokUOpov, 
afyveiov T€ KopivOov, ivKTtfjuevas re ICkecovd?, 57° 

'Opveids t evejiovro, * Apatdvperjv t eparewqv, 
KaX Si/cvcbv, off* &p "AhpriGTo<; wpcoT i/jifiacrCkevev, 
oi ff* 'TTreprjo-lrjv re teal aiTretvrjv Tovoeaaav, 
IleXkrjvrjv t elypv, 178' AXytov dfifavifiovTo, 
AlyiaXov r avh irdvra, koX dfi<f> 'EXlktjv evpelav* 575 

t<ov eKarbv vrj&v 7jpx € fcpelcov 'Ayafjuifjuvcov 
'ArpetSw ap,a tS ye iroXv ifKelaroi KaX apurroi 
\aol eirovr • iv 8' avTo? iBvaaro vcbpoira yakKOV, 
kvBiocov, on iraai fiereirpeTrev ^pcoeaaiv, 
ovveK apicrro? erjv, iroXv Be 7fkeiarov<; aye Xaovs* S^° 

Sparta and the neighboring places. 

Ot 8' elxpv KotX/qv AatceSatfjiova KrjTcbeaaav, 
iapiv re SirdpTrjv re, iroXvrpripayvd re MicrcrTjv, 
Bpvaeids r ivkfiovTO fcal Avyeud? iparetvds, 
0% t ap 'AfivKXas elypv, "E\o$ r, ecjtaXov irroKUOpov, 
01 re Adav etyov, 778' OtrvXov dfi<f>eve/JL0VT0' 5^5 

r&p oi dBeXtf>eb<; fjpxe, fiorjv dryaOos Mevekao^ 
ef*rjK0VTa ve&v dirdrepOe Be OcoprjacrovTO* 
iv 8' avrb? Kiev fjat TrpoBvpuirjai TrenroiOd)?, 
drpvveov iroXefjuovBe • fidXicrra B& XeTO 0v/juS 
rUraaOai € E\evr)<; op/irj/jLard re arova%d<; re. 59° 

Of Be IIvKov t evijjLovTO koX 'Aptfvrjv ipareivijv, 

48 IAIAA02 B. 

Koi GpVOV, *A\xf)€lOlO TTOpOV, KoX H/CTITOV AllTV, 

teal KxnrapiaarievTa teal 'A/ufriy&veiav evaiov, 

teal Hrekeov teal "EXos teal Acopcov, evOa re Movcrcu 

avTQfievai Qdfivptv rbv Qprjltca iravaav aoiZrj<; 9 595 

Ol'xaXivOev iovra Trap Evpvrov Ol^aXtrjo^ — 

orevTO yap evxpitevo*; vitcrja-ifiev, elirep av airral 

M ova at aeiSocev, ttovpai Aib$ alyio^pco* 

at Be xoXaxrdfievat, irrjpbv Becrav, avrap dotSrjv 

OeoTrecrirjv afyekovro, teal &ic\k\a6ov tetBapiOTvv — 600 

tS>v aiff* r/ye/idveve Teprivio*; hnroTa NeoT&p* 

t<S 8' ivevrjicovTa yXa<f>vpal i/ee? eor^oawro. 


Ot S* e-xpv 'AptcaSlrjv, inrb KvXXrfvrj? 8po$ aliru, 
AlirvTiov irapa rvfifiov, Xv dvepes ay^ifia'Xi]Tal $ 
ot Qeveov t 9 ivifJuovTO teal 'Opxpjievbv ttoXvjjltjXov, 605 

'Piirrjv re, SrpaTiTjv re teal rivefjuoeaaav *Evi<nrr\v 9 
teal Teyirjv eZ%oi> /cal Mavrtvirjv ipareivrfv, 
STVfi(f>rj\6v t etyov, teal Happaalrjv ivejiovro* 
rcov Tjpx 'AyicaioLO irals, Kpeicov 9 Ayairrjvcop, 
k^qtcovra ve£>v • 7roXee? S' iv vrjt itcdoTjj 61 n 

Aptcdhes avSpe? efiaivov, eTnardfievoi woXefil&iv* 
avrb? ydp cr<j>Lv Bcotcev aval; dvSpcov 'Ayafiejivav 
vfjas ivcrcr&Xfiovs, irepdav iirl oXvoira irovrov, 
'ATpetSr)? • €7rei ov a^>i dakdaava epya fi€fi7]\eu 

Elis and the islands. 

Ot 8' apa BovTrpdctov re teal *H\i8a Slav Zvaiov, 61 5 
fircrov i(f> t Tpfilvq teal Mvpcrtvo? icrxaroaycra, 
ftrprj r f 'flXevbj teal 'Akelaiov ivrbs iipyei* 


t&v at) reaaape*; apypi ecrav • Betca $' dvBpl eKaartp 

vfje? hrovro Boat, woXee; S' ep,fiaivov 'EireLoL 

t&p fiev ap * Ap.fylfjLa'xo*; real Qakirio? r)y7}ada0rjv, 620 

fie?, 6 fiev KreaTov, 6 S' ap J Evpvrov f AiCTopi(avo$* 

r&v S 9 'A/jLapiry/eetSr)? fypx* /cparepb? AioapT)^* 

rath 8k rerdprayv rjpx* HoKv^eivo^ 0eo€c8^, 

ulb$ Ayaa0eveo<; AvyrjldBao avatcro*;. 

Ot 8' i/c AovKiyjoio, 9 Exwdtov 0* lepdeov 625 

vrjacov, at vaiovai irkpiyv aXos, "H\l8o$ avra • 
r&v aiff i)yep,6veve Miyrj^, drdXain-o^ "Aprji, 
$v\et8r)<z, bv rltcre BitfyCkos imrora $t/\eu9, 
8$ 7roTe AovXlxlovS* direvdaaaro, iraTpl ^oXofle/?' 
Tc3 8 9 apa Teaaapdrcovra fiekaivai vrjes eirovro. 630 

Airrdp 9 08vcrcr€V$ fyye KefaWrjva? fieyaOvfiovs, 
oip 'IOdxrjv d^ov tcai NrjptTOV elvoaifyvWov, 
zeal KpoicvXeC ivifiovro zeal AlyiXiTra Tprj%€iav, 
m% re ZdtcwQov e^ov, t)B* ot Sdjwv dfupevefwvTO, 
ot t rJ7T€t,pov expv, 1)8' dvTiirkpaia vepovTO • 635 

r&v pep 'OBvcraev? %PX € > ^it firJTiv ardXcLVTOV 
t$ 8' afia vt)€<; eirovro BvcoBetca fiiXroTrdpyoc. 


AlrtoK&v 8* f)yelro G6a$, * Av8palp,ovo<; vlos, 
ot HXevp&v ivkfwvTO teal "fl\evov r}8e HvKrjvqv, 
XaKfclBa r dyxlaXov, KaXv8<avd re irerprjecraav — 640 
ov ydp er Olvrjo*; /jueyaX^Topo^ vice? fj<rav, 
oiB* dp er auro9 erjv, 0dve 8k %av0b<; MeXiaypo? — 
t$ 8* iirl irdvr irkraXTo dvaccrkfiep Alrcoikolo'iv 
t$ 8* afia reaaapdicovTa fiiXaivcu vrje? eVoi/TO. 

50 IAIAA02 B. 

Crete and Rhodes : with the story of TlepoUmos. 

KprjT&v 8* 'IBofievev? Boi/pueXurbs rjyejiovevev, ^45 

ot Kvaxrov t elypv, Toprwd re ret^ioeo-o-av, 
Avktov, MiXtjtov re feed dpyivoevra AvKaarov, 
Qatarov re 'Pvtiov re, iroXew eb vcueraaxTas, 
aXXot ff 9 ot Kpryrr^v e/eaTOfnroTuv a/AcpevefWpro. 
t<ov jjl€v ap y I8ofi€vev<z Bovpi/cXirrb? rjyepivevev, 650 

Mrjpiovrj? r\ drdXavTOS 'EwaXup dvBpelQovrg • 
Tolai 8' a/i oyBcoKovra piXaivat 1/7769 eirovro* 

T\r}7r6\€fio<; 8* ' Hpa/cXetBrjs, fjis re fieya? re, 
etc 'PoBov evvka vfja? dyev < PoBl(ov aye/wo^aw 

ot *P68oV afjL(j>€V€fWVTO Bid Tpl^a KO(Tfir)0€VT€$ 9 655 

AlvBov, ^Irjkvaov re teal apyivoevra Kdfieipov. 

t&v fiev TXrjTroXejjLO? BovpLtc\vrb<; Tffep t 6v€V€V $ 

ov ri/cev ^Aarvo-yeia fily ' HpatckrjeLy • 

rffv dyer e£ 9 E<bvprj<;, 7rorap,ov diro HeWrfevros, 

irepaas darea TroXkd Biorpe^eayv al^rja>v. 660 

T\r)7r6\ep,o<; 8' eirel ovv rpd(fyr) iv fieyaptp evirrjKTtp, 

avrltca Trarpbs eoio <f>ikov firjrpcoa tcari/cTa, 

77877 yrjpdo-tcovTa Ai/cv/jlviov, o£ov "Aprjos. 

acsjra Be vfja<; eirrjge, iroXitv S* o ye Xabv dyetpas, 

fSrj <j>evycov iirl itovtov « direi\i}crav yap oi aXKov 665 

i/t669 vicovol T€ /3/t79 ' Hpa/cXrjelrjs. 

avrdp o y 69 *P68ov l^ev akcbfievos, aXyea ircuryiav* 

Tpi/xOd Be <ptC7)0ev Kara^vXaBov, r/B' i<f>i\r}0€v 

itc Albs, oare Oeolcri teal avQpdmoiGiv dvdaaei. 

[zeal a<j>iv Qearreaiov irkovrov Kare^eve Ifpovlcov.] 67* 

The islands. 
Nipev? ai SvfjurjOev dye rpet? vfjas eta as, 
Nipevs, 'AyXatrj? u/09, Xapoiroio r dvaiCTos, 

IAIAA02 B. 51 

JSipevs, 09 KaXkiGTOs dvrjp wrb "Tkiov fjkOev 
r&v akkcov Aava&v fier dfjuvfiova IlrjXetcova* 
dXk 9 dXa7ra8vo<; erjv, iravpos Se oi euirero Xaos* $75 

Ot S* apa Niavpov r et/pv KpdiraOov re Kdcrov Te, 
teal ICcov, Evpivirvkoio iroXw, vr)<rov<i re KakiSvas • 
tQ)v av $etSt7T7ro? Te teal "Aminos r)yrjardad'qv 9 
GecrcraXov vie 8va> 'Hpa/eXetSao avaKTov 
70?? Se rpirjicovTa yXa<f>vpal vies ioTi'XpcovTO* 680 

Northern Greece. 

Nvv aZ rou9, oaaroi to HeXaayiicbv "Apyos evaiov, 
01 t "AXov, 0% t ^AXoirrjVy oi re Tprj^v evefwvro, 
ol r elj(pv <&Qbt\v 7)8 *EXXd8a /eaXXcyvvaiKa • 
MvpjuSove? Se teaXevvro teal "EXXrjves kcl\ ^Ayaiol* 
t&v ai irevrrjicovTa ve&v f)v dp'xps ' A^ikkev^. &S 

a\\' 0% y oi iroT^fioco Svarj^eo^ ifivcbovTO • 
oi ydp erjv, oaris cr<f>t,v eirl arl^a? rjyrjaaiTO* 
xetro ydp ev vrjeaai iroSdpKrj^ Sto? 'AxcXXevs, 
/covpr)<; %a)6fi€V0<} BptarjtBo^ t)vk6/j,oio, 

rf)v i/e Avpvrjcrcrov e^eCkero, iroXXd fjuoyija-a<; 9 690 

Avpvrjcrabv 8ia7rop0rjcra<; teal reinfect, &7]/3rj<;' 
tcdS Se Mvvtjt efSaXev zeal ^Eirlcrrpofyov iyxeo-i/jubpov?, 
vlea? Ewjvolo 2eXr}7ndSao dvaKTOs* 
rfj? ye iceir d^ecov, rdya 8* dvarrjaea-Oai epeXXev. 

Ot 8* el'xpv $vXd/erjv teal Hvpacrov dvdefioevra, 695 

drjfirjTpo? relievos, "Ircovd re, firjTepa /jltjXcov, 
dy%laX6v r 'Avrp&v r)Se Hrekebv Xexejrolrjv 
r&v a\) Upcoreatkaos *Aptf'io$ rjyep.ovevev, 
fwo? ed>v Tore 8' rjSrj e^ev icdra yala fiekaiva. 
rov Sk teal djufciSpv^r)? aXo%o$ $v\dtcr) ekeXenrro, 7°° 

52 IAIAA02 B. 

teal 86fio<? rjfiiTeXijs • top 8' itcrape AdpBapos avrjp 9 

vr)b<; airoOpaxTKovra iroXv irp&TiaTov ^A^cu&v. 

ovSk fiep ovS* oi apap^pi ecrav, iroQeop ye fiep apypv 

dXXd crfaas Koafjuqae HoBaptcrfs, o£o9 "Aprjos, 

y I<f>UXov vib? iroXvfirjXov $vXa/el8ao, 7°5 

avTo/ca<riryvr)TO<z fieyaOifiov IIpcoTecriXdov, 

07r\oTe/>o? yepefj • d 8' afia irporepos teal dpelcop, 

rip(o<; UptoreatXao? 'Aptflos • ovBe ti Xaol 

Bevopff* rjyefiopos, iroOeov Be flip i<T0Xop iopra • 

to> 8' dfia T€acrapd/covTa fieXaipai z^e? fhrovro* 7*° 

Ot Be $epa? evefjbOVTO irapal BoiftrjtBa Xlfiprjv, 
Bolfirjp teal r\a<f>vpa<; teal ivtCTifi&prjp 'IacoXKOP* 
tcov ?ipx ^AhfirjToio <j>tXo<; irais (IpBetea vrj&v, 
Ev/jurfkos, top V7T *A8fir]Tq> retce Bla yxwauc&p, 
"AktcqaTLS, IleXlao Ovyarp&v elSo? dpiarrf. 7*5 

02 8* dpa MtjOcoptjp teal Oavfia/clrjp ip&fiopro, 
teal MeXlftoiap eypp ical "OXi^copa rprfxewLP* 

T&P Be $l\OKTtfTr)$ fjpX ev » TO^COP iu €l$a>?, 

eirrd pecop* iperai S' ip etcdarri ireprrfKOpra 

ififtefiacap, rogcop ei e/Sdre? l<f)i fidyeo-Qau 7^0 

d\\' d fiep ip prj(T(p k€lto tcparep aA/yea irdaytov, 

Ar/fivo) ip rjyadir), oQi flip Xiirop vie? \4j£<mg>v, 

tX/cei yuoyQitfiPTa /ea/e<p oXo6<f>popo<; vBpov • 

Sp0* o ye kclt dyitop • rd^a Be* fiprjaeaOai, tzfieXXov 

*Apyeloi iraph prjvcrl $CkoKTrjTao apatCTO?, 7 2 5 

ovBk fiep ovB* ol apapxoi ecrap, iroOeop ye fiep dpypv 

&XXa MiBcov /cocrfirfaep, 'O'lXtjo? p60o<; vios, 

top {> hreteep 'Ptfprj vir 'Otkrji 7TToXi7r6p0<p. 

Ot B f etyop Tpltcterjp teal *I0d>fir)p tcXwfia/coeacraP, 
C&T* $xpp OlxaXtrip, ttqXw Evpvrov 0/^a\^09* 73° 

IAIAA02 B. 53 

T&v aTfff fyy€i<r0r)v ^AtrxXfjircov Bvo iratSe, 
IrjTrjp 9 cvyaOco, Ilo&aXeipcos r/Sk Ma^dcov ' 
rots Se rpirjicovTa y\a<f>vpal vie? iorvxpcovro* 

0$ S' eypv 'Oppiviov, oX re /cprfvrjv 'Tiripeiav, 
ol r e'xpv 'Ao-repiov, Tvrdvoio re Xevtea /cdprjva • 735 

t&v %p% EvpinrvXo*;, Evai/juovos aykabs vlo<; • 
tc3 8' a/jba reaaapaKOvra fieXacvcu vrje? eirovro. 

02 S' "Apyiao-av e^pv, fcal TvpToavr\v ivejiovro, 
"OpOrjv, y HXd)V7)v T€, iroTuv r ' CFKooao-ova Xev/cqv* 
t&v a$0' f)y€fi6vev€ /A€^€7tto\6/ao? HoKvttoLtti*;, 74° 

vibs IleipiOooLo, tov aOdvaTO? tckcto Zevs — 
tov p xrrrb HeipiOoco tckcto k\vto<s f Imrohafieta 
rjfjLdTi Tc5, ot€ <f>f)pa<; eTlaaTo XaxytfevTas, 
tov? 8' etc IItjXcov &<r€, fcal AWUea-a-L irekaaaev — 
ovk olo$, cifia t& ye AeovTevs, 6'£b9 "Aprjos, 745 

vlb<s vir€p6vfioLO Kopd>vov Kawethao ' 
tols B 1 afia TeaaapaKOvra fiekaivaL vrje? eirovTO. 

Toweix; 8' i/c Kv<f>ov fjye Svco kol clkoo-i. vrjav 
t& 8' 'Evtrjves ihrovTO, fjLeveirToXefiol re HepaijSoi, 
ot irepl Aa>8d>vr)v hvayfelfiepov qIkC edevTo, 75° 

o% t afi<f> IfiepTOV Turaprja-Lov epy ivifjLOVTO • 
09 p €9 nrjvetbv irpotu teaXkippoov vSayp • 
ovb* o ye IlrjveiG) avfifiiayeTat, apyvpo&ivy, 
aXXd re fiiv /caOwrepffev iirippeei, rfvT eXcuov • 
SpKov yap hewov STvyb? vSaTO? earw d,7ropp<bf;* 755 

MayvtjTeov o° fjpx e IIp60oo<;, Tev0pr)S6vo$ vlo$, 
ot irepl Ilrjveibv teal Hrjkiov elvoo-tyvWov 
vaUa-zeov t&v fiev IIp60oo<i 0ob<; rjyefjbovevev 
r$ 8* a/ia TeaaapdicovTa jjuekaivai vrjes eirovro. 

54 IAIAA02 B. 

Which were the best horses, and which the best men, 
Ovroi dp r/y€/jt,6p€<; Aava&v /cat tcoipavoi fjaav. 7$° 

T19 t' ap t(op o% apiaros er)v, <tv fioi evveire, fiovcra, 
ai)TO)v 9 rj8 ltttt&v, oc a/JL 'ATpetSrjcriv eirovro, 
"Iitttoi fih /Mty apiarai, eaav ^rjprjTidBao, 
ret? Evp/qXos eXavve, 7ro8(t)K€a<;, opviQas ft)?, 
oTpuyaKi oierea^, arafyvkrj eVl vcotov it<ra$' 7&5 

rd<; iv Tl-qpeirj 0pey{r apyvpoTogo? 'AiroXXeov, 
a/ji(f)G0 OrjXeias, <f>6/3ov "Aprjos <f>op€ov<ra<;. 
avSpcov av fiey* apiaro? erjp Teka/Jbcbvio? Aias, 
6<\>p 'AxiXevs fit] v cev • 6 yap ttoXv <f>epTaTo$ fjev 9 
Xinroi 6\ ot (fropieatcov dpLVfiova IlrjXeitova. 77^ 

aXX 6 p,ep iv priea-ai Kopcovla-c iropToiropoi<nv 
k€it\ a7ro/jL7)Pi<Ta<; 'Aya/j,€jj,vovi, TroLjievL Xa&v, 
'ArpetSy \aol Se irapd prjyjuvi OaXdcrar}? 
hi<TKOiaiv repirovTO fca\ alyavkyaiv Uptcs, 

TogoMTIP 0' • L7T7T0L 8& Trap ap/JUMTLP oXgIV GKOXTTO^ 77$ 

Xcotop ipeTCTOjJLevoi, iXeodpeirTov re aeXcvov, 
earaaav apfiara S' ev TreTrvKaa^epa Keiro avatcrcov 
iv te\i<rlri<; • oi S* apyhv 'AprjtfaXov TroOiovre; 
<f>oLTcov evOa teal evOa Kara crrparop, ovb" ifjid^ovro. 

01 8' ap taav, thcrel re irvpl )(6o)p iraaa vefioiro • 7%° 
yala 8' virearepd^L^e, Ad' &>? repTrifcepavvrp 
%<DOfj,ev<p, ore r a/jL<j)l Tvcfxoei yalav ijjbdaay 
ew 'AplfjbOL?, 80 1, <f>acrl Tvcjxoios efjufjuevai euvds • 
&9 &pa rebv inro 7to<t<t\ p,eya areva^l^ero yala 
ipXPfievcDV fjbdXa o° &tca hueirprja-aov TreStoio. 785 

Iris, disguised as Polites son of Priam, addresses the Trojans. 
Tpoxrlv 8* 0776X09 fj\6e irohrjvepbo^ w/cia *Ipi$ 
wAp Albs alyio'xpio <rvv ayyeklrj akeyeivj). 


ol 8* dyopas dyopevov iirl Hpidpoio Ovpytriv, 

irdvre? ojirjy epics, rffiev vkoi rjSe yipovres. 

cvy%ov 8* urrafievrj irpo<ri<fyq irohas d>tcea *lpw 79° 

etaaro 8k <f>0oyyrjv vtl Hpidpuoio HoXlry, 

o? Tpcocov atcoirbs Ife, TroScotcelyo-i ireiroiOm, 

Tvp,j3(p hr dtcpordrtp Alo-vrfrao yepovTos, 

Siy/ievo? omrore vav<f>tv dfyopp^Qelev *Ayaiol % 

tc3 fiiv €€Krap,evri irpoaecfyrj iroha? mtcea *Ipw 795 

u Enough of words : — marshal the host by tribi*" 

9 S1 yipov, alel rot fwBoi <f>tXoi atcptrol elaw, 
<M9 nor eir elprjVTjs* iroke/Jbos 8' aKtaaros opcopev. 
fj fiev 8r) fiaXa 7ro\\d pA^as elarfXvOov avSpcov, 
aXX ov7ro) roiov8e roaovhe re Xabv oircoira* 
\lrjv yap <f>vWot,aiv eoitcores ff yJra/jbdOocacv 8oo 

ipyOVTOA, TTe8LoiO, pXV)(7\<T0pbeV0l 7T€pl a<TTV, 

"E/crop, aol 8k jidXioT eirLreXKopuaL &8i ye pegcu* 
iro\Xol yap tcara aarv fieya Ilpidfwv iirtKovpoL, 
aXKrj 8' aXkotv yX&traa iroXvairepetov dvOpwirtav* 
Toiaiv etca<TTO$ dvrjp crrj/jLCUveTG), qIctl irep ap%ei t 805 

r&v 8' i^rjyela-00), tco<rp,r)<rdfievo<i irdkiriTas. 

They muster by the Tomb of Myrine. 

*tls ifyaff • "Etcroop 8' ov rv 6ea<i &7T09 rjyvohj<r€V 9 
alxfra 8' ekva dr/opiyv iirl rexr^ea 8' eaaevovro. 
traaai 8' i&fwvTO irvKai, etc 8' eaavro \ao<s, 
tretpi ff vmrrjis re* iroXvs 8' 6pvfiay8b$ bpoopeu 8io 

"Evn 8i Tt9 irpoirdpoiOe iroKios alirela koXcovtj, 
€P ireSitp dirdvevOe, trepcSpofips evda teal evOa* 
rfjv fj toi av8pes Barleiav /a,K\rjcr/covcnv, 

56 IAIAA02 B. 

aBdvaroi Be T€ crrj/jba 7ro\v<r/cdp0fioco Mvptvrjf 

ev0a rore Tp&es T€ BieKpiOev rjB^ eiriKovpoi. 815 

The muster. 

T penal fiev rjyefioveve fieyas KopvffaioXos "Eicrtop 
IIpiafLiBrjs • afia tco ye 7ro\v irKelaToi teal apurroi 
Xaol 8topr)crcTovTO, fjue/jbaoTes iyxetycriv. 

AapBavicov avr 7ipx GV ^ts irdls ^Ay^laao, 
Alveias, tov tnr ^AyyivQ tck€ Bf ' A(f>poBlrr) 9 820 

"18779 ev KV7jfioX(rt 6ea ftpoTco evvrjOelaa • 
ovk o?o?, afia tco ye Svco ' AvTTjvopos vie, 
'^4/o^eXo^o? r J Atcd/j,a<; re, fid^r)? ev eiBoTe irdcrrfs* 

Oc Be ZeKeiav evaiov viral iroBa veiarov "IBrjs, 
d(j>v€Loi, ttlvovtcs vBcop fiekav AIgtittolo, 825 

Tp&es • t&v avr Tjpfte AvKaovos dyXaos vlos, 
HdvBapos, to Kal to gov ' AiroXKcov avTos eBcoKev* 
Ot S' 'ABprjaretdv r eiypv Kal Btj/jlov 'Airataov, 
Kal Hwveiav e^pv Kal Trjpeirjs opos alirv* 
t&v VPX "ABprjo'TOs re Kal "Aficptos \ivo6copr}^ 9 830 

vie Svco Mepoiros IlepKcocrlov, 0? 7repl irdvrcov 
yBee fAavTOtrvvas, ovBe ovs iralBas eacrxev 

OT€i}(€lV €9 7TO\€JJLOV <f>0CCT7]VOpa' tco Bi ol OV Tl 

7T€C0icr07jv • Krjpes yap dyov jxekavos Oavdroio. 

Ot B' apa HepKcorrjv Kal UpaKTiov dfifavS/Jtavro, 835 
Kal Stjcttov Kal "AjiivSov eypv Kal Blav 'ApicrjSrjv* 
T&v avS* 'TpTaKLBr)? ffp^ "Actios, opj(afios dvSpcov, 
"Act los *TpTaKtSrj<;, ov 'AplcrftrjOev <f)ipov Xttttoi 
at coves, fieyaXoL, iroTafiov diro SeWrjevros. 

'IinroOoos 8' dye <f>v\a Hekaay&v eyxecn/icbpoDV, 840 
T&v ot Adpicrtrav ipt/3cb\aKa vaieTaaaKOv • 



tw %px ' IwttqOqos re JJuKato? t\ o£b? Mpijo?, 
vie fivG> Aifffoto Uekao-yov TevTapl&ao* 

Avrap &p$itcas fyy* *Atcdfta$ teal Helpaos ^pm*t> 
QGtTQWt * EWt}<rTrovTQS ay dppuos ivros iipyei* ®4i 

Eu$i}}j,o<; S* dpXW l£ttc6vtnv fjv aljQMjrdwv, 
vtbs Tpot^jvoto AiorpG<pio% .KeaSao* 

Avrap Hvpat)(ji7}<i aye Haiovas aytcvXoTo^ovs, 
T7}Xo$ev il* *Afj,vBwvQSt aw * A I* toy eitpv piovros, 
*Aj;iQV $ ov {CaWtffTQv vb*a>p iTrL/ciBvarai atuv. 850 

Ua$Xay6vwv K fyyetro JJvXatfiipeo^ Xaatop tc?}p, 
ef ^Everwv, q$€v J]p*iQvwv ye*w dyparepde&v ■' 

Qt pc KvTOSpOV €X 0V * Xtl ^ SfotopOV dfJL<f)ev£piOVTO, 

dfiipi re HapBzviov rroraftov tcXvra Zmfiar £uatQp 
Kp&fivdv r AtyiaXoy re teal u^tjXov^ *Epv&tvov$* %$5 

Avrap *A\t£ttiitisv 'O&io? teal ^ETrla-rpotpa^ r}pj£op t 
TrjXoSev ef 'AXvfirjSi o8ev dpyvpov £<ttI yeviBXif* 

Mv&WP B£ XpOfttS %PX € * a ^ *EVVQJJ,Q% OttOViOTqf 

dXX* ovfc oltovolaw ipva&aro Krjpa ficXatvav, 

dXX r £Sdf&7} vttq ^6pcr2 TTo&wfcGQs AlafctSao 860 

iv 7rora/j,<^ t 081 wep Tp&aq tcepdt^e teal aXXov^» 

&6ptcvs av &pvya$ r^ys teal 'Atr/cdp&Q^ 0€O€tB^, 
TijX' ef y Aa-fcavi7}% * fiifLao-av S' btrplvi, ^dxeaBau 

MrfOGtv av MiadXj}? re real *AvTt<f>o$ fjyq<rdo-8ijv> 
vie TaXatp,ipeo$ t to> Fvyalij ritce Atpwq t 865 

o? teal Mpovas rjyov mrb TjttaXtp yeyawras* 

Ncurn}$ aZ Kapmv r}y}}<raTQ $ap0apotf)mva)v t 
of MlXqrov ex.Qi* 9 $8etpmp r opo? oKpiTofaXXov, 
Matdv&pQV re pods, MvfcaXij^ r aiiretpd tcdpTjva* 
r£>u fUP dp *AfMf>lfJUi}(ps teal Ndar^ rjy7}trda-0i}p t 870 

Ndtrvr}^ f A^tfiax^ T€ * NopiQva? dyXaa riicpa t 

58 IAIAA02 B. 

8? Kal ypvabv ex<av irokepovb" lev, fjVTe xovprf 

vfjiruy;, ovhk rl ol to y iirripKeae \vypbv 8\e0pov t 

aXtJ iSd/MT) inrb %ep<ri Trob\b/ceo$ AlaxtSao 

iv 7roTa/Lw3, xpvabv S' 'A^ikeix itcofuaae hatypwv. 875 

HapiTTjStov £' fyxev Av/clwv zeal r\av/co? apvpuw, 
Tff\60ev €K Avkltjs, UavBov airo Surijeirros* 



Advance of both forces described. 

Avrap eirel Koa-firjdev ay! TJye/jLovet TQ-iv eicaaToi, 
' Tp&es pev ickayyrj r ivoirfj r taav opvi9e$ (5?, 
rfire irep fc\ayyt) yepdveov ireket, ovpavoOt irpo, 
*Z t eirel oiv ^eifi&va <j>vyov koL a0€<r<f>aT ov OfifSpov, 
teXayyf) rai ye irerovrai eir 'Sliceavolo podav 5 

dvSpdcTL TIvyfiaioLaL <f>6vov teal /cijpa <f>€pov<rav 
rjeptai 8' apa rai ye /ca/crjv epcSa irpo<f>epovTat • 
oi 8' ap taav <riyf) fievea irvetovre*; 'Amatol, 
iv Ovfup fie/jLo&Tes dXe^ifiev aWy/koto-iv. 

Evt opeo? /copv^jjai Noro9 Kark-^evev ofj,tx\j)v, 10 

iroiy&cnv ov tl <f>iXr}v, K\e7TT7j 8e re vvkto? dfielvco, 
roaaov rk r eTrikevo-tTet,, oaov r eirl Xdav %q<nv • 
&9 apa r&v vrro iroaal leovtaaXos &pvvr deKKi)^ 
ipXPfthtw fidXa 8' &/ea hieirpritTvov irehloio. 

Paris at first advances with show of boldness to the Combat; 
then recoils before Menelaos : 

01 8' 8re Sif <r%e8oi/ fjaav err dXKifj\oL<riv lovres, 1 5 

Tpaxrlv fiiv irpojid'XL^ev *A\e(;av$po<; OeoeiSfa 
*up$a\h)v &jiounv iyav teal tcafnrvXa ro^a 
Kol £ (<f>o<; * avrap 6 Sovpe 8va> KeKopvOyAva %a\*p 

60 iaiaaos r. 

iraXKxov 9 Apyel<ov irpoKaXl^ero irdvra<; aplarrov? 

dvrifiiov fia^iaaadac iv alvjj SrjloTrJTU *> 

Tbv S* a>9 oiv iv6rf(rev aprjtfaXos MeveXao? 
ipxpfievov irpoirdpoiOev 6fit\ov, fiatcpa fiifi&vra, 
a>9 re \ecov i%dpV p>eyd\(p €irl crcofiart tcvpcras, 
evpwv fj e\a<f>ov /cepabv fj dypcov cur/a, 
ireivdcov ' pAXa yap re KareadLei, el irep hv avrbv *5 

aeicovrai rabies re tcvve? OaXepot r altyjol* 
S>9 ix&PV Mevi\ao$ % A\e%avhpov Beoeihea 
o<f)9a\,jjLol<riv I8<bv <f>dro yap rlaeaOat, dXelr^p* 
avrltca 8' ef byewv avv Tevyevw SXto ya^o^e. 

Tbv S' a>9 ovv ivorja-ev 9 A\egav8po<; OeoeiSrjs 3P 

iv irpofidxpKTL <f>avevTa, tcareirXriyrj <f>t\ov fjTOp • 
ayjr o° erdpwv eh e6vo<$ e^a^ero icr\p dXeelvcov. 
a>9 8* ore rk re Spd/covra l$a>v iraKiv^ro^ awea-Tfj avVWi d' ew*>\, 
oijpeo? iv @7](r<rT)$, viro re rp6p,o<i eWafte yvla, 
ayjr B' dvex(bpr)<rev, <w%/oo9 T * P 11 * € ^ e napeids, 35 

&9 atrns /caQ y OfiCkov ehv Tpdxov dyepdyxayv 
8el<ra<; 9 Arpeo<; vlbv 9 A\e^avBpo<; deoeihrj*;. 
top 8* "Eicrtop veUeaaev IScbv alcrxpoZ*; iireeaat • 

for which he is taunted by Hector : 

Avairapi, elSo? apiare, yvvaifiaves, rprepoirevrd, 
aW 6<f>eXe<; 0701/09 t 9 ejievai ayap,6$ r diroXiaOau 4° 

teal /ee to /3ovXoifir)v, /cat icev iroXv tcephiov fjev, 
fj of/rco \d>/3r)v r efievat teal inroyjrcov aXXcov. 
aj *nrov KayxaX6to<Ti> tedpr) KOfi6<ovTe<; ^Ayaiol 
<f>dvT€$ dpurTrja irpofjbov efJbfMevat, ovve/ca /caXbv 
eZSo? &r\ dXV ovk earc ^irj <f>pe<rlv ov&i t*9 dX/ctf* 45 

h TotoaSe icov iv irovToirdpoKn veevai 

iaiaaos r. 61 

ttovtov €7rc7r\a><ra<$, irdpovs ipirjpas dyelpas, 
/u%0ei9 aWoSairouri yvval/c eveiSe dvrjyes 
i% anrbqs yairjs, vvbv dvSp&v alyjuqTdtov, 
irarpl re aS puiya irrfpa irokrjt re iravrl re 8r\pAp 9 5° 

8v<Tfi€ve(Tiv fiev %dppa, Kg,rr}j>elriv 8e (rol avT<p ; 
ovk &v 8rj pb€iveca<; apr}t<f>tXov MeviXaov ; 
yvolrj? % oXov (fxorb^ €%et9 0a\epfjv irapatcoiTiv. 
ovk av toi yjpaicrp^ xt0api<; rd re Sew/)' 9 A<f>po8irrj^ t 
4j re koiit] t6 re eZSo9, or iv Kovlrjo-t fnyei^. 55 

dXka /jbdXa Tp&€<s SeiSijpave*; • fj re icev rjSrj 
\dlvov eaao yvrtova tca/c&v everf o<r<ra eopya?. 
Tbv 8 9 aire Trpoo-eevrrev *A\i£av8po<; fleoet&fc* 

whereupon he declares himself ready for the combat. 

"Eterop, iirel fie icar alaav iveUeo-a^ ovo* virep alaav, 

alei rot, Kpahirj irekeKV*; a>9 iarriv drapes, 60 

09 t etaiv Sid Bovpo? vir dvepos, 09 pd re ri^yy 

vqlov i/CTafwyo-w, d<f>eW€i o° dvSpb? ipayqv 

&9 ao\ ivl (TTtjOea-a-tv dTdpf$r)TQ$ voo? iorL 

f&q fioi 8a>p* ipard 7rp6<f>€p€ j(pvaerj^ 9 A<f>po8irrj^ • 

ov to* diropKrjT earl 0€(ov ipi/evSia Scopa, 65 

occa Kev avroX Baxrcv, i/ccov 8' ovk av tis l\ocro. 

vvp air, el p! iOiXei? iroXepul^tv r/Se p,dx€o~0at, 

aXXov9 fikv icdOiaov Tpa>a<; ical irdvTas 9 Ayaiovs> 

airrap e/i iv picrcrcp koX dprjtfaXov MeviXaov 

avjifidXer ap,<f> 'EXevrj teal /cri]pxLo~i iraai, pdyecrQau To 

innrorepos 8i tee vLKrjar} Kpeiaawv T€ yivrjrai, 

SCTijfuiO* eXow ev irdvra yvvaitcd re of/eaS' dyicQta • 

oi 8' aXXoc <f>i\oT7)Ta teal optcia iriard Tap,6mes 

paiocre Tpoirjv ipeftcoka/ca, rol 8% veiaOonv 

62 iaiaaos r. 

"Apyo? €5 iinrofioTov xal % AyaifBa xaWiyvvatxa. 7$ 

*if29 €<f>a0\ "Exrcop 8' air ix&pV j^eya fwBov atcovcras, 
xal p €9 fjueaaov icov Tpcocov dveepye <f>d\ar/yas, 
fieaaov Bovpo? eKcov • ro\ B 9 IBpvvdrjaav airavre^. 
TftJ 8' iir€TO%d£ovTO xdprj fco/jLOoovres 9 Ayaiol % 
iolcriv re TiTva/cofievoi, \deaai r efiakXov, 8o 

avrcLp 6 paxpbv dvaev aval; dvBp&v 'Ayap,€fiva>v 

Hector calls fir a parley and communicates Partes proposal, 
which is accepted by the Greeks. 

"laxeaff \ 'Apyeioc fit) fidWere, xovppi, 'Ajfauov 
arevrav ydp tl €7ro? ipeecv tcopvOaloXov "Exreop. 

J29 €<pau , oi o €0"xovto p>ayr)<; aveoo r eyevovro 
ico-vfievcos. "Exrcop Bh fier 9 dp,<j>OT€pot<riv eenre • $5 

KexXvre fJL€v, Tp£>€? xal ivxvrjfuBt? 'Amatol, 
fiv 8 op 9 A\e^dvBpoco, tov eXvexa velxos op coper. 
aXKov? fiev xe\erat Tpcoa? xal iravras 9 A%a4oi>? 
rev^ea xd\ 9 dnroQeaQai eiii j(0ovl irov\v/3oTeiprj 9 
avrbv 8' ev jJL€<rara) xal dprjtfaXov MeveXaov 9° 

olovs dfi<f> 'EXevrj teal xT^fjuaat Tract, p,d*)(ea9ai* 
omrorepo^ Be xe vixrjay xpeiaaoiv re yevrjrai, 
xryjAaO 9 iXobv ev irdvra yvvalicd re olxaB 9 dyeadoy 
oi 8' aXkot, <f>i\6rr)Ta xal optcia ttlotcL rdfiayfiev. 

A if2s €<f)a0\ oi 8' dpa Trdvres dxrjv eyevovro awirf). 95 
toZgi Be xal fiereecrre fiorjv dyadb? Mevekaov 

KexXvre vvv xal epuelo • fiaXurra ydp aXyo? itcdvei 
dvjjbbv ijiov (ppoveeo Be BuucpwQr\p,evai tfBrj 
'Apyetov? xal Tp&a$, eVel xaxd iroXkd ireiroaOe 
elvex ifjbijs epiBo? xal 9 A\e%dvBpov ivex 9 dpxfjs* too 

fijiecov 8' oiriroreptp ddvaro? xal fioipa rervxrat. 

^ IAIAA02 T. 63 

/ yreOuutri • aXXoi Sk huLKpivOelre ra^ioTa. 
/ I ofarere 8' apv\ hrepov Xevicov, ereprjv Be fieXaivav, 
j/yp re teal rjeXkp* Ad 8' ijfjLeis oXaofiev aXXov. 

Priam is sent for to assist in ratifying the compact. 

"Agere Be Hpidp,oio fitrjv, o<f>p* op/cia rd/tvy 105 

avros, eirei oi iralBe<; {nrep^iaXot teal a7n<rroc 9 
firj Tt9 inrepfiaa-lr) Ai6? op/cut, BrjXTjarjTau 
alel 8* oirXoTepiov dvBp&v <j>pive$ rjepedovraf 
oh 8' 6 yep<ov (lereyo-tv, ap,a irp6<ra<o teal oiriaacn 
Xevaaei, 07tg>s o% apiara fier dp^orkpoiai yevrjrai. "o 

,v i29 tyaff, oi 8' exaprjaav 'A%aiol re Tpcoe? re 
iXtrofievoi iravaaaOai ol^vpov troXifioio. 
teat p Xinrov^ p,ev epvgav eirl OT^as, etc 8* efiav avrol, 
revved r igeBvovro, ret fiev tcareOevr iirl yaly 
irXrjo-tov aXXrfXcov, oXiyr) 8' fjv afi<f)l$ apovpa. 1*5 

"Etcrap 8% irporl aarv Bvco terfpvtca? eirefiire 
tcap7ra\{/jL(o<s apvas re <\>epeiv Hpia\iov re tcaXea-cai. 
avrap 6 TaXOvftcov irpotei tcpemv 'Ayajie/ivayv 
vfja? eirt, yXa<f>vpd<; levai, $8' apv etciXevev 
olae/ievai' 6 8' dp 9 ovte dirl6r)a ' Ayap,ep,vovt, 8/$). l *Q 

Iris carries the tidings to Helen^ 

*I/w 8* aZff 'EXevy T^vtccaXiptp dyyeXo? fjXOev, 
elBo/Juevrj yaXorp, * AvrqvopiBao Bdjiapn, 
rrjv 'AvrrjvopiBrj? el^e tcpeicov 'EXitcdayv, 
AaoBltcrjv, Ilpcdfioio dvyarp&v elBos dplarrfv. 
rrjv 8' efy)' ev peydp<p • ij Be fieyav iarbv vcpatve '*5 

BiirXatca 7rop<f>vpei]v, 7ro\€as 8* eveiraaaev deffXovs 
Tpcocov ff itnroBdfiayv teal 'Ayai&v yakKO'XVT&vwVi 

64 IAIAA02 r. 

oD? $8ev €LV€tc hracyov inr' "Afyqo? iraXafidcov, 
arfxpv 8' loTafL€vrf irpo<rk<fyq iroha? wfcea *I/o*9 • 

Aevp 10c, vvficpa <f>ikrj, iva deaiceka epya ISrjcu ijo 

Tpdxov ff hnrohdficov Kal ^A^aiSiv ^ObKKO^iTwvwv* 
ot irplv hr aKhjXouri <f>epov iroKvhaKpvv aprja 
iv ireBitp, 6\ooio XiXaiojievoi iroXejioio, 
oi hrj vvv f-arai <riyfj (7ro\e/A09 8£ ireiravraC) 
aairlai tceKkip&voi, irapa S' ey^ea fiaxpa irkirrjyev. *35 

avrap 'AXil-avSpos teal aprjfyiko? Mei>e\ao9 
fiatepjj? eyxeirjaL yjLyr\<Tovrai irepl veto • 
t$ Si tee VLKTjaavTL <f>Ckri KeKXrjay a/coin?. 

who repairs ', attended by her handmaidens, to the Scaean gates; 

*Jf29 elirovcra 0ea ykvtcw "pepov €p,/3aXe 0vfjup 
avSpo? re irporipoLO teal d<TT€o<; rj&e TOKrj(ov. *4C 

avrltca S' dpyevvrjac KaXvyfra/Jb^vrj oOovgaw 
d>pfiar etc 0aXdfJboio, repev Kara Sdtcpv %€ovcra, 
ovfc ouq, apu tJj ye Kal afK^iiroXoL Bv hrovTO, 
Afflprj, HLT0rjo$ 0vydrr)p, K\vp,€V7) re /3oa>Tri,<}, 
alyfra 8' hreiff* Xkclvov 80 l Sfcatal irvKai fjcrav. M5 

where she excites the admiration of the Trojan counsellors, 

01 8' dfi(f)l Uptdfiov Kal HdvOoov fjhe OvpoiTyv 
Adpmov T€ KkvTLov 0* 'Itcerdovd t, 8£ov "Aprjos, 
Ov/caXiyoov re Kal 'Avrrfvcop, ireirvvfieva) dfjLcfxo, 
elaro SrjfLoyipovre? iirl 2tcair)<Ti 7rv\r)<riv, 
fffjpal Bff iroXifioio TreiravfievoL, a\\' dyoprjral 150 

i<r0\ol, TeTTiyeao-w ioc/cores, 0% re /ca0* ftXrjv 
SevBpeq) ifa^ofievoi oira Xeipioeaaav lelcnv* 
Toloc dpa Tpdocov riyriropes fjvr inl vrvpyq>. 


IAIAA02 T. 65 

0/ 8' (05 o$v eXBovff* 'EXevrjv iirl irvpyov lovcrav, 

1}/ca 777909 aWrfXov? eirea irrepoevT dyopevov '55 

Ob z/€/Ae<w Tp&a$ /cal iv/cvrj/ju&a? 'Axaiov? 
roifiS* ap,<f>l yvvai/cl 7ro\i>v yjpovov aXr/ea irda")(etv* 
aivw dOavdrrj&t, 0ef}9 eh &ira eoi/cev. 
aXXa /cal &$, Toirj irep iov<r\ ev vqval veead<o 9 
fi7)8 y fjfuv re/dead r oiriaaoi irrjfia \hrotro. 160 

and, at Priam 9 s request, points out and calls by name the 
bravest of the Greeks. 

A i2? dp 9 e<j>av, Ilplafios 8* 'EXivrjv eKaXeaaaro ^xovy* 
Bevpo irdpoiG* ikBovaa, <f>tkov re/cos, ftfeu ifielo, 
o<f>pa IBy irporepov re iroaiv 7n;ou9 re <f>t\ov$ re* 
ov tL /tot, airir} iaci, Oeoi vv jjloi acrioi elcrcv, 
di fJLOL iifxapfirjo-av irokefwv iroXvBa/cpw % A%ai&v • I&5 

First, Agamemnon j 

&<; fioi /cal tovB* avBpa ireXxopiov itjovo/irfvy*;, 

#9 t*9 08' iorlv 'Aj(ai6<; avrjp 77^9 re peya? T€. 

1} toi §ih> K€(j>a\f) /cal puei^ove^ aXkoi eacrc* 

tcaXov 8' ovtod iya>v ov ttg) IBov 6<f>daXp,olcnv, 

oib* ovrco yepapov ftaaikrji yap dvBpl eoi/ce. 170 

Tov 8* t E\iv7j fjLvOotcriv a/jLeifiero, 82a yvvai/c£>v 
alSolos re fiol icrcri, <j>tXe i/cvpe, Betvo? re* 
C09 SfeXev Odvaro? fioi aBelv ica/cos, owirore Bevpo 
vlei <r$ €7r6fjL7jv daXafiov yvovTovs re Xnrovaa 
iralBd re rrjXvyirrjv /cal 6/JbrjXi/clrjv iparetvyv. 17 5 

dXXa rd y ov/c iyevomo • to koX /cXaiovaa rirq/ca. 
rovro Be rot, ipico, o fi dvelpeai rjBk pberaXXav 
OVT09 7* 'ArpetBr)?, eipif /cpelcov ^Ayafie/xvcov, 

66 iaiaaos r. 

afi<f>6repov f j3a<rt\ev<; r' ayaffb? /cparepos r aV^Qt^Tfyi* 
Barjp atrr ifib? €<tk€ KwannSos, el iror h\v ye.^*^ *$° J 
*if29 QaTO, top 8* 6 yepcov fjydaaaTo cfxovrjd'ev rp* #«" j ^^T^ 
& (idtcap 'ATpet&rj, fxoiprjyevis, 6\/3u>8aifjLOV, £ Y^a/^^ 
fj pa vv rov iroXKol BeBpijaTO tcovpoi i A')(aL&v. v 
1J&7 teal $pvylr)v elarjKvdov dfiireKoeaaav, 
hfOa tSov irXelorov? $pvya$ avepax aloXoirwXoip;, 185 

\a0v9 'Orprjo? KaX Mvy86vo$ clvti6&oio 9 
0% pa tot iaTpaToeovTO irap S^Oa? XayyapLoio* 
xal yap iya>v iirUovpo? eoov fi€Ta toIclv iXi'xOrjp 
TjfiaTi T<p, ot€ t fjXJdov 'A/jba£6v€$ avruiveipai* 
dXX' ovS* oi Toaoi fjaav oaoi ekUoyrre? 'A^atoL 190 

next, Odysseus j 

Aevrepov aZr 'OSvoija I8a>v ipeeiv 6 yepaite* 
elir aye fiot koX tovSc, <j>t\ov T€/eo<;, 09 rt? ob* earl* 
fieicov pbkv K€(f>a\§ 'Ayafiefivovo? 'ATpetSao, 
evpvrepo? 8' &jjloigw IBk GTepvoiaw l&icrOai. 
Tevxea fiiv oi K&rai iirl yQov\ TrovkufioTeipy, 195 

avTO$ hk KTiKos a>9 iirvircclXeiTaL aTlyas dvSp&V 
dpvecS fjuiv iyd> ye itcrtcco TrqyeaiiiaXktp, 
09 t 6t(ov fieya ir&v SUpxeTai dpyewdcov. 

Tbv 8' rj/JLeifier eireiO' 'EXevrj A cb$ itcyeyavta* 
o5to9 8' aS AaepTidSrj*;, iro\vfjLr)Ti? 'OSvaa-eu?, 80O 

89 Tpdcfyq iv hrjfKp 'IOd/cr)? tcpavafy irep cowry?, 
et8a>? TravTolov? T€ SoXovs teal firjhea irvicvd. 

Trjv 8' a$T *AvrrjV(op ireirvvfiho? clvtIov rjvSa* 
& yivai, fj fidXa tovto hro<; vrj/juepT^ eenres* 
%&rj yap /cal Sevpo ttot fj\v0€ 8?09 'OSwcev? *>5 

o*€S $veic dyyekvqs avv dpr}l<f>L\xo MeveXdfp, 



rob? S' ija> igetvur&a teal iv fieydpota-t <pi\i}a-a, 

afLipQT€p<vv Se <f*VT)v iSwrjv teal ji?i$m irvtcpd, 

aXS* ot€ Srj Tptoe&o-iv £v uypof&evotatp ep^t^Oep, 

aTuvTtev piEV Mepikaos vwelpeftev eupiaq &fiov$, ACi^AA^^f 

a,^m B* €%ap,evm yepapwrtpos yep r OBva<T€vs* 

fiXX* ore &rj jivSovs teal fiySea TratrtP v<fyatpop t //* Cr^* 

?) rot ph MspeXaQ? iwirpoxdhyp Suyopeve &***# J l ^1 

Travpa fi£p s aXXa fiaka Xcrylc*?, cVei ov 7rokvfJ,u&o$ i 

ov$* aifiafi.apTO£7n}$ t ct *a& yivet varepoq yep. 21% 

dXX' ore 8^ TroXu/J-i/Ti? apatge tep 'OSuo-o-fvs, 

<rraff«€V, uTral £e iSco-tfe Kara ^(Bopoq 8p,fiara irij^a?, 

O-fcijTTTpQP S* OUT 07ZWG) OVT€ WpQ7TpyVG$ £P&[Mi t i/y 

aXK* d<TT€fi(f>e^ e^eamp, dtBpd $oyrl eotrfftw?* ' 

0at^v #e fatforop re tjV gjipepaL a<f>povd t avrm^* zar* 

aXX* ore S^ o?ra re fi&ydXijv £/c emjfleos en? 

if at eTrea p&tpdBetratp ioitcora ffiifiepiijirip, 

ovk &v eirur ^OBuaijt y €pi<r<T€i€ ftpQTOS aXXas * 

ov tqt€ y &B r 'OSutryo? drya&o-dfieB* eJSo? IBovr&t* 

third, Aj&x. 

jo Tpirov avr Aiapra locop epeetp o yepaw 225 

Ti? t a/> 00 aXXo? Aj(ato^ aprjp yvs xe peya^ re, 
e£oX°S *Apy€i&P tcefiaXrfv T€ tfal evpia? &povq ; 

Top 5' 'EXipy Tapv7re*7r\o$ dftet^ero, Bta yvpa&te&v 
o5to? 8' -4ta? eo-rl weXdyptos* £pfeo? l A)(aimv m 
'ISopevevs $ kripwQev ipl Kp^T€(T<ri 0€o<? &s 23° 

Garrj/c, tkp.rf>l Be flip Kpyrwp cvyol rjyepiOoprat* 
woXkatct $iip %dvuTG-£v dpyttfitXos Mevtkao? 
mtup cV ^/J-crepp, ottotc EpriTrjQtP Tkqitq* 

68 iaiaaos r. 

As her eyes run over the host, they fail to find Castor and 

Nvp 8* aXKov? fih/ irdvras op& ekl/CGnras *A^cuov^ 9 

ov$ Kev ib yvoirjv zeal r ovvo/acl fjuvOrjaalfirju • 235 

Sota) 8* ov Svvafiai ISieiv Koa^rope Xa&v, 

Kdaropd ff hrrroZayuov zeal irv% dyaObv IloXvSevteea, 

avTOteaatyv^Toa, rd> fioi fila yelvaro fitjrrjp • 

rj ov% kairkaOiyv AatceSalfiovos if; ipareivrj^ Ay^ 

tj Sevpo) fjuev errovro vieaa evi irovroTropoiaiv, U* 2^p ^ 

vvv avr ovtc iQekovai fJ'd'xrjv wraSv/Aevai W/)5y^J[Y *\P 

ataxea SeiSioTe? /cal ovelZea 7ro\\ y , a fiol iariv* CJr \, 

*\f2? <f>dro 9 tov$ 8* fjhr) /cdreyev <j>vai^oo^ ala ^^ <i 
iv Aa/ceSaljAOPi av0i, <j>t\y iv irarpihi yalrj. 

The herald Idaios delivers the summons to Priam, who mounts 
his chariot, accompanied by Antenor, and drives out upon the 
plain, where the two armies are assembled 

Krjpv/ces S* avh a<rrv Qe&v <f>epov op/cia mard, 245 

apve $vg> /cal olvov iv<j>pova, /capirbv apovprjs, 
dcncco iv alyeUp • <f>epe 8e Kprfrijpa <j>a€Cvbv 
tcfjpvf; 'I&wo? rjSk ypvasia /cxnrdCka* 
&rpwev hk yipovra irapiardfievo^; iirieao'iv 

"Opaeo, AaofjLeSovTid&T) • tcaXeovcrip apurrot, 250 

Tpdxov 1 hnroSafioav /cal 'Axat&v x<ikico')(iT<i>va>v 
is irehlov /carafirjvai, Xv op/cia ttiotcl rd/Ayre* "~ s * 

avrap 'AXigavSpos teal dprjicfyiXo? MeveXao? 
fia/cpf)<; iyxelyo'i iLayfiaovr dfi<j>l yvvai/ci* 
T$ Si zee vucrj<ravTi, yvvrj icaX /crrjpxL0* eirovro* 255 

0/ 8 aXkoi (fyiXoTrjTa ical op/cca mora ra/i6vTe$ 
vaiotfjuev Tpoirjv ipij3d>\a/ca, rol 8e veovrat 
"Apyo? e? hnrofioTov /cal ^A^aitSa tcaXkiyvvai/ca. 



*J2s* tfidro, p^pjo'ev K A yepwv, ijcjjkevtTE 8* eraipoiq 
Ftfttou? ^evyvvp^evat * toI 5* orpaXew iwtBovTQ* 

av S* ap e/fy Hpiapop ^<^ r ^^^^^Z3SiSt^^ (Taoi * 
Trap Bi oi ^Avrrivwp TrepacaKKea jStfueTO BufipQV* 
ria Be Bta Xtcai&v tteBIqvB* eX 0P & K * a $ inwove* 

\4\\* ore StJ p* ttfwro /tETtf, Tpwa? /cml M^atov« / - 

€$ u£<T(TQV TpW&V KCtX *Aya.tSfit ioTl}(Q&ttTQ* 

^mpvvro S 1 avriK hreirra aval; atfSpau *Ayauepw®v, 
av S* ''QRvtrev? TroXvaijTts ■ drap Ki}pvfce$ dyavo 
optcia w terra &ewt> trvvayov, KpTjTrjpi Be owov , 
playov t drap /Ba&tXevcHP vBwp iirl %e1pa<i e%€uav* 
^ArpetBi}? Be epvo-adpevos ^eipea-tn pd%atpav t 
7} ol Trap glifieos aiya tcovXeov a lev ampro* 
apvwp etc reefyaXettiv rdpve Tpl%a<s • avrap eweira 
xyp vices Tpwwv teal *A%aio)v vetpav dptaroi^. 
ToZaiv S* ^ArpetBijs fieydX* ev^ero #et/W dvaa-^P 





Agamtmn&H prays to Zeus and sacrifices the lambs, 

Zev irdrep, "IBtjOgp peBemv, kvSictg ueytare, 
Tfiktos 0\ S? iravT itpopas real wavr eTraKoveis, 
Kal worapol Hal yala, teal ot vwSvepBe tcapLOvras 
dvdpwTrovq tlvvgOqv, or*? tc iwioptcov opoaa-rj, 
vp,ets pdprvpot e&re, tf>v\da-o-eTe 8' optcia 7r*crra# 
el pev Kev MepeKaav 'AXigavBpo? Karaire^vj} t 
avroq ewn0* 'EXei^v e^eraj Kal KT^uara Trdvrch 
ij/^ets B J £v vi}€ <rcn ved)p£0a TrovTOTropoto-tv * 
el Be tc ^AXe^avBpQp tcretv*} $;avBb$ MeviXaos> 
Tpmas ewetB* 'EXevqv Kal tcr/jpara iravr aTraBovpai, 
Ttpijv 8* 'Apyelot^ dwoTivipev ?}v rtv eottcev, 



tj re teal iacrofiivoicrt per dpOpdairoicri irekqrcu* 

€t £' hv iflOL TLfJ/qV IT/3ta/A0? npidfJLOCO T€ TTOlSe^ 

ilveiv ovtc edekcoaip *A\ef;dp8poio 7reo*<Wo?, 

avrcip iya> teal hrevra fUL^rjcro/juac eipetca Troiprj? 290 

auOt, fiiveov, eiW tee reko? iro\ifioco kc^clcd. 

*H, teal airb o^TopA-^ov^ dpp&p rape prfkel xa\tcq> 9 
teal tov$ jjl€V KareOrjKev eirl ^Oopo? cunraipoprwi, 
Ovfwv Sevofjuivovv airb yap p,evo<; etkero %a\ie6s* 
olvov 8* etc /eprjTrjpo? d^vcrcrofxevoL hewdeaaiv ?9$ 

€/c%€ov, 7)8* evxpPTO 0€ol$ aleiyepeTyaw 
&8e 8e rt? eiirecTKev ^Ayai&v re Tpcocov re* 

Zev tcvSicTe /j,iyi<TT€, zeal dddvaroc Qeol akXot,, 
OTnrorepoL irporepoi vrrep opKia irrmrjveuiv, 
&8e <r<f> eytee<f>a\o$ %ap,d8i,? pioi g>? S8e olvos, 
avr&v real t€K€Q)v, akoypi 8' aKXoun Bafieiep. 

A iT2? €<j>av, ov8* apa ttco <r<f>iv hretcpalaipe Kpovuov. 
tout 1 8e AaphavLhrjs UpuLfjuos fierd pwOov (Seine* 

After which Priam returns to the city. 

Hjek\vt£ fiev, Tp&es teal evKvrjixihes 'Amatol* 
% tol eya>p etfii irporl u I\lov rivefLoeaaav 305 

&y]t, iirel ov ireo TX^aofi ep 6(f>6a\fiolcriv opacOai 
fiapvdfievov <f)£kov vibv dpr}l^>Ck(p Mevekdxp* 
Zev? flip irov to ye olBe teal dOdvarot Oeol aXXoi, 
omroTepcp Oavdrouo Teko? ireTTp&fiepop iaTip. 

*H pa, teal e? 8l<f>pop apz/a? Octo laoOeos <£a>9, 3 10 

av ap epaip avT0$, Kara rjpia tcipcp OTruraco • 
trap 84 oi 'ApTTjpeop irepaeaXkea fitfaero 8kf>pov. 
to) flip ap* atyoppoi, TTpOTl "IXlop diropeomo • 


IAIAA02 T. 71 

Hector and Odysseus measure off the lists, and shake the helmet 
until the lot of Paris leaps forth. 

"E/ercop 8k HpidfioLO 7ral? ical 8Z0? 'Ohvaaeits 

X&pOV fl€P ITp&TOV 8l€fl€Tp€0P, dVT&p €7T€lTa 3*5 

tcXqpov? ip Kwey ^aKKrjpel irdXKop eXoi/re?, 
07T7TOT€/)o? 8rj irpoaOep axfreir) 'XjaXiceov ey^o?. 
Xaol 8' ripTjaavro, deolcri he X € fy a ? aveoypv* 
&8e 8e t*? eiireaicev 'Axcu&p re Tpdxov re. 

Zev irdrept M I8r)6ep /-teSeW, tcvBiare fieyiore, 3^o 

O7T7rOT€/0O? T<i8€ (zpyd JI,€T afJL(j)OT€pOL<TLV eOrjtce, 

top S09 d>7ro(j)0lp,€vop Bvvac hofiop v -4i"8o? eta-Q), 
rffup 8* ai <f>iX6ri]Ta /ecu op/ua iriarci yepiaOcu. 

'\f2? ap (-(f)av, irdXKep 8k fieyas /copvOaiciko*; "E/ercop 
&yfr opocop* Hdpios 8e Bow i/e /cXijpo? opovaep. 3*5 

oi fi€p eireiff VCppro /card, vrlyax* fyi i/cdoT<p 
XiriroL aepo-faro8e<; zeal iroaelXa revxe e/ceiro* 

The champions arm themselves j 

aviap o y dp.<f> cofioiaiv iBvaero reir^ea tea\a 

S2t)9 *A\igap8po$ f f -E\ez/?;? Trial? rjv/eofioco. 

/cvrjfjuSax pip irp&ra irepl /cptJ^o-ip eOr)/c€P 33P 

tca\a$, apyvpeounv iiricrcpvpLois apapvla?* 

8evT€pop av Ocoprjtea irepl arTJOea-aip SSvpcp 

oto KaatyprjTOto Av/cdovo$, fjpp.oo'e 8* avrco. 

apuf>l 8 ap co/jlomtlv fidXero £ ^>o? dpyvporfKop 

XdXxeop, avrap eirevra ad/cos fieya re orifiapop re • 335 

Kparl 8* eir IcpOifMp tcvperjp evrv/CTOp eOrj/cep, 

tinrovpw Secpbp 8i Twfos /ea0virep0ep epevep. 

etXero 8' ak/u/iop &y%o?, o oi Tra\dpa\§ip dprjpei. 

&9 b* aUras MeveXao? d/>^to? epre HSvpep. 

62 IAIAA02 T. 

*Apyo$ €5 lirirotSorov teal 'A^ait^a tcaWiyvvaitca. 75 

A iT2? e^>a0\ "Ekt&p 8' aJrr ix^pV p&ya* pvOov dtcovaas, 
teal p €9 pecrcrov lebv Tpcocov dveepye (frdXayyafy 
pecrcrov 8ovp6$ eXcov • rol 8' ISpvvOrjcrav airavres* 
t$> $' iirero^d^ovTO Kaprj tcopotovres *Ayai>oi> 
lolcriv re TiTva/cofievot,, \decrcrl r efiaWov, 8o 

avrap 6 puttepbv avcrev aval; dvBp&v '>v • 

Hector calls for a parley and communicates Paris* s proposal, 
which is accepted by the Greeks. 

"Io"X€(rff, 'Apeyelof pi) fidXkere, tcovppi 'Axai&v 
crrevTOi yap ti e7ro? ipiecv tcopv0alo\o<i "EicT<op. 

J2? €<pau t ov o ea")(pVTO p^X^ a veto r eyevovro 
iaavpiva)?. f/ 23/CTG>p Be per dp,(j>OTepot,criv Henre* 85 

Ketckvre pev, Tp&es zeal ivtcvqpuhes 'Axaiol, 
p.vOov *A\ef;dv8poio, tov eXvetea vel/eo? opeopev. 
a\\ou9 p*€v fciXerai Tp&as ical irdvTas 'Axcuov? 
revxea tcd\* diroOicrdac eirl xO°vl irovXvfioTeipy, 
avrbv $' iv picrcrtp zeal dprjfyiKov Mevekaov 9° 

olovs dp<\> 'EXevy teal Krrjp,aai irdcri pdxGcrQai* 
omrorepo^ Si tee vitctfcrg tcpelcrcrayv re yevrjrai, 
tcnjpLaO' ekwv ev irdvra yvval/cd re OLtcaS* dyecrOa** 
ol 8' SXKjol (frtXoTTjTa teal optcia mora rdpeopev. 

*I2? Scf>aff, ol 8' apa irdvres dtcrjv iyivovro cnonrjj* 95 
roicrc 8k teal pLereeiire fior}v dyado? Mevekao? • 

KetcKure vvv teal ip,eio' puxkiara ydp aXryo? Itcdvei 
Ovpuov epav • <j>poveeo 8e Siatcpivdrjpevai rjSrj 
'Apyelov? teal Tp&a?, eirel reared iroWd ireirocrOe 
ehetc iprjs epiSo? teal *A\ef;dv&pov ivete dpxrfc* 1Q 

fjp,ictiv 8' oirirorepcp ddvaro? teal polpa Tervtcrai, 

7 / * 
^ lAiAAos r. 63 

yfreOuatq • &W01 B% BuucpivOeire rd^urra* 
/ \.6Urere B* apv, Srepov \ev/c6v, ereprjv Be pekaivav, 
J7JJ re xal qekUp* Ait 8' rjpels oiaopev aXKov. 

Priam is sent far to assist in ratifying the compact. 

"Agere Be Upidpoio filrjv, 6<$p y oprcca rdpvp 105 

avros, iirei oi iralBe? inreptplakot zeal airioTOi^ 
pv\ rt? VTrepfiao'lrj A to? op/cia SrfKTJarjTai. 
aiel 8' oirKorepwv avBp&v <f>peve<: JjepeOovraf 
0I5 8' o yepwv pereyo-iv, a pa irpoa-aco /cal 07riV<ra> 
Xewnm, otto? o^' apiara per dp<f>orepoLac yevrjnu. "o 

*if25 e^>aff* 9 ol 8' i^dprjaav *Ayaiol re Tp&es re 
e\ir6pevov iravaaa'dai oi^vpov irokepoto. 
teal p Znwov? ph epvgav iirl OT^a9> etc 8' e$av avrol, 
reined r igeBvovro, rd pev tcareOevr eirl yaly 
Trkrjaiov dXKrfKcov, okvyq 8' fjv dp<f>U apovpa. 1*5 

"E/CTwp B% Trporl aarv Bvco tcrjpvtcas eirepire 
tcapiraXlpw; apva$ re <j>epeiv UpLapov re fcaXeaaat. 
airrdp 6 Ta\0v/3iov irpotei tcpel&v * Ayapepv&v 
vi)a$ ein y\a<f>vpd<; ievat, 178' dpv eicekevev 
oleripevac* 6 8' ap ovtc diriOrja *Ayapepvovv Bl<p* **> 

Iris carries the tidings to Helen % 

*I/W o* avff f E\evy \evtca>Xev<p dyye\o$ rjkOev, 
elBopevr) ya\6q>, 'AvTqvoplBao Bdpaprc, 
rfjp 'AjrrrjvoplBrj? e2%€ Kpelcov 'EXitcdcov, 
AaoBiteqp, Upidpoio Ovyarp&v eTZo? dplarrjv* 
rrjv 8* eip ev peydptp* 17 8£ peyav larbv v<f>aive 1*5 

BhfKatca irop(j>vp€7jp, irokewi 8* eveiraaaev de0\ov$ 
Tpdxop ff linroBdpoDV teal 'Axjcu&v 'xoXkoxitwvcov, 

64 IAIAA02 r. 

oO? Wev eCveic eiraayov inr' *Aprjo<: iraXapuicov, 
arfXpv 8' loTafJL€vrj irpoak^yq 7ro8a9 wtcia * Ipi$ • 

Aevp 101, vvfjL(f>a <f>ikrj, Iva Oia/eeXa epya tSrjcu 13° 

Tpdxav 0* imroSdfi&v teal ^A^ac&v xa\KO%iT<ov(ov* 
ot irplv eir aKKrjkoLai (pipov irdkvhatcpvv aprja 
iv ireSicp, oXoolo XCkaiopevoi irokepoio, 
ol Sfj vvv tarai <riyj) (7ro\e/A09 8e ireiravrai) 
aairldi /ee/ckifjuivoi, irapa 8' ey%ea yjiKpa ireirriyev. *35 

avrap *A\£};av8po<s teal apr)t<f)i\o$ Mevekao? 
jia/cpys &YX€irj<ri fw^rjaovrai irepl crelo • 
t$ 8e tee vi/cq<ravri <f>£kr) /ee/c\i]0"y okoiti?. 

who repairs, attended by her handmaidens, to the Scaean gates; 

A /29 elirovaa 0ea ykv/eitv Xpepov epfiaXe Ov/jlq) 
ai/8/009 re irporepoio koX aareo^ rjhk rotctfayp. 14c 

avrUa 8' dpyevvfjai /eaXutyafievrj oOoptjo-iv 
(bpfiar i/e 0a\dfjLoio, repev Kara Sd/epv yeovaa, 
ovk oif), dfjua rf) ye /cal dfju^liroXot hv ftroz/ro, 
AWprj, IIiT0i]o<: 0vyaTrjp 9 KXvfiivrj re fioairi?. 
alyfra 8' €7rei0' i/cavov 69 1 2/ccual irvXai fjaav. 145 

where she excites the admiration of the Trojan counsellors, 

Ol 8' a/jL<j)l npldfiov zeal Hdv0oov r)Sk Qv\iovrt\v 
Adpjwov re Kkvrlov 0* 'I/cerdovd t, o£op "Aprjos, 
OifcaXiycov re teal 'Avnyvayp, ireirvvfievca afxtpco, 
etaro hrjiwyepovres iirl 2tcair}<n irvXrj<riv 9 
yrjpal 817 iroXepboio ireiravpbkvoL, a\\' cuyoprjral 150 

iadXol, T6TTVy€<7GW €Ot/COT€9, ol T€ Ka0* $\r)V 

ZevZpecp i<j>e^6fjb€V0L oira Xeipioecraav leZaiv. 
rotov dpa Tpdxov fiyrirope? fjvr inrl irvpytp. 


IAIAA02 T. 65 

01 8* g>? oiv elhovff* 'EXevrjv iirl irvpyop lovcrav, 

TjKa irpb? aWtfXov? eirea irrepoevr dyopevop' '55 

Ob i/e/Aeo**? Tp&a$ teal ivtcptj/JuSa? 'A^atoiR 
roifjb* dficpl yvpaitel 7to\vp yjpovov aXr/ea irdayeiv 
alvcos adavarrjcri defjs et? Sura eoitcep. 
aXka teal o>9, roirj irep iova, iv vrjv<rl ve€c0(o $ 
fjL7)8 y rjfilv Tetceecrai t OTrlao-w Trrj/jua \Ittoito. 160 

and, at Priam 9 s request, points out and calls by name the 
bravest of the Greeks. 

*{2? ap €<f>av, lipid [tos 8* t E\hrr)P CKaXecrcraTO <f>a>pj) • 
Sevpo 7rdpoi0* ekdovaa, tf>Ckov retcos, %%ev ifielo, 
o<f>pa iSy irporepov re ttogip irqovs re <f>Ckov<; re* 
ov ri fioi airly iaal, Qeol vv jiot atriol elaiv, 
0% fioc i(pcopfJLr)crap nr6\efJuov iroXvSa/cpvp *A%ai&p • I&5 

First, Agamemnon y 

«5? fioi teal rovS* dvSpa ireXcopiop igopo/jdjpys, 

& ta? 88* iarlv 'A^aio? dvrjp 771J9 re fieyas re. 

fj toi j*ep tee<f>a\y teal pel&pe? aXKoi eacri* 

teaXbv S* ovrco iyobp ov 7tg> ISop o<^9akfjLolcnv t 

obS* o£rra> yepapop* fiaatXrjl yap dpSpl eouce. 170 

Tov S f 'EXeprj /jlvOomtiv a/ielfiero, Sia ywaiKtap* 
alSoco? re fioi eaav, <f>t\e eicvpe, Setvos re • 
w 8<j>eXep Qdvaros fioi dSelp #a/co9, oinrore Sevpo 
vUl onp hrofjvqp OdXafiop ypcorovs re Xurrovaa 
iralSd re TrjKvyirrqp teal Ofirjkitctrjp ipareunjv. *75 

dXka rd y ovte iyepopro • to teal tcXaiovaa rerytea. 
rovro Si rot ipico, y! dveipeat rjSe fi€Ta\\8$* 
oSto? 7* 'ArpetSrjs, evpv tcpelcop 'Ayafiifivoop, 

66 iaiaaos r. 

a/Mfrorepov, fiaaikevs t $ ayaOb? /cparepo? t alxwrfc' 
Sarjp air e/^o? Satee tcvpdyiriSos, el iror h\v y^*^*^ 180 

*fl$ ^aro, toi/ 8* o ykptav ^ydaaaro (fxovrjo 
& fjud/cap 'ArpetBri, fjioiprjyeves, oXfitoSaifjLOV, 
fj pd vv rot iroXkol Se&fjujaro tcovpoi 'Axaicov. 
•fj&ri teal $pvyirjp elarrjkvQov a^irekoeaaav, 
hfOa tSov TrXeloTov? $pvya$ avepax aloXoiraikow, 1 &S 

\a0u9 'Orpfjo? teal MvySopo? avriOioio, 
01 pa tot ia-TpaTOcovro Trap* hydas Sayyaploio • 
teal yap iyoop iirltcovpo*; ioav fi€Ta toutlp i\e)(0V v 
rjfuiTi to5, ot€ t fjXJdov *Afia£6pes dpTUzveipai* 
dXX' ovb* ol Toaoi fjaav ocroi eXitcayjre? *A%cuoL 19& 

nex^ Odysseus ; 

Aevrepop air 'OSvafja I8a>p ipiew* 6 yepaifa 9 
ehf aye fioi teal topBc, (j>tkop T&09, 09 ti$ 08* earl* 
fielcov /jl€p teefatXfj ' Ayafi&fivovo? 'ArpetSao, 
evpvrepo? 8' &fwi<riv ISk GTeppoiaiP ISicrdai. 
Tevyea /jl€v oi Kelrai eirl yQovX Trov\vfioTetp'Q t *95 

auro9 8k KTikos &9 eiriTraikeZTai, <rr/%a9 dvBp&p 9 
apveico ficv iyd> ye et&teco irrjyeo-ifidXkip, 
#9 t otcop fieya ir&v Siip^erat dpyewdayv. 

Top 8' rjfielfter eireiff* 'EX&prj A ^09 i/eyeyavia* 
o5t<>9 8' av AaepTidSrjs, 7ro\vfi,7)Tis ' Ohvaaevs, *0O 

89 Tpafyr) ip 8rjfi<p 'Iddtci?? Kpavarjs irep iovcrrfi, 
elScbs iraprotov*; tc 80X01/9 ical firjhea irvicvd. 

Tffp 8' avT 'Avnjp&p iremrufiepo^ dprlov rjvSa* 
& yvpac, fj fiaka tovto €7T09 vrjfiepTh Semes* 
17817 yap teal Sevpo ttot fj\v0e 8409 'OSvo-ceits *>5 

xrev eveic dyyekir)? avp aprfifylXtp MeveXatp. 


Tow 5* iyw £%€ivt<T(7a teal iv pLeydpourt (fitkq&a, 

ajA$GT£pmv Be tpvrjv iBdyv /cat fn'jBea wu/cva* 

dXK ore Bt) Tpa>€a-(Ttv iv afypQjj,evQi,<nv efuftj&ev, 

ardvrwv pev Mevekao^ vrrdpe^ev evpias mpov% ii^wtJ^f 

ajjL^m S v e^opevta yepapdirepos %ev *0&u<T(T£V<?* 

rlXX* ore By f&v&ov$ zeal prfSea irao-tv v^atvov, . / fV l 

ij rot fthr Mevikaoq eTTirpoxdBTjv dr/opeve w*±+*r.J i ^^ H «l 

iravpa fi£v f aXkd fid\a Xiyim, eirel oi TrdXvfivdoq L 

• ovB d$ap,apTQ€TTTjs, el /cal yiv€t vcrrepo? ijev* a| 5 

aXX 1 ore Br} ttoXvjatjtls dpat^eiev 'OSuacreu?, 
trrda-KBPt viral Be iBeo-xe Kark %&Qvb% Qfipara iTJjfa?, 

<TK^7TTpOP tT OVT OTTWrto QVTE TrpOTrpTJVE? ivtoflttt, 

oXTl d<TT€fMJ>€<; e^eaxeVi dtBpet tfrtarl iowa*? • 

<pai^ tee ^dtcorov re riv epftevai dtf>povd r avrw 

ahX ore Btj awa re fieyaXyv etc (rr^deos evq 

jcal eirea vttfrdBe&tTLv lottcora #et/*eptp<r«% 

oix av erretr *Q8v<rfjty epitrtreie jSporbq dXko$ m 

ov rore y (JS 1 * 08 110770? cuyatrcrdjieff e*8o? tScWe?. 



tAird, Ajax* 

To rplrov air Atavra I8a>v epeetp o yepato?* 
rk r dp 08* a\Xo<? ^Axmos dpr^p qv<i re fi&ya? re, 
€%°X°* 'Apyelwp KstfiaXijv re feat eipias <3^ou? ; 

Top 8' 'EXivri ravvwewKo^ d^etfSero, Bta yvvaticwv* 
ovro? 8' Atas icrrl w€\d>ptQ$ t epxos *Aj(at€iV* 
^IBoftevevs B % erepwBev ivl KptfTe&trt #€09 &? 
earffx% dfufrt Be ptv KpTjrwv wyol TjyepeBoprau 
ttoW&xi f&tv ^elviGvev dpi}t<f>t\os MeveXaos 
olxq> iv 7HAer£p<p s oVore Kp^r^Oev ixotro. 



68 iaiaaos r. 

As her eyes run over the host, they fail to find Castor and 

Nuv 8* aWov? fiev Travra*; op& i\Uo)7ra<z ^Ayaiofe, 

oi;? tcev Of yvoirjv teal r ovvofia fivOrjcraCfnjv • 235 

Soto) S* oi Suvafjuii ISieiv Ko<Tfirjrope Xa&v, 

Kdaropd 0* iirnrohapuov teal irv% ayaObv TloXvZevteea, 

avTO/caatyi^TQ}, tod jjlol fila yelvaro fiTJrrjp • 

fj ov% icnrecrOrjv Aa/ceSalfwvo? if; ipareivrf^ Aw^ 

fj 8evpa> p,ev ejrovTo veeacr evi irovroiropoicriVy *r* «Hr ^ 

vvv avr ovtc iOikovcrt p>d^v tearaSvjAevai ^8p&vA^r *\P 

atcxea SetStore? teal oveiSea 7ro\V, a fwi icrriv. (ft^ \^ 

*\f2? <f>aTO, roi>$ 8 fjSr) Kare^ev <f>verl£oo$ ata ^^ <i 
iv AateeSalfiovi aitOi, <f>i\y iv irarplZi yaiy. 

The herald Idaios delivers the summons to Priam, who mounts 
his chariot, accompanied by Antenor, and drives out upon the 
plain, where the two armies are assembled. 

Krjpvices S' dva aarv 0€<ov (frepov opicia Tnara, 2 45 

apve Sua) teal olvov iv<j>pova t tcapirov apovprjs, 
acr/co) iv alyetw • <£epe Be Kprjrrjpa <f>aetvbv 
tcfjpvi; 'ISato9 rjBk ypvasia tcirrreXKa* 
&Tpvvev hk yepovra TrapicrrapLevos iireecrcnv 

"Opcreo, Aaop&hovTiahr) • tcaXeovcnv dpurroi 250 

Tpaxov 6* hnroZaywiV teal ^A^cll&v ^aXtfo^nwaw 
€9 irehiov tcaTafirjvai, Xv opicia irurra rdpLrfre. v ~ Vv - 

avrap 'AXifjavSpo? teal aprj'fyiXo? MeveXao? 
fiatcpf)? iyx^V^ 1 iKtyricrovr ap,(f)l yvvaitcl' 
t& Si tee viier)<ravTi yvvrj teal terrffiaO' kwoiro* 255 

oi 8* aXXoi faXoTrjra teal opicia mora raftovre? 
valoip&v Tpolrjv ipi/3d>Xa-Ka, rol $€ vkovrai 
*Apyo$ e? fonrofioTov teal 'AftaitSa tcaXXiywaitca. 

IAIA40S r. 


*fi* iparot pjwvtrev $* °" yiptov, ijCfXeva-e 5* era 1 pots 

tTTTTOVS l$€V , ypVp.eV€Lt, ' Toi S' OTpttAeGJ'S €7Tl@0VTQ. 

kv S' ap' 6/817 npiapoz, Ka'^^^vla^r^im^Trta'trca* 
irap Bi oi ^Avr^vmp m-epittcutkm ^trero Bt<f>pov. 
ro> Bi Bia ItftaiGiv TreSiVS' £#0^ <!#££&? jTnroi/?. 

MxV ore 8jJ p 1 ttfwro perk Tpwaq teal *A%cuqv$4 / - 


ef tTTTnup airofldvTe? iirl %86va TrovXvfSoTewai 
e? pia-GOp Tpasmv teal ^A^atcdy iari^otapr^ 
%pvvro S T avriK eiretra aval; avBp&P *Ayap*€p,VMV t 
&v 8 s 'GSverei? TroXiJ/i^Ti? ■ aT<ip tfj/pt/tfes dyavo 
optcia 7ruTT<k Qetav &vvayav 9 tcp^Trjpt Be olvov * 
pta-yov t drap fBa&tkzvGtv vB<$p iirl %€tpa^ e^iuav* 
' ATp^thj}^ Bi €pv<r<rdp€VQ<% j^eipetnrt p>d%atpav, 
ri ol TTtip £((f>£Q$ p,£ya tcovXeov alkv atapro M 
dpv&P itc K€(f>aX£o)v rdpve Tpiy^a^ * aurap eireira 
Kjjpv/ees Tpw&jv teal A^attov velfiav aptaTotv, 
rotauf S* 'ArpeiBf}? fieydTC evj^ero %eipa? dvaa-ftwv 

Agamemnon prays to Zeus and sacrifices the iambs. 

Zev wdrepi *IBt}0gv fieBiwv, tcvBi<JT€ p*&yt<rr€ t 
ijeAtos u , 09 iraPT etpopas tcai vravr eiraxovei^t 
teal Trorafiol xal yaia, zeal ot {nrivepffs ttap&VTaq 
dvOpwwovs tIvvo-Bovj on? tc CTTiopKOV ifiotrajf, 
v/tets pdpTvpoi effre, rf>v\d<ra'€T€ B* op tela Tricrd* 
el p4v mv MeviXaov * AXigavSpo? tcara^ri^ppf 
avToq ereiff f EXiif7jv i^irea teal /crijfutTa irdvra, 
7}peh S" iv vr}SQ-cri vewpeda TrovroTrapQta'ti/ ■ 
el hi x 'ATUgavBpov /cretvp ^av96^ MeviXaos* 
Tptaa$ eiretO* *E\£vrfv teal tcr^ara irdvr diroBovvat, 
Ttpfyv 5* 'ApyeLots airoTwiptm* ijp rtv mitt£v M 






70 iaiaaos r. 

ij re teal icraofiivoicn fier avOpdaironTi irekqrau 

el £' av ifiol TCfMTjp npla/jLO? Ilpidfioio re ircuSe? 

liveiv ov/e eOekcoaw y A\ef;dp8pou> ireaovTo*;, 

avrap iya> teal hrevra [iayr\<Toyjit. eipetea iroivf}? 2 9° 

avdi fiivwp, €tft)5 tee reko? rroXe^ouo teiyeLa*. 

*H, teal diro CTO/Aaxovs dpv&v rdfie prjXel xaktcp* 
teal rov? fiep /careOrjtcev iirl yd ™? cunralpopras, 
6v/jlov 8evofiepow diro yap fievo? e'tkero ^aX/w. 
oXpop 8* etc tcprjTrjpo? acfyvcrcrofievoi heTrae<7<riv 295 

eteyeop, ^S' e&xovTO Qeols aleiyepeTQvw 
&8e Be ta? elireateep > AyaiG)P re Tpdxop re* v A^j 

Zev tcvhiare aeyiare, teal dddvarot, Oeol akXoi, rJ&^Vv ^ 
omrorepoc irporepoi, vrrep opKia mjfirjpeiap, ' * ,;>!* 
&84 a<f> 6y#€<£a\o? %afid8i? peov a>9 o8e olpos, ' x 3°° 

avr&p fcal retceap, ak&xpi 8' aKkoiai Sa/juelev. 

A iT2? €<f>ap, ov8* apa rra> cifuv exretepaiaipe Kpovuov* 
rota i 8& Aap8apt8r}<; H pianos fiera fxvOov ieinre* 

After which Priam returns to the city. 

KkieKvrk fiev, Tp&e? teal iv/ep^ficSe^ * Agonal* 
?l roi iycop el/ju irporl u I\u>p rjve/ioeo'o'ap y>5 

ify, irrel ov ireo rXtfaofi iv ocpOaXfiolcnv opacOai 
fiappdfjuevop <f>iXop vibp aprjZ^lXtp MeveXdcp* 
Zev? fiiv 7rov to ye olSe teal adavarot Oeol aXXoi, 
omrorkptp Oavdroio rkXo<; irerrpayfikpov iarlp* 

*H pa, teal e? 8l<j>pop apvas Okro laoOeos <f>m> 3 10 

hv 8* ap efiavv avros, tcara 8' fjvia relvep oirUraa) • 
Trap 8k oi 'Aprrjpcop rrepiKaXXea jUrjaero 8kf>pov. 
tod piv ap aifroppoi irporl "IXiov dirovkovro • 


IAIAA02 T. 71 

Hector and Odysseus measure off the lists, and shake the helmet 
until the lot of Paris leafs forth. 

"Ektg>p 8k npidfioio irate ical 8Z09 9 OBvaa€if<s 
y&pov pev irp&Tov Siefierpeop, avrap hreira 3*5 

Kkrjpovs ev Kw&rj ^aXKTjpei iraKKov eXoVres, 
07T7roT€/)09 8% irpoaOev aJpelr) %a\/e€ov €7^09. 
Tuiol 8' r)pri<ravTo 9 0€oun 8e %e£pa9 dveoypv 
&8e 8i T69 elireaicev ' Ayai&v re Tpdxov re. 

Zed irdrep, "I8rj0ev peSeav, Kv8iare /xeytore, 3 30 

omroTepo? rd8e epya p*r dpfyorkpoKrw eOrj/ee, 
tov S09 diro^Oifxevov Birvai 86 pop *Ai8o$ eta-co, 
fjpiv o° ai faXoTrjTa real op/eia irLarh yeveaOai. 

A iT29 &p %<f>av, irdXKev 8k p£ya$ /copvOatoXo? "E/ercop 
&yfr opocov Ildpios 8k 0o&$ etc ic\rjpo<; opovaev. 325 

oi pep eweiff VQovtq /cara o-rvxax, fy(i i/edartp 
vmroi aepo-liroSe*: teal irouclXa rev^e' e/ceiro* 

The champions arm themselves; 

aviap $ y ap<\> &poi<rw iSvaero revx^a tcaKa 

SZ09 'AXigavSpos, 'EXevri*; 7roo**9 rjv/copoio. 

tcvrjpSSa? p&v irpSrra irepl /evijpyo'iv eOrjicev 33° 

/ca\d$, dpyvpeouriv i7ri<T<f)vpioi<; apapvla?* 

8evrepov ai Ocoprj/ca irepl arrideaavi; SSvvev 

olo KaxTvyvrjTOLO Av/cdovos, tfppoae 8* avrtS. 

dpuf>l 8' ap &pouriv ftdXero gl<f>o<; dpyvp6rj\ov 

j(d\tc€Ov, avrap threira cra*o? peya T€ arifSapbv T€* 335 

Kparl 8' eif l<j>0lp<p tcvvirjp evrv/crov eOrjfcev, 

tinrovpiv heivbv 8k Xocfros icaOinrepQev evevev. 

eTXero 8* aXxcpov &y%09, o oi ira\dpr\§iv dpqpei. 

&9 8* avTox; MeveXaos dprjlos evre HBvvev. 

62 IAIAA02 T. 

"Apyo? €5 iTnrofioTov /cal 'A^attBa KaWvyvvcu/ca. 75 

A iT2? e<j)a6\ "E/crayp 8* air eydpri M*y a p>v6ov atcovcras, 
teat p €9 fieaaov loop Tpdxop dpeepye (frdXayya^ 
fieaaov Bovpo? eXcop • rol B 9 IBpvpOrjaap dirapre^. 
tcS 8* iirero^d^oPTO /cdprj /cofiowpres % Ayaiol> 
iota ip t€ TLTva/cofjuevoL, \deacri t efiaXkov. 8o 

avrdp 6 fia/cpbp dvaep apaf; dpBp&p 'Ayafiifivayv * 

Hector calls fir a parky and communicates Partes proposal, 
which is accepted by the Greeks. 

"Io"Xe<rff, 'Apeyeioi* firj fidXXere, icovpoi ^Ayai&P* 
crrevrai yap ri €7ro? epeeip /copvOaloXos "E/crcop. 

ifi? e<pau , oi o ea"XpvTo p*ayjf)<i apeco r iyepopro 
icavfi&PG)?. "E/cr&p Be pber dpLfyorepoiaip eenre* 85 

Ke/cXvre p,ev, Tp&es /cal ivKvrjpiBt^ 'Amatol, 
pvOop *A\e];dp8poio i rov ewe/ca pel/co? opapev. 
a\Xou9 pep /ceXerai Tp&as teal irdpra<; 9 A)(aiov$ 
T€v%€a ica)£ dirodeadai eirl x$opl 7rov\vftoTelpy, 
avrop 8' ip p,eao-(p /cal dprjtcpikov Mevekaop 9° 

olovs dp,<\> 'EXewg /cal /cr^pLaai iraxri pdyeaOau 
omroTepos Be ice Pi/crfcy Kpeicraayv re yeprjrai, 
tcrqpad* ektov ei irdpra yvpaltcd re ot/eaB* dyeaOoy* 
oi 8* aWoc fyCkoTTjTa /cal opicia iriard rdfiayfiep* 

A iQ$ liftoff, oi 8* dpa irdpre^ d/ct]p iyepopro (TLcoiry. 95 
TOicri 8k /cal fiereenre fiorjp dyaOos Mevekaop • 

Ke/ckvre pvp /cal ip,eio % p&KiGra yap aA/yo? i/cdpei 
Ovfwp ijwp* (ppoveco Be Sia/cpivdrjp^vcu fjSrf 
'Apyelovs /cal Tp&a$, iirel ica/cd iroWd ireiroaOe 
€iP€K 6/lm}? epcBo? /cal 'AkegdpBpov kve/c dpyrj^ 100 

flpAtop S' oinrorepcp OdpaTo? /cal jjuolpa Terv/crai, 

^ lAiAAOi r. 63 

'fredtytiq • aXkoi, 8k SuuepivOeire rd^vara. 
/ j ottrere 8' a/>v\ irepov Xevtcov, ereprjv 8k fiikcuvav, 
\fW Te Ka ^ V&Mp' ^d & Vf 16 *? otaofiev fiXkov. 

/ Priam is sent far to assist in ratifying the compact, 

' *A%ere 8e Tlpidfioco filrjv, &£/>' op/cia rdfivy 105 

avTos, eirei oi iral8e^ irrreptfriaXoi /cal aTrurroi, 
firj t*9 inrepfiaairi A to? optcta StjXijo-tjtcu. 
alel 8' 6ir\oTepnov dvhp&v <f>peve$ rjepedovrav 
oh 8' o yepcov /Aerego-iv, ayua irpoao-w /cal oiriaato 

\€V<r<T€h 07TO>9 0%' dpiCTTa JJL6T dfl(f)OT€pOLCri ry€VTJTCU. 1 10 

,x /2? e^aff, oi 8' i^dprjaav *Aycuol re Tp&e$ re 
eXnrofievoi iravaaaBai ol^vpov iroXe/juoio. 
teat p v7rrrov$ fikv epv%av eiri art^a?, etc 8' efiiav avTot $ 
revved r igeSvovro, ra fiev KareOevr eirl yaiy 
irkrjalov dXKrjXcov, oklryTj 8' f\v d/i(})U apovpa. 1*5 

"Eicnop 8k 7rporl aarv 8va> icqpvicas eirepnre 
KapiraXlpbO)^ apvas re <j>epeiv Uptapov re icaXeaaai. 
ainap 6 TaXOvfiiov irpotei tcpeiwv 'Aya/juefivcov 
irija? em ykafyvpa? levai, 978' dpv i/ce\evev 
olaejievav 6 8' ap ovtc aTriBrja 'Aya/iefivovi 8/p. *ao 

Iris carries the tidings to Helen, 

*Ipi$ 8* avff < E\evy \evKto\ev<p dyyeXo? rjjkdev, 
el8ofievrf yaXoco, y Amr\vopi8ao Sdjiapri, 
TTjv ' Avrrivopihr}^ et^e KpeUov 'EXuedcov, 
AaoStfcrjv, npidjAOio Ouyarp&v elSo? dptorrjv* 
rrjv 8' eip* ev fieydptp* v\ 8k jiiyav uttov v<f>aive 1*5 

ShrXatca 7rop<f>vperjv, 7ro\ea9 8* eveiraaaev de&Xov? 
Tpaxov ff hriro8djiii>v seal 9 Aj(tu&v xoXkoxitwvwv, 

64 IAIAA02 r. 

oO? Iffev elve/c eircuryov irrr' *Apr\o$ iraXapudcov, 
aryxpv 8' tarafievrj Trpoaktyq 7roSa? a)/cia *Ipi<; • 

Aevp Xffi, vvjMpa x^lXtj, Iva ffia/ceXa epya ISrjac 130 

Tpdxav ff hrrrohdfi(ov /ecu 9 A%cu&v %aX/co , xyr&va>v % 
ot irpXv hr dXXrjXoL<n <f>epov iroXvZa/cpvv dprja 
iv 7re8/p, 0X00X0 XiXcu6p,evoi 7roXefioto 9 
oi Sff vvv earai trcyr} (7r6Xefio<; 8e irkiravrai) 
denial /ee/cXijiivoi, irapa 8' ey^ea fuucpd Treirrjyev* *35 

avrdp 'AXegavSpos tcai dprjtytXos MeveXao? 
fiaicpfjs iyx^ijjo't pw)(r\G0VTcu irepl crelo • 
tg> Si zee vucr\aavTi <j>iXi] KeKXrjarj a/coins. 

who repairs, attended by her handmaidens, to the Scaean gates; 

*/29 ehrovaa ffed yXvtcvv ifiepov ZfifiaXe ffvfitS 
avSpo? re irporkpoio teal dareo? ^8e TO/cfjtov. *4C 

avrl/ca 8' apyevvj)<n /caXinfrafievri odovyaw 
wpfidr ifc ffaXdfioio, rkpev /card Sd/cpv xkovaa, 
oif/c otrj, dfjua rfj ye teal d/i(f)i7roXoi Sv eirovro, 
Acffprj, Hirffrjo^ Buy drrj p 9 KXvfikvrj re fiowirix. 
alifra 8' eireiff* Xicavov offi S/caial irvXai rjaav. 145 

where she excites the admiration of the Trojan counsellors, 

01 S* dfi<j)l nplajjLov teal Hdvffoov *qZk Qvfwivqv 
Adpnrov re KXvriov ff* 'I/cerdovd r, 6£ov "Aprjos, 
Ov/caXeyoDV re /cal 'Avrrjvcop, ireirvvpLevw dfi<f>G> 9 
eiaro SrjfioykpovTes iirl Sfcaifjcn TrvXrjo'iv, 
yrjpal 8*7 7roXifioco ireiravpLevot, a\V dyofyqraX 150 

iaffXol, T€TTuye<T(nv ioi/cores, 0% re /caff' iXvjv 
SevSpktp i<j>e£6fievoi oira Xeipioeaaav Ulviv* 
roioi dpa Tpdxov TjyTjTope^ ?\irr hr\ irvpytp. 


iaiaaox r. 

of* S' <&? ofe etBovfF 'EXemjv i-rrl irvpyov lovtrav s 
$}fca Trpos aW/fXows ewea Trrepoevr dyopevov 
Ou vkprnts Tpmm teal ivKP^ptBa^ M^otou? 
TOtpK dptfyl yvvattci ttoXvu ^(povov aXr/ea wd<r%€ip • 
alpws aOavdrrjo-i dtps eh mira eottcev* 
dXXa koI &v, rotTj irzp £ova 3 iv VTjva-l vela Bay, 
/a-jjS' r}plv retcieaat r 07rl<ram yrypa \l7r0tTo. 




and, at Priam 1 ! request^ points out and calls by name the 
bravest of the Greeks. 

A /2? cLp* €$>ap f Uplapo^; S P 'EX&vrfv k/caXitrcraTo <pwv§ ■ 
Sevpo irdpoid* iXOou&a, 0iXoi/ retco^, t^ev ipeto, 
otfipa IB$ irporepop re iroatv irijov? re $CXov$ re » 
ov tI pot air IT} iaal, 0€Qi vv pot atrtoi elatv, 
at pat irfx&ppijaav troXepop <?roXv8atcpup *A%atmv * Ibj 

First, Agamemnon/ 

<5? pot teal ravS* avSpa irsXdiptQP e^ouop^vjj^, 

o<? rt$ aft* iarlp 'A^ato*? avfyp rjus re peya$ re* 

ff rat pev K^aXf} xal pet£ove$ aXXot ia<n m 

tcaXov B? outq) iymv ov 7rw XBqp 6<f>$aXpato-tP, 

ovS 9 QVTto yepapap* ^aa-tXiji yap dvBpl eoitfe. "7° 

Tov S 1 ^EXevn puOota-tp dpeij3eTo t Bta yvvatttmv 
atBotos ri ftoi £a<rti <j>Cke Itcupi, Betpo? re* 
«S SfaXep $dpaTQ$ pot dSetv fcafcos t owwore Bevpa 
viei trm kwop^v OdXapov yvwrovs tc Xarovaa 
iratBd re TTfXvyirTjp feat opTjXt/ctTjv epaTetvyv. J 71 

dXXa rd 7* avtc eyevovro * to jcoX xXa(avo-a revfj/ca* 
tovtq Be rot ip£<&, o p due! peat rjBe peraXXafi* 
oJto? y ^ArpetBi??, evpv tcpsmp *Ayap£pv&>p t 

66 IAIAA02 r. 

aptfcoTepov, fiaaikevs t' wyaOos tcparepo? r afy/Mpnfc* 
Barjp air e/w %<T/ce KwdyinBo^ et ttot h\v y**^ ^ *8° '/i 
*fl<S <f>aTo, tov 8' 6 yipav rjydaaaTo (fxomja'ev rt • t* j ^^T^ 
& fidfcap 'ArpetSrj, fioipyyevis, 6\fit68cufJX)v, OTfc^t/^^ 
fj pa vv toi iroWol BeBp^aTO /covpoi y A^aia>v. 
rjBr) /cal $pvylr)v eiarjkvdov dfiTreXoeacrav, 
€v0a cBov irXeloTov? $pvya$ avkpas aloXoTrcoXovs, 185 

Xaov? 'Ot/3^09 /cal MvyBopo? dvTiQioio % 
oi pa tot icTpaTowvTO trap oyQas Sayyaplow 
zeal yap iycbv iiriKovpo^ icbv fteTa To2<nv ikexdrfp 

fjfJLaTl TG>, 0T6 T fjXBoV 'A/JUz£6v€$ OVTULVUpai* 

aXX 9 ov8* oi Toaov f\aav oaoi ikl/cayrres 'A^atoL 190 

neort % Odysseus; 

Aevrepov atrr 'OBvoija I8a>v epeeiv 6 yepau>$ 9 
efar ar/e fioi /cal tovSc, <f>ikov t4ko<;, 05 w 08' earl* 
fielwv fiev K€(f)d\fj 'Ayajiefivopo? *ATpet8ao 9 
evpvrepo? 8' ibfjuoicnv ISe arepvova-vv IBeaOai. 
Tevyea fiiv oi tc&Tai hr\ yQovl TrovkvfioTelpri, 195 

avTO? 8k /ctiXos &S iiMTtokeZTai crT^a? dvBp&v* 
apveicp fiiv iyd> ye itcr/cco Trrjyeo-ifidWq), 
#S t otcov fieya ir&v BUpxerai dpyevvdeov. 

Tbv 8' rjfjLeifter eireid* 'EXevrj Al6<$ i/cyeyavia* 
oSto? 8' ai AaepTidBrjs, 7ro\i5fj,riTi$ 'OBvaaevs, *0O 

89 Tpdtyq iv Brjfitp 'IOd/crj? /cpavafy irep iowrqs, 
etSco? iravTolovs T€ SoXot/? /cal firjBea irvicvd. 

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& yvvat, fj fidXa tovto hro<; vrjfiepTh ee/.7T€? # 
fjBrj yap teal Bevpo ttot ffKv0€ 810$ 'OBvo-aeift *»5 

era) lv€/c dyyeXlrjs avv dprjl^tXtp Mevekap. 



rov$ S* iym ^eiPKra-a koX ev peydpotat <f>i\7}<ra t 

afufiorepttiP Be tfivrjv iSdyv Kal fi^Bea wutcvcL 

aXX ore Br} Tpmea'trtv iv drfpofievota'tv Sfii^BePr 

trrdvrmv p>ev MeveXaos imeipe^ev wpeaq &fiom» AIaM^ '**** 

ajjtfftm 8* e^opevm yepapwrepos rjev *QBvao-evs. 

«XX* ore &rj jAV$ov<s ical fiqSea iraa-tv vcfiatvov B \ 1 

% rot fiev Mevikaos iirtrpo^dBr^v dyopeve 


iravpa $jl£v 3 aXka fiaXa Xtyetu?, eVel oi irokvpudos 

ovK ajpafiapToeTnjVi et teal y&et, v&repos fjev, 215 

ttXV ore Bij woXvfLijris dvat^eiev 'OBvtr&evs, 

OTO&KeVi vrral he tBea'tce tear a %6qvq<$ opbfiara 7r?Jfa9, 

o-terjirrpov £* ovr qttio-m ovre irpoirpi^vh ivt*>pa 3 

aXX* d<rr€fi<ph eftttKev, dtBpel <fya>rl ioifcwq * i^ 

<f>ai7j^ zee ^dtcorov ri riv ejipevai atj>povd r avrws* 3* 1 

d\\ y ore Brj Swa re fieydXtjv its o-rij0eo^ etjj 

teal etrea vtfydBea-atv iattcora ^etpLepljjtriv, 

ovtc &v eweir i OBv<rT}t y iplva-eie ftporos aXXos • 

ov rore y &B* 'OSiwiJos dyaaadfLeff elBov IBovres* 

tfa'rdj Ajax, 

To rplrov avr Afavra ISw ipieiv yepaios* ,--' ' 225 
rk r ap 00 oKao? Aj(aio% avrjp tjv$ re peya? re M 
€|o%o? 1 Apy eimv t£ecj>aXt]v re Kal evpias gJ/jou? ; 

Tov B" ^Xepj} ravvirefrXos a^ie^Jero, Bta yvvai/c&v 
ovro? &' AXa$ i<rrl ireKwptos, j-ptcoq f Aj(at&v a 
*IBop,€V€V$ £' krepmBev evl Kpr^Teaa-i 6eb$ &? 230 

earr}K M dp,<f>l Be flip Kprjrwv dyol ^yepedovrau 
iroWdta ptv Jfefabtra&t dp^f^tXo? Mevekaos 
QtKM iv *}fierepq> t oirore J£p/}n]9ev txoiro* 

68 iaiaaos r. 

As her eyes run over the host, they fail to find Castor and 

Nvv S* aWovs fjukv irdvra^ 6p& eXl/eaira? 'A^aiou?, 

oif? Kev Of yvolr\v Kal r ovvofjua fivOrjaaifJbrjv • 235 

Boca) 8' ov Svvaficu IBeeiv Koafirjrope \a&v, 

Kdaropd ff* vmroBafiov Kal irvl; ar/aObv IIoXvBevKea, 

avTo/eao-iyvrfTQ), rd> fioi fila yelvaro y^Tr\p • 

fj ov% eaTreadrjv AaKeBalfiovo? it* ipareivf}?, Ay^ 

fj Bevpw fiev ejrovro vie<r<r evi irovroTropoiaiv, *r* 5^ d 

vvv air ov/c i0e\ov<ri p>d>XV v KaraBvfievai dvBp&vAFr fT 

ato-xea BeiBiores Kal oveiBea 7r6\\\ a fiol etrrw. ' vLJ-' 

*Sl<i <f>aTO, tov$ B' JjBrj Kare^ev <f>v<rl£oos ala ^^ <l 
iv Aa/ceSalfiovi avOi, (f>L\y ev irarpiBt yaly* 

The herald Idaios delivers the summons to Priam, who mounts 
his chariot, accompanied by Antcnor, and drives out upon the 
plain, where the two armies are assembled 

Krjpvices S* dva acrrv Oe&v <f>epov op/aa iriard, 2 45 

apve Bvw Kal olvov iv<f>pova, Kapirbv dpovprjs, 
cutkS> iv alyeicp* (pipe Be KprjTrjpa <j>aeivbv 
Krjpvg J ISaio<s qBe* xpvo-eia KinreXKa* 
&rpvvev B% yepovra irapia-rd/ievo^ iireeaaiv* 

"Op<reo, AaofieBovTidBrj • KaXeovaiv apurroi 250 

Tpdxov ff C7r7roBdfia)V Kal *A%ai&v x°^ K0 % lT ^ vtav 
€? ireBLov Karafirjvai, Xv opKia mora Tapirs. ^^ 

avrap 'AXegavSpos Kal apr)i$iXo<; MeveXao? 
ficucprjs iyxelyai nayfiaovr dftfpl yvvawl* 
tc3 Be Ke viK7\<javri ywrj Kal KTrfpaff* cttoito* 255 

oi 8' aXXoi (piXorrjTa Kal op/aa ttlotcl rafiovre^ 
valoifiev Tpoirjv ipiftdoXaKa, rol Be* viovrac 
*Apyo$ €9 hnrofioTov Kal 'A^atiSa KaXkiyvvaiKa. 

iIAAOS r. 




aif S' dp' efii} JJplafiop ^W^JP^J^^^^^^^' 
7rAp Si oi *Avr^v&p Trepueaxkea fltjtreTo Suppop. 
rm Se Sni Stcaiwv TreSiovh' e% oV & x & a ? wnrow. 

*A\\* ore B-q p Zkqvtq /iera Tp&as teal *A^tuov94/ g 
il; twTTWv diro^dpre^ iirl %86pa irovkv^QTeigaw^^ V 2&S 
£•? jLGtr&ov Tptbtov teal A^atcav iorijfpavTO* 
'tEppVTO 8* avrttc eweiTa aval; avfipwv 1 Ayaptip,pmv» 
av hf *0&v<T£V$ iroXvfJLfjTt^ ' arap /ctfpvtces dyavo 
op/cta *tr terra 0ea>p avvayop> KprfT^pt $£ otpop * 
pia-yop, arap fia&ikeva-tp vt)a>p iirl xeipa? ej(jSfaVm 2 70 

% Arpeihr}s Se ipvcro-dfievos %£ipeo-cn pLayratpaP t 
»J pi Trap jzfyeos pteya tcovkeov alev ampro 3 
apv&v etc jce<f>a\e&)v Tap,!** Tpfyas ■ aurap ewetra 
tcj}pvtc€<2 Tpthmv teal *Aj(ai&v vetfAav aplo-rots. 
ToZfiiu S* ^ At petS rj^ fieydX* ev^ro xetpas avaayj&v* *7S 

Agamemnon prays to Zeus and sacrifices ike lambs. 

Zev wdrepi *IS7}&ev peh)emp t kv$mtt£ pbeytcrrej 
7}£\i6<; #\ os iravr itfiopas /cal iravr ewaKQvew* 
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avBpt&TTOvs rivutrBoVj oris tc iwiopfcov ifioca^ 
vp,€L<l paprvpot &7T6, tpuXda-o-ere S 1 opfcia it terra* 280 

el pAv tcep MeveXaop % AXe^avSpos KaTair€^>vr^ t 
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Tfjj,€tf S* ep vi}s*r<ri petiyfLeBa TrovTOTropota-iv* 
el Be k *A\e!*ai*$pQv fcretpjj %av9us MepeXaos, 
Tjpctia^ Gwei0* *E\eP7]P Ka\ ftT^p.ara itcipt diroSovpai, 2 ^5 
Ttpijp hT *Apyeiaw airoTtveftev rp? tip* eoitcev, 


1j re teal ecrcrofievoicri /ier dv0pa>7rot,cri irikrjrcu. 

el 8' &v ifiol rifirjv Ilplafios IIpidfjLOU) re iralSes 

lively ovtc eOekaxriv 'AXegdvSpoio Trecrovros, 

avrdp eya> teal eireira jiaxrfcrofiai, eive/ca irovvrj^ 290 

avOi fievcDV, eiW ice re\o9 irdXefioio Kvyei®. 

*£T, zeal otto aTOfiouxpv^ apv&v rdfie vrfXei j(aXic(p* 
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olvov 8* etc tcprjTrjpos d^vaaopuevoi heirdeacrvv 295 

eK'xeov, 178' €vxovto Oeols alevyeverycnv 
&Se Be tw eXirecTKev ^A^ai&v re Tpaxov re* v Aj 

Zev Kvhurre uAyvcrre, teal dOdvarot Oeoi ctXXoc, rJ^\ju 
o*mroT€poi Trporepoi xnrep op/cca 7n)/j,rjveiav, ' .^V* 

&Se a<f> eyice<f)dXo<; yaiiaZis peoi ©9 SSe olvos, ^ 3°° 

avr&v teal re/ceav, aXoxpi 8' oXKoktl Safielev. 

A f2$ e<£ap, oi8' a/>a 7rd> <r<f>iv eireicpaiaive Kpovuov* 
rolcn hk AapSaviSrj? II pianos fiera jwBov ieiire* 

After which Priam returns to the city* 

Kexkure jjuev, Tpcoes teal iv/cvrffJuSes 9 Amatol* 
ff rot eyebv el/u irporl "IXiov tjvefwecrcrav 3P5 

&>Jr, eirel ov 7tg> rXtfcro/jL ev d<j>0a\/jLoicnv opacrOai 
fiapvdfjuevov <f)i\ov vibv dprjZ(f)tk<p Mevekcup* 
Zevs fiev ttov to ye olSe teal dddvaroi Oeoi a\Xoi 9 
(ymrorepep davdroio re\o$ ireTrpcofievov ecrriv. 

*H pa, real €9 Si<f>pov apva$ Oero IcroOeo*; <f>co<; t 3 10 

&v 8' ap e*fiaiv avro*;, Kara 8* rjvla relvev oirUrcray • 
Trap 84 oi 'Avrrjvwp irepticdKkea firfcreTO 8l<j>pov. 
to) fih ap ayjroppoi irporl "Ikiov diroveovro* 


iaiaaos r. 71 

Hector and Odysseus measure off the lists, and shake the helmet 
until the lot of Paris leaps forth. 

"Etcrayp Sk Tlptdpou) irais teal 82o? '08v<r<r€vs 
X&pov fiev Trpfiyrov Siep&rpeov, avrhp hrevra 3*5 

Kkripovs iv Kwerj j(aKjcrjpel iraXKov eXoin*e?, 
07T7roT6/>05 Btf irpoadev d^e/iy %d\/c€ov eyxps. 
\aol 8' r\pr\aavro, Oeolcn 8e %e£/oa9 aveaypv 
&8e Si ti$ elireaKev 'Ayai&v re Tpwcov re. 

Zev irdrep, "ISrjOev fieSeav, /cvSiore fieyiare, 3*° 

OTnrorepo*; raZe %pya per dp,<j>OT€poi<riv £0r)/e€, 

TOV 809 a7T0(f)di/JL€V0V SvVCU B6pOV "Alho? €C<TG), 

ripZv 8' ai ^CKoTT^Ta real op/cia irurrh, yevkaQai. 

A /2? &p i~(f)av, irdXKev Sk piyas /copv0alo~&o$ "E/crwp 
&yfr opocov Ildpios 8k Bow etc /c\f}po$ opovaev. 3*5 

04 pev eiretff X^ovro Karh, aTi^an, fyi, eicd<rr<p 
Xmroi depafarohes kclL irouctXa Texr^e i/cetro • 

The champions arm themselves j 

avicip t y dp<f> copoiatv iSvaero rev^ea KaXd 

S469 9 A\£fjav8po$, K EX6vr)<s 7roV*9 r/vfcopoio. 

KVTjpZSa? p,h> irp&ra irepl Kvtjprj<nv edrjtcev 33° 

tcaXds, dpyvpkourw einafyvpiois dpapvia?* 

hevrepov ai 0d>prjKa irepl aT7]0€<raiv SSvvev 

oto fcaciyvrJToio Avfcdovos, rjppocre o° airoS. 

dp<f)l 8' ap &poicriv fidXero gC<f>o$ dpyvpdrfkov 

ftdX/ceov, avrdp eirevra <rd/co$ piya re crnftapov re • 335 

icparl 8' iir l<j>0tp*p /cwerjv evrvferov eOrj/cev, 

Xmrovpiv Sewbv Sk \6<f>o? icaOinrepOev evevev. 

eTkero 8' akfcipov &y%09, o oi irakdprj^iv dprjpei. 

&9 8' atrra>9 MeviKao? dprjlos evre £$vvev. 


and stride into the lists. *y* AT 

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€5 yAcraov Tpdtcov /cat 'A%ai(ov ecnvxpcavro v g/^ v w\ *• 
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<K Ot tfTT 

7ft* combat is already decided in favor of Menelaos^ when Aphr^ 
dite interposes, rescues Paris from the victor^ and Jratlffi&rt's 
him to his own bed-chamber^ 

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€t ft?} dp ogv vofyd% if to? Oir/drTjp y A^poBlTiq, 
>} oi pri^€P tfiuvra $oo<? l<b& jerafievaiQ ■ 375 

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peta fiaX* <3<? re 0eo?, ixaXv^re S* &p fjipt TroXXg, ^.\ 
tcaB S' ehr iv 0aXa$Lfp euwSefr tcrjmepTt, v 

whither she summons Helen $ 

^XaM} y avfl* *EX£p7}p tcaXiovtf te* t^ji S* eW#a 
Trvpyqj i<ff vy^rfk^t 7repi <5e Tptpal a\t<$ rj<rap t 
%upl Be pe/trrapGov eavov irivatje Xa0Qu<ja r 
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elpOfCOjAfpt tj oi AatceBalfMOpc patsTO&a-g 

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rfj p,tv i.€iGap,€in} irpotr^wpee Bt' *A&poBiT7}* 

Aevp X0* * 'AXegapBpos ere tcaXei oIkqpBz pieo-ffat. 
K€tPQ$ o y ip BaXdfMp teal BlvwtqIo'i Xi^aaiv* 

' 3 8o 

3 *> 

74 IAIAA02 r. 

tcdXXet re <rTikf3&P Kal €*tp.atrtv * obSi K€ <f}ab}$ 
dpBpl jAa'%7}<rdfjLGvov rov y 1 i\0etP t dXXa ^ppopBe 

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<mk& at first resists^ but is compelled ia comply J 

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aXX* atel *jrepl tcetvop 6t%v€ teal i 0i/\aera-e, 
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aty$ t vrd&as S£ Tp<pd<? Xd0ep m %pj(€ Be Bat jimp* 

... J 



Aphrodite and Helen enter Paris** house. 

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ap^lwoXot pev eiretra Oocbs eVi epya rpaTrovro, 
1} S* £t*<? irfropofiov BakapiOv icU $2a yvvaucwv, 
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evBa KaOt^ f -E\e>^, Kovpi} Aih$ aiyioftotO) 
Serve irakiv tcXtvao-a t woeriv S* -qviwaire p,v8tp ■ 



Helen upbraids her husband with his coivardict, 

v H\v0€? itc iroXep.ov' ea>? dS0e\e$ avroO* oXkerdai 
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^ /itv 8 7 ?rpfi/ y €#%e* dp^l^Ckov MeveXdov 

aXK 19 tt vvv wpQJtakGO'G'tLt aptjityiXjop MeveXtzov 

iljavrw pM-xeaaadai ivapTLov, dXXd & iym ye 

iraveadat xiXofiati fii}$£ gavBw MeveXatp 

avr Ifiiov TroXeftov TroXe/xi^v rj&e fid^eaffat 

a<f>paf>£m, p^i ttw raft vw airov Sovpl Bafiqrft*/ §X* 

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vvv fLEv yap MeviXao^ i pitcher ep ervv *A8-qvm?, C 
jeeivop & avrt? iym * vrapa yap Geot el&t teal ijjmv. 
SXX* dye h?j ff>tX6r^rt Tpairetofiev evvijOivre ■ 
ou yap Tno work p! <S8e 7 1 epws cf>p£va$ apt^fedXv^ev, 



ovB* ore ere wpcorov Aate€$aip,ovos el~ eparuvt}^ 
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v^ertp W iv Kpavdy ialr^qv efrtXoTijTt Aral evvfi, 
A? aeo vvv epapai tcai /*e yXvte us iaepo$ aipeu 



76 iaiaaos r. 

*H pa, real ap%e Xe^oaSe kig>v ajjui 8* eforer* oucovri^* 
to) pev ap iv TprjToia-t tcaTevvaaOev Xej^eeaavv. \P*^\ tb 

Meanwhile Menelaos charges through the battle-field in search Jj/^ 


'ArpetSr)? 8' av SficXov i<f>oira 6rip\ ioiKws, 
el irov iaaOprjaeiev 'AXegavSpov BeoevZea. 
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laov yap a<j>i,v iraaiv awqydSero Kr\pi /leXalvrj. 

and Agamemnon claims that Helen be delivered up to the Greeks^ 
in compliance with the compact. 

rolai he zeal fiereenrev aval; avhpSyv *Ayafie/j,va>v 455 

KetcXvTe fiev, Tp&e$ real Aaphavoi $8 eirUovpov* 

vl/cr) fiev Sff fyalver ap7)l<f>tXov MeveXdov 

vfiel? 8' y Apyelr)v 'EXevrjv zeal KTr^iaff ay! avry 

itchoTe, tca\ Tiy^qv anroTive^ev r\v tlv e*oucev 9 

$1 Te real eaaofjLevoiai /act avQpoairoiai ire\rjTai,. 460 

A /2? e<f>aT 'ATpetSt)?, eifl 8* rjveov aXXoi 'Agouti. 




The Gods in council. 

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vhcrap €<pvo^6ei' rol Se xpv<reot,$ heirdeaa-L 
SeiBexar* aXktfkov? Tpdxov irokiv eiaopowvre^* 

Zeus taunts Hera with her neglect of Menelaos, 

AvtIk eireipaTO Kpov&rjs ipeOt^e/jbev "Hpijv 5 

K€pTOfiloi$ eireeaaLy Trapaj3\rj8r)v dyopevcov • 

Aoial fi€V Mevekaco aprjyove? eial Oedwv, 
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T^pirea-dov tc5 8' aire <f>i\ofifjL€t,Sr)5 ^A^poSirr) 10 

aiel irapfi€fi/3\(0/c€ teal avrov K?\pas dfivvet, 
icaX vvv igeo-doxrev oiofievov Oaveeadai. 
oX\' 7} toi vUtj fiev dprjtyikov MeveXdov. 

and proposes that the Gods decide whether the combat shall be re- 
newed, or peace be concluded and Troy remain unharmed. 

f H/t€69 Z\ (f)pa^co/jL€0\ 07TCD9 icrrai rate epya, 
r) p* aJhis TTokefiov re kcocov kclL <f>v\o7nv alvrjv 15 

op<rofiev, ?j <f>iX6rr)Ta /act dfjL<j)OT€poi<Ti fidXcofiev. 


ij T€ /cal i<r<rofi6voi<n /act dvOpanroiai, iriKrfTcu. 

el 8' &v ifiol TLfifjv Ilpta/ios Ilpidfioco T€ waiSe? 

ilveiy ov/c iOekaxrw 'AXefjdvSpoio treaovro^ 

avrdp eyco /cal hreira fia^aofiav etve/ca Troon)? 290 

atOi fievcov, ewo? /ce re\o9 TroXifioco /ci^ela. 

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€Kj(€ov 9 ^8' evxpvro deols aleiyeveTyo-w 
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avr&v /cal re/ce&v, aKo'Xpi, 8' aWourc Safietev. 

A /2? e<f>av, ov8* apa 7ra> atyv eire/cpalawe Kpovuov. 
touti Zk AapSavtSrj? Ilplafio? fierd fivOov iecire* 

After which Priam returns to the city. 

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ff rot eytov elfii trporl "Ikiov ^ve/Moeo-aav 3PS 

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Zev? fiev 7tov to ye olBe /cal dOdvaroi Oeol akkoi, 
onrrrorepep Oavdroio riko? Treirpcofxevov early. 

*H pa, /cal €9 Bl(f>pov apva<; Oero laoOeos <f>a><i, 3 1 © 

av K dp efiatv avros, Kara 8* fjvla relvev OTruraco • 
trap he ol J AvrrjV€op nrepi/caXkea ^rjaero Sl<f>pov. 
ra> filv ap dsfroppot irporl "Ikiov diroveovro* 


iaiaaos r. 71 

Hector and Odysseus measure off the lists, and shake the helmet 
until the lot of Paris leaps forth. 

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X&p ov M*" irp&TOV Siefierpeov, avrdp eiretTa 3 , 5 

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Xaol 8' fjpriaavTO, Oeolcn, he %€«/>a? avioypv 
&&€ $4 Tfc? elire<TK€v 9 A^ata>v re Tpdxov re. 

Zev irdrep, "ISrjOev fieSecov, Kvhurre fiiyiare, 3 30 

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TOV 809 a7TO(f)0lfl€VOV &VVCLL h6flOV "A'CSo? €?<TG>, 

ffiuv 8' ai (friKorrjTa kal op/eta iriard yeveaOau 

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asfr opocov Ildpios hk 0o&$ i/c /cXrjpo? opovcrev. 3*5 

oi fiev eireiff X^ovto /card crri^a^ fyi eicdartp 
Zmroi deptrlirohes fcal irouclXa retr^e etceiTO* 

The champions arm themselves j 

aindp 8 y dfifi cofjuoicnv iSvo-ero Tevyea /caXd 

Sto9 'AXAgavSpos, 'EXevrj? 7ro<rA9 rjvKOfxoio. 

KvrifiiSas pkv irp&ra irepl /cvrjfirjo-w edytcev 33° 

KaXds, dpyvpeoKTiv eTriafyvplow dpapvla?* 

hevrepov ai ddoprj/ca irepl aT7]0€<r<riv SBvvev 

olo Kacnrfiriyroio Avtcdovo?, tfpfj,o<re 8* avT(S. 

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XdX/ceov, avrhp eirevra vd/co? fieya re cmfiapov re* 335 

Kparl 8' eir l<f>0ifKp kvv&tjv evrv/crov eOrjKev, 

fonrovpev hevvbv 8% Xo<£o9 KaOxnrepOev evevev. 

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&9 8' avToos Mevi\ao$ dprjlo*; evre k'Svvev. 


and stride into the lists. 

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02 r, 


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va? o x 

The t&mhat is already decided in favor of Men e loos f when Aphr^\ - 
dtU interposes \ rescues Paris from the victor, and transports 
him to his own bed-chamber. 

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whither she summons Hden r 

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xai p &>? aSi/ ipoij&e Seas ^reptKaXXia Set/>T/r 
<rr^Bed 0* ip^epoevra teal Sf^ftara pappalpoprdl * 
ddpftija-iv t dp hrura hros r e<f>ar etc t ovopa^e* 

who at first resists, but is contpdted (& c&mplyl ^ [^ 

Aaip,ovvr} r ri ps ravra XtXateat faepnweve&vj^^ ..^TXv* / 
if irp pe wporepm iroXimP €it Patopepdcou -^r^\ 4°° 

a!*€L$ ^ $pvylt}$, ^ Mr^opi^ ipaTeivrjs, 
€* rk toi teal KztBb iptXos pepQTrwv av&punrwv ; 
ovpetea Brj vvp Btov ' AXifjavBpop MeviKaoq 
poetfo-as i$£\€t arvyeprfp £/*£ QitcaB* ay€o-9at § 
rovpifca Br} pvp Bevpo BoXotf>pop£Ovp-a Tra/wnj? ; 
fyro wop 1 airop lovaa, Bemp B' awoeim teeXetiffov, 
fif}S^ en crottri iroSeo-atp wrotrrge^sia*; it OXvp i irQP f 
ahX aid Trepl fCeZvop ot^ve teat e <f>vXac-<re a 
els S { tce <r $ oXqxqp irottftrerm, fj o ye BovXtjp* 
teeter e $ iytou ontc el/ju (pepLeererTiTov Be tcev et^) 
tctipov wopo-apeovera X£j£oe • Tp&at Bi p? qttL(tgv* 
irdo-at p,ap,i}o-QPTat ■ e%(& S' &xe atepira Bupbip* ,«/^ 

Ttjv Be %6km<iap,€pT} irpotre^mvee Bt *A<ppeBfti} - 
pJ\ pH epe&e, a-^erXtf}, pbij x&o-apLepi} ere p>e&€iw r 
tg>? Be er aTT€X& r ]p<** &s pvp &HWyV itpiXrjo-Oi 
piao-tp 8* apufroripayp p.TjTteropLatr e*X® €a ^vyp®* 
Tpasmp teal Aapamv, trv Be tcev teateop olrov qXtjcu. 

ift? %$ar\ isBeiaep S' 'EXipTjt Aih^ eteyeyavtan 

wS%, #' 

f}?} B& KaTm&xopLepi} eap<p apyrjrt $aeiPt&> 
0vy$, tra&m Se Tp<pt\% Xddev* ^]p%e Bk BaipLtop* 



Aphr&dite and Helen enter Parish house, 

Ai S 1 ot * AXzt;dvBpQiG Sofiop TreptxaXXe mfopto, 
afji^lirokott fiep eire&ra dam iirl epya rpdirovro^ 
ij S* £*? VTJrQpQ$ap ffakapov kU Bla yvvaueow. 
T?} S* apa Stypov eXovaa <f>iXo/xfieiBrj^ *A<f>poB{Ti} 
avrC \AX^dpBpoto $ea tcariOrj/ce fyipovtra* 
€v6a tcadlt? r EXiifff t Kovpj} Ath$ aly tomato, 
Q<T&e irdXip tcXiva&a, iroatp 8* fjviTrwrre p<v0<p ■ 

Helen upbraids her husband with his cowardici* 

*HXv0e$ etc TroXejiov * to? wtpeXes avr68* ohlo-Sai 
avZpl BapeU tepmepm, 3? 1/jlo^ wpoTepos Trocm $}€p* 
»} piv St) irpiv y eiJ%e* dp-qlt^CXov MeveXdou 
ffjie j3l$ teal %ep<rl teal ey^et <f>£pT€pQ<z etvat * 
aXX* 10 1 vvv irpoxaXeaa-at aprjtfiiXov MeveXaOP 
i^avrt^ fm-^iaaa dat ivavriov* dXXd <r iyo> ye 
iraveerOat tciXopat, p>7}Be %av8&* MspeXdtp 
avrifttrov iroXefWV TroXefiltfetv iJSe ^id^aOat 

ypaSim* p*\ Trco? rd^ vtt avrov Sovpl Bap,$7}<i. y 
Tijv Be IIdpt,<; fivGoanv dp*eij3Qp*epo% irpoo-ienfep * 
pj\ pL€ r yvvat t ^aX^iroiatv opelBeen Bvphv epnrre* 
pvp yap MepiXaos epitcijo-ev <tvp *A0r}vy^ 
xetuov S* aZrt<? iyti ■ iraptk yiip 9eot ettri, tern ijpSv* 
rtXV dye Btj ^Xcjtijtg rpa^eiop^ep evpTjOepre' 
ov yap ttco 7roT€ p>* £>B£ y epws fypeva*; ap>tf>eKaXvtyep, 
oiB' ore ere TTpmroit AatceBalp^opo^ e|* epareivr}*; 
ewXeop apTrdgas iv wQPTOiropQtcn peevaw 9 
pijaqt S* iv Kpapdg i^ity^p <piX6r7}Ti teal evv§, 
& <reo vup epa/iat teal p,e yXvtcm tp,epo$ alpet 



76 iaiaaos r. 

*H pa, fcal ap'xje Xe^oaSe kiwv • a/*a 8' ewrer' &kolti$. 
to) /A€i; ap* ez/ rprjTolai, tcarevvaaQev Xe^eeo-om 

Meanwhile Menelaos charges through the battle-field in search mIs" 

of , Paris; , , orfffixs 

*Arpetfcr)<; 8' av ofitXov i<f>olra Orjpl ioi/ccos, yJ* ^Jt 

el 7rov iaaOprjaevev *AXef;av8pov OeoeiSea. 
aXX y ov Tt? Svvaro Tpdotov kXglt&v t iirtKovpcov 
hel^av y AXe^avhpov tot aprjfylXtp MeveXacp. 
ov p,€v yap <j>iX6tt)ti y eicevOavov, el TA9 IBoito • 
urov yap crfyw iraa-tv airrj^Oero tcrjpl fieXaivy. 

and Agamemnon claims that Helen be delivered up to the Greeks^ 
in compliance with the compact, 

total 8e /cal fiereeLTrep aval; av$pa>v ^AyapAp,v<ov 455 

KifcXvri p,ev, Tp&e<t teal AapZavoi ^78' hrUcovpoi* 

vIktj /iev Brj <j)alver aprjl<f)iXov MeveXdov 

vfieis 8' 'Apyelrjv 'EXevrjv /cal /crtfjiaff* ay! avry 

e/cSore, /cal Tifirjv anroTivepev r\v tlv eoLteev, 

% re /cal eacrofievoicri per 9 avQpdnroiai TreXrfrai. 460 

*/29 %$ar 'ArpetSr]?, eirl 8' rjveov aXXoi 'Amatol. 




The Gods in council. 

Oi Sk Oeol irap Zqvl /caOtffievot, rjyop6covro 
Xpv<re<p €v SairiSq), fieTa 8e <r<f>i<rc irirrvia "Hfirj 
vhcrap ecpvo'xpei* rot Be *)(pv<reoi<i $€7ra€<r<ri 
BecBe^ar* aXXiyXovs Tpdxov ttoXiv elaopotovre^ 

Zeus taunts Hera with her neglect of Menelaos, 

AvtIk iireiparo KpovcBrj? epeBi^ifiev "Hprjv 5 

/eepTOfiloc? iireeaav, irapap\rjBr}v dyopevcov • 

AoiaX fikv MeveXdcp dprjyove? elal Oedcov, 
"Hprj t* 'Apyelrj teal 'AXaX/cofievrjl'*; ^AOtjvtj. 
aXX' r) rot ral vo<t^>l /caOijfievcu elaopoaxrai 
repTreo-dov tgJ 8' avre <f>iXo/j,p,€iBr)<; 'A^poBiTrj 10 

alel irap fxefjb^Xco tee /cal avrov fcfjpa? dfivvev, 
teal vvv il-ecrdcixrev oiofievov Oaveeadcu. 
dXX' fj rot vt/crj fiev aprj'i(f)tXov MeveXdov, 

and proposes that the Gods decide whether the combat shall be re- 
newed, or peace be concluded and Troy remain unharmed. 

*HfLel<s Bl <l>pa£(i)fi€0\ 07ra)9 earai rdBe epya, 
r\ p* a\)Ti<i iroXefiov re kglkov teal <j>vXo7riv alvrjv 15 

opaofiev, 7j ^CXorrjra fier dp,<j>oT€pourt, fidXcofjuev. 

/8 IAIAA02 A. 

€4 8' ai 7Tft)9 i6Be iraav fytXov teal rjBv yevono, 
r\ rot fxkv oIk€OL70 tto\49 nped/jioco ava/cros, 
uvtis B % *Apyelr)v 'EXevrjv MeveXao? wyoiTO. 

Athena and Hera hear this proposal with indignation, 

'V2<? e<f>a0\ ai 8' €7T€fiv^av 'AOrjvairf re fcal "Hprj. 20 

7r\rj(riac al y rjaOrjv, kclkcl Be Tpcoea-ai fieBeo-Orjp. 
rj toi y AQt)vabr\ a/cecov fjv ovBe tc elire, 
(TKv^ofjbivr) Ail ircLTpi, yoko? Be fiiv aypios ypec 
Hpj) 8' oifc e^aSe aTrjOos %6\ov, aXKct irpoarjvBa. 

and the latter protests against the thwarting of her desire, 

AlvoTare KpovlBrj, irolov rbv fivOov eenre?. 25 

7rw9 iOekeis aXiov Oelvat irovov ^8' arekearov, 
iBpco 9 ov tBpcoaa /xoyca, /cafjuerrju Be p,oi Zmroi, 
"Xabv ar/eipovo-r) Hpid\i(p /cared, rolo re iraia-lv. 
epB?' drdp ov toi irdvre% iircuveojiev Oeol aXXoi. 

until Zeus consents that she work her will upon the city, 

Tt)v Be* fxiy y 6%0i)aa<; Trpoae^r) ve^ekrjyepera Zeis* 30 
BaifioviT), rl vv o~e IIpid/j,o<; Upidfiovo re iraiBes 
tog a a /ca/cd pifcovcrw, 6 r da-irep^e^ /jLeveaivei? 
*I\lov e%aXam d%cu iv/crifievov irroXieOpov; 
el Be av y ' elaeXdovaa irvXa? zeal rec^ea fiatcpd 
<ifxbv /3e/3pd)0oi<; Hpiafiov Ilpidfioio re iralBa? 35 

aWovs re Tpwas, Tore Kev ^6\ov ifja/cecaio* 
iTpfoi/ 07T©9 i0e\ew fMT) tovto ye velico<i oirlaaoa 
(tqk kcX ifM)l fjuey* epHT/r-a /ier % dfjb<j)OT€poiori yevryrai* 



threatening, however, to destroy such of her cities as he may please, 
in the future, as the price of his concession. 

*AXXo he toi ipicOy <rv 8* evl <f>peal /3dXXeo afjaiv 
oirirore Kev xal eya> /xe/too)? iroXw igaXaTrdgai 40 

rrjv eOeXco, ode toi (fytXot, dvipe? eyyey dacrv, 
fir) ti Siarpifieiv rov ifibv %oXov, dXXd fi* iaacu. 
seal yap iyco aol 8&xa i/ca)v deteovTt ye Ovfi<p* 
at yap vtt* rjeXiq) re icaX ovpavw aarepoevTi 
vaierdovcri, iroXrjes eiriyOovltav dvOpcoircov, 45 

tcuov fMOC trepl Krjpi riec/cero "IXio? Iptf 
Kai Hplap,o<$ teal Xab$ evfifJueXlco Upidpboio, 
ov yap fioi 7T0T6 /3 co fib? iBevero 8airb<t itar}<;, 
Xoifirj? re tcvicrrj^ T€* to yap Xd^ojiev yepa? rjfieU. 

Hera accepts this condition^ 

Tbv 8' rjfielfieT* eirevra fio&Tri? irbrvia " Hprj • 50 

ff toi ifiol rpel? (xev iroXv ^tkraral elen iroXrje^, 
"Apyos re STrdprr) re real eipvdr/via Mvktjvti* 
ra$ Biairepcrai, 6V av toi ouTreyOtuvTai irepl xrjpc 
rdav ov toi iy(b irpoaO' XaTafiai oi8e fieyaipco. 
et 7T€/> yap (f)0ovi(o T€ koX ovk el& hiairepaa^ $$ 

ovk dvvco <f>0oveova* , eVel v) iroXv (frepTepo? io-ai, 
dXXa %p7) teal i/ibv Oe/juevac irovov ovk aTeXeo-Tov 
teal yap iya> Oeo<s elpu, 761/09 he fioi evOev oOev aoi, 
xai tie Trpeorfti/raTrfv TCKero Kpovo? dyKvXofujTTjs, 
afM<f>OT€pov, yevefj Te koX ovveKa afj irapaKovri^ 60 

K€K\rjfiat, av he Tracri jieT dOavaTOiaiv dvdacreis. 
dXX' ff toi fiev TavO* xnroel^ofiev dXXijXoio'L, 
crol fiev iy<o, <ru h 9 ifiol* iirl 8' esfrovTac Oeol &XX01 

80 IAIAA02 A. 

dOdvaroi. av 8e 6a<r<rov 'AOrjvaly eTrvretXcu 
ekOelv €9 Tpdxov icaX y A^aic^v <f>v\o7nv alvrjv, 65 

ireipav 8' w? xe Tpwe? virepicvhavTas 'A'xaiovs 
ap^axri irporepoi vrrep optcia hrfKrjaaadcu. 

and Athena is despatched to prevent the fulfilment of the treaty. 

e V29 €<f>aT J , ouS' afriOrjae irarr/p avhp&v re 0€&v re* 
avTitc* 'A6i)vavr)v etfea irrepoevra TrpocrrjvSa* 

Alsfra fidX' e? GTpaTOV i\0e jiera Tp&as fcal *A%aiov$, 70 
ireipav 8' ft>9 fee Tp&es vireptcvhavra^ 'A*)(aiov<; 
apgcoat, irporepov virep op/cca SrjXijaaaOai. 

*fl<; elircov &rpvve irdpo<; fi€p.avlav 'AOrfvrjV) 
fir} ik kclt' OvXvfXTTOio KapTjvcov dt£a<ra* 
olov 8' darepa f)/ce Kpovov 7rdi<; dy/cvXofitfTea), 75 

^ vavrriai repa? rje (TTparS evpi'C ^&fyL UK jJkb' 
\a,psirpov % tov 8e re iroWol diro aTrwurjges tevrai* 
To5 elievV fji'fev iirl j(06va IlaXkds 'Adrfvy, 
KaS 8' €0op y es /xiaaov 0dp,/3os 8' e^v elaopoowTa? 
Tpcods 0* i7nroBdfiov<; /cal iv/cvrj/juSa? y A%ai,ov<i. 80 

c&8e 8e ti$ eitrea-Kev Ihiov €9 irXrja-lov dXKov 

*H p y airis 7roXe/Lto9 re tea/ebs /cal </>u\o7rt9 alvtf 

€<T(T€Tai, rj (f)l\6T7JTa fl€T* dfJU^OripOKTl tL6t}(ti 

Zeis, 09 t' dvdpwiTcov Tafilrj? vroXifioio t&tv/ctcu. 

Entering the host of the Trojans in human form, she urges Pan- 
daros to shoot at Menelaos. 

tX /29 apa t*9 eiirea/cev 'A%ai,(bv re Tpcixuv Te. 85 

r/ 8' dvhpl iKeXrj Tpcocov KarebvaeO* o/m\ov, 
Aao8orc<p 'AvTrjvoplSy, tcpaTeptp al^firjry, 
TIdvSapov dvrlOeov Bifyfievrj, e? irov i(f>evpoi. 

IAIAA02 A. 8l 

evpe Av/cdovo? vibv d/jLVfiovd re Kparepov re 

eoraoT*. dfi<f)l Si jiiv k pare pal o*t/^€? aainaT&cov 90 

Xa&v, oi oi hrovro air* Aicrrjiroio podcov. 

dy%ov 8' lorafJtePT) hrea irrepbevra irpoarjvSa* 

*H pd vv fjioi re itlOolo Avkoovos vie Safypov ; 
rXairj? Kev MeveXdtp iiMrpoifiev ra%vv 16 v, 
ttcuti, Si zee TpdxGrat ftdpiv teal kvSos apoio, 95 

itc irdvTtav Sk pudXtara *AXe%dvSp<p fia<ri,Xr)L 
rov Kev St} irdfiirpcoTa Trap' dyXad Scopa <f>ipoio, 
al Kev ISy MeviXaov dprjlov, 'Arpio? vibv 
crc5 fieXei' SfirjOivra irvpfj? eirifSavT akeyewri<$. 
dXX* ay' btcrrevaov MeveXdov KvSaXlfioio, 100 

ev^eo 8' 'AttoXXqdvi XvKrjyevil kXvtoto^g* 
dpv&p irptaToybvtov pigeiv KXeirrjv eKaro/M^p 
oixaSe voaTqaa^ lepi]? eh aarv ZeXelrjs. 

HeAf persuaded, makes ready his bow, and lets flyman arrow, 

A /2? <f>dT* 'AOrjvairj, tcS Se (frpevas &<f>povc treWw 
air Ik* i<rvXa rogov ivgoov IgdXov alyb? 105 

dypiov, ov pd ttot* avrb<; virb crripvovo TV%T]<ra$ 
irirpr)? eKftaivovra, 8e8ey/zeVo9 iv TrpoSoKrja-t,, 

j3€J3Xl)K€t 7T/0O9 OTr}0O<;* 6 8' VTTTIOS e/i-7T€<r€ TTeTpr). 

rov tcipa €K /cec/>aX?}? CKKacSeKaScopa 7T€<f>VK€(,' 

Ka\ ra jiev d<iKr\<ra<i tcepaogoos fjpape T€ktg>v, ho 

irav 8' eif Xeirjvas yjpvcri^v iiriOrjKe KOpcovrjv. 

xal to pev ei Kari0rjK€ ravvacrdp^vo<; irorl yalrj 

dyxXiva*;' trpbcrOev Sk crdxea a^iOov iaffXol eralpoc, 

pi) irplv dvatgeiav dprjloi vie? 'A^at&v, 

irplv /3Xfj<r0at MeviXaov dprfiov, 'Arpio? vibv* 115 

avrap 6 crvXa ircofia <j>apirptis, ex 8' k\eT 9 lov 

82 IAIAA02 A. 

afJXfjra wrepdevra, fiekcuveav epp' oBwd&v 

alyfra 8* iirl vevprj fcareKo&fiei irucpov o'Uttov, 

evxero 8' 'AttoXXg>vc XvKrjyevel kXvtot61*<p 

apv&v irpooToyovcov pe^eiv KXeiTrjv e/carofiftrjv 120 

ot/caBe vo<TTri<ja<i leprj? ek aarv ZeXeir)?. 

eX/ce 8' ofiov yXv<f>l8a<} re Xa/8a>i> teal vevpa ftoeta* 

vevpijv fiev ftafaJ ireXacrev, ro^cp Be ai8r)pov. . 

avTcup ttrel By /cvfcXorepe? /xeya to%ov ereive, 

Xlyge /8to?, vevprj Be fiey* ta^ev, fiXro 8' oiierro? 125 

ofu/8e\^5 /cad* opuXov iimrTea-Oac [levealvtov. 

which inflicts a severe, but not fatal, wound. 

OvBe oreOev, MeveXae, deol pA tea pes. XeXdOovro 
aOavaroi, 7rpd)Trf Be A to? Ovydrrjp dyeXelr), 
fj toi irpotrOe ara<ra fieXo? €^67revAC€9 ajivvev. 
rj Be togov p,ev eepyev airb xpoos, a>9 ore p/qTqp 130 

7rat8o? eipyrj pvlav, 06 r)Bel Xef*erai vrrvcp* 
avrfj 8' air* XQvvev 0O1 £axrT7]po<; o^rje? 
Xpv<reio(, (rvvexpv teal BnrXoo? ^vrero Ocoprfj;. 
ev 8* €7T€<T€ £a><TTrjpi aprjpon 7rt,/cpb<t 6l<rr6<f 
Bva fikv ap gaHrrfjpo? iXtfXaro BaiBaXeoto, 135 

zeal Bid 6(i>pT}/co<; iroXySatBaXov Tjptfpeio'TO 
flLTpTJ? 6\ fjv tyopei epvjjua x/0009, ep/eo9 CLKOVT&V, 
f) oi irXelarov epvro • Bid irpb Be eitraro teal t?}9. 
aKp6rarov 8' ap* dforbs eireypayfte XP° a 4 >(OT ^* 
avrlfca 8' eppeev alfia KeXaivecfres ef iretXi)?. 140 

*f2<; 8' ore Tt'9 t' iXe<f>avra yvvrj fyoivaca fiiqvy 
Myovi? rje Kdeipa, iraprfiov efifievat farirw 
tcelrat 8 ev OaXd/xcp, iroXee^ re /jliv rjprfaavro 
vmrrjei <f)opeew ftaaCXrji Bi Kelrav ayaXfia, 



aptyorepop, tfoV/ios &* Xinrtp ikfitrijpi tg kv&w 
Total TOtj MepeXae t fiidvBrfP a1p>art p.i}po\ 
cv<f>ve€$ fcvr)pat re IBe o-t^vpa koX* vwepepde. 


. Agatntmnon is struck with dismay \ 

/r*Pififii<TGv £' ap* e-rrecra dva% dp&p&v *AyafiifiPmv, 
th% etBev p,iXav alpa Karappeov ef wretXrj^' 
plyrjtrev Se teal avro$ dpTjt^tXo^ MeveXao^ 150 

w$ Be tBep pevpdp re fcal oyfcov^ eVro? copras, 
aifroppov ol 0vp>b$ cut o-TijOetT&LV dyip0rj> 
roU Be fBapit arepd^wv p>ere$f} Kpelwp ^ya/Meiipmv 
X€tpQ$ e^tui/ MepeXaav eirearevdyopro S' eratpof 

$ZX€ Kao-iyvrjTEi Bdvarov vv roc optc* erafiPOP, 155 
olop TrpQG-T^tras irpb ^A^atwp T penal fxd^eaSai , 
&s <r v efiaXop Tpwes, Kara S* opicta rrta-rd wdr^crav* 
oir pip wms aXtop TrcXct optctop at fid re apvmv* 
GTTQvhaL t' aKpr}Tot teal Septal, §s iirewiBp^ev^ 
€t irep yap re Kal air Ik 'OXv/jlttio*; ovk ireXca-crev, 160 
ex tg koI irtye reXet, trvp re peydXtp direriaap 1 
&w &<f>i}(Ttp Ke^aXfjac yvpat^i re teal retceeaa-tv. 
c5 yap eyia roSe olSa xara if>piva teal Kara 8vpop w 
ecaerai $ip-ap, or* dp 7raT* oXwXtj "IXlqs ipij 
teal H pianos ko\ Xabs ivfifieXim UptdpLOto, 165 

Zeiss Be &$i KpoviBif? vtyi^vyos, alBkpi pump, 
avrbs iirtcrauTjo'tP epefipqp atyiSa Tract 
Tf}tT&* dwarfs Korkmv* ra p,ev iaaerai ovk dreXeara' 
dXXd fiot alpop a^os aeBev io-aerat, & MePeXae, 
at xe ddpfls koI TrorpfOP dpaTrXjjo-ps fiiioroto. 170 

xat peep eXiy^taros iroXvBt-^noj/ "Apyos Ikoljl^p ■ 
aurixa yap fLptfa-QPrai *A%aiot irarpiBos' 

84 IAIAA02 A. 

Ka8 8i K€V evxcoXrjv IIpiafACp teal Tpaxrl Xiiroip^v 

'Apyefyv 'EXevrjv <reo 8' oarea irvaei apovpa 

tceifiivov iv Tpoly aTeXevTTjTcp iirl epyrp. 175 

kal ice Tt9 &8* ipeei Tpaxov virepTjvopeovTcov 

Tvp>f3<p eTnOpaxTKODv MeveXdov fcv8a\lp,oio • 

atO* ovtws iirl iraai yokov reXeaei^ ' Ayafii/ivcw, 

C09 Kal vvv aXiov arparbv fjyayev iv6a8* *A%ai&v, 

xal 8tj e/3rj olxovBe fyikyv €9 irarplha yalav 180 

crifv K€ivfj<riv vr)v<rl, Xnrcov dyaObv MeviXaov. 

ft>9 7TOT6 TA9 ip€€t' t6t€ flOl ^dvOL €Vp€La %0a>V, 

but is re-assured by Menelaos, 

Tov 8* iiriOapcrvvcov irpoo-etyq %avOb<; MeviXao? • 
Bdpaei, fj/rjBe tC tto) 8ei8l<TG€0 Xabv * Ayaiwv. 
ovk iv KaipLtp ogv irdyi) /8e\o9, dXXct irdpoiQev 185 

elpvaaro ^axrrrjp re TravaioKa? 178' im-evepOe 
£a>/id T€ Kal filrprj, rfjv xaXKrjes Kajiov avSpes. 

Tbv 8' a7rajJL€ij36/jL€V0<; 7rpo<ri(fyrf Kpeicov 'Ayafiifivcov • 
at yctp 8rj oi/Tft)9 ecrf, <f>iXo<; & MeveXae* 
JsKko? 8' IrjTTjp iTTCfidaaerat r}8* iircOrjo'et 190 

<f>dp/jLa%, a Kev 7rav<T7)<n fiekaivdayv ohvvdtov. 

and despatches Talthybios to bring the physician Machaon. 

*H, Kal TaX0vj3iov, Oelov KtjpvKa, 7rpo<rrjv8a' 
TaXOvfit,*, otti rd^iara Maydova 8evpo KaXecrcrov, 
<f>&r 9 'Ao-kXtjttiov vl6v, dfjivfjiovos Irjrrjpos, 
otf) pa iSy MeveXaov dpr\lov> 'Arpeo? vlov, 195 

ov TA9 oi<TTev<ra<; iftaXev to^cov ev e£8o>9 
Tpaxov ff Avklcov, tg3 fiev #Xeo9, a/Apt, 8k irevOo^. 

A /29 €<f>ar\ ouS' apa oi Krjpvl; diriOrjaev dicovaas, 


firj 8' levai /card Xabv 'A^at&v yaKKo^iT(Avmv 
irawraivrnv fjpaya Ma^dova. rbv 8' evwqaev 200 

ioTaor'* a/jb(f>l Se fiiv tcparepal tf-ri^e? a<rjnardcov 
Xa&v, 0% oi ewovro Tpt/erj? ig hnrofioTOio. 
jrfXpv 8' urrdfievos eirea irTepoevra irpoa^vZa' 

Machaon isfound y and dresses the wound of Menelaos. 

"Opa*, *A<r/c\r}7nd87j 9 /eaXeei /epeicov 'Ayafie/jLvwv, 
tf(f)pa iSy MeveXaov dprflov, dpypv ^A^atcov, 205 

ov ta? oloTevaas efiaXev rogcov ev elBw 

TpGXOV 7J Av/ClOOV, T<Z> fl€V /cXeO$, &/JL/U Sk 7T€V0O<;. 

l \f2? (frdro, tc5 8' apa dvfibv evl GTr)6eacriv Spivc 
fiav 8' ievai tcaO* ofiiXov dvd arparbv evpvv *A%ai&v. 
aAX' ore hrj p* i/cavov 0O1 gavOb? MeviXao? 210 

fiXtffievos fy, irepi 8' avrbv dyrjyepaO' oaaoi apicrrov 
/cvteXocr', o 8' ev fii<r<roi<ri irapiaTaTO laoBeos (jxbs, 
avTi/ea 8' etc £<oo"rf}po<; dprjporos eX/cev ourrov 
tov 8' egeXKOfievoio irdXiv dyev ogee? oy/coi. 
Xvce 8e oi ^ayo-Trjpa iravaioXov 778' virevepBe 215 

Z&fid re teal fJLLTprjv, ttjv %a\fcr}es /edfiov avSpes. 
avrap iirel tSev eXteos, 80' efiireae iriicpbs oLo-tos, 
alp? i/cfiv^Tja-as €7r' dp* fjiria <\>dpfiaica elhw 
Trdao-e, rd ot irore irarpi <j>cXa (jypovecov Trope Xeipwv. 

Meanwhile, for the Trojans have renewed the combat ', Agamemnon 
exhorts the leaders of the Greeks. 

"0<j)pa rol d/jL<f>€7revovTO Porjv dyaObv MeveXaov, 220 
TO<j>pa 8' cttI Tpcocov o-Tt^e? fjXvOov do-iruo-raw 
oi 8' aims /card Teu^e' eSvv, fivrfcravro Se %dpp,7}<;, 

"EvO y ov/c av f3pl£ovra lSols 'Ayajiejivova Slov, 

86 IAIAA02 A. 

ov&€ fcaTa7TT(D<T<TOPT* 9 ov$* ov/c iOikovra ftd'xeo'dai, 
d\\d fjuaXa o-irevhovra iidyy\v € ? /cvSidveipav. 225 

?7T7rotr? fjuev yap eaae zeal apfjuara iroi/clXa yaXK& m 
Kal tov? fjuev Oepdirwv asiraveuO' e%€ (ftvo-iocovrcR 
EvpvfiiS&v, 1/10? IlToXefiaiov IleipatSao' 
t<£ fiaka TroW' €7T€T€\X€ irapixr-yky^Vy oinroTe /civ fiiv 
yvla Xdfty tcdfULTo? irdXeas Sut Koipavkovra* 230 

avrap 6 7T€fo? ia>v eireiraJkevTO ^rr/^a? avhp&v. 

He encourages the zealous, 

Kal p* ov$ fiev o"7T€v8ovTa<; tSoc Aava&v Tayyir&k&v, 
tov$ fiaka 6ap<Tvve<TK€ irapuTTapsvo^ eireeaaiv • 

'Apyeioi, fjurj 7rc» n fieOlere OovpiSo? dX/cf}?* 
ov yap €7rl ifrevSeco-i irarffp Zev$ eaaer* dpcoyos, 235 
oU' 0% irep irporepov xnrep opKia hrfXtjaavro, 
t&v fj roc avT&v ripeva XP° a y vires eSovrav, 
i}/iet? avr* dXoxpvs T€ <f>l\a$ teal vr)iria ri/cva 
agofiev iv vqeaavv, i7rrjv irrdkleOpov eXwfiev. 

and upbraids the sluggish, 
Ov$ Tivas av fie0iivTa$ lSol arvyepov irok&fioio, 240 

TOV$ fJidXa V€LK€t€(TK€ %o\(DTo2(T iv iirkeaaiv* 

'Apyeioi loficopoi, iXeyxkes, ov vv akfteade; 

TL<j)0 J OVT(0<; €(TTrjT€ T€07)7t6t€$ T)iJT€ VefSpol, 

at t* €7rel oiv efcafiov iro\ko$ irehioio Okovaat, 

karaxr % 9 ov8* apa Tt<? <r^>c fjLerd <f>peal ylyverai d\icri* 245 

&5 vfieh e<TTrjT€ reOrjiroTes oi&e fid^ade. 

fj fiAvere Tp&as cr^eSoi/ iXOk/iev, ev6a re vfje? 

elpvar* €V7rpvfivoi, iroXirj^ iirl QivX OaXdaarj^, 

6<j>pa tSrjT*, at k vfificv vvrkpayr) yelpa Kpovlcov ; 

IAIAA02 A. 87 

*/29 o ye Koipavecov eireiroikelro ariya^ dvBp&v 250 
7j\0e 8* eirt Kp7JT€<r(n kiodv ava ovkafibv dvBpwv. 
oi 8' a/LM^' ^IBofievrja Bafypova Owprjaa-ovro' 
'ISo/Lt€z/€U9 fiev evt irpofidxois, <rvt et/ceXos d\tei?v 9 
Mrjpcovi]^ 8' apa oi irvfiara^ Arpwe <f>d\ayya<t. 
to it? Se IBodv yijdrjcev aval; dvBp&v 'Ayafiifivayv, 255 
avTLtca 8' 'IBofievfja 7Tpoar)vBa fieiXixloiaiv 

Exhorting single leaders, he comes first to Idomeneus; 

*I8ofievev 9 irept fiev ae rico Aava&v rayyircoXayv 
rjfiev evt TTToXeiLtp 178' dXKoicp eirt epyq> 
*JS' iv Baid\ ore irep re yepovaiov aWoira otvov 
'Apyeicov oi apiaTot, evt Kprjrrjpv /cepoovrai. 260 

el irep yap t' SXKov ye tcaprj /cofioavre? 'Amatol 
Bairpbv irlvwaiv, gov Be irXelov Beira^ alel 
lorrjx', <3? irep ifiol, ineeiv, ore 0v/j,b$ avwyy. 
a\\' opaev irokefiovB 1 ', otos irdpo^ ev^eat elvai. 

Tbv 8' avr J 'IBojtevevs, Kprjr&v dyo?, dvriov rjvBa* 265 
^ArpeiBrj, fidXa fiev tol iycbv eplripos iratpo^ 
€<r<rofjLat, co? to irp&rov virearr^v teal tcaTevevaa* 
fl\\' a\\ov$ orpvve tedpr) KOfiowvTa*; *A%aiov<;, 
o(f>pa rdyiGTa fiasco fieO^ , iirel avv 7' opici eyevav 
Tp&ev rolacv 8' ai Odvaros teal /eijBe' inriaa'to 27a 

eo-o-er', iirei irporepot, virep op/cia Brjkrja-avTO. 

next, to the Ajaces; 

*/2? e<f>ar* 'ArpeiBrjs Be irapipyero yqOoo-vvo^ Ktjp. 
fjkde 8* hrr' Alavreao'i, kuov ava ovXa/ibv dvBp&v 
to) Be Kopvo'o-io'drjv, a\ia Be vi(f)0<; eiTrero Tretfav. 

88 IAIAA02 A. 

©5 8' or' airo GKomrfi elhev vtyos alvrdKo? dvrjp 275 

ipXPfievov tcard ttovtov vtto Zecf>vpoLo Icofjv 

t<£ 8e t* avevdev iovrv fieXdvrepov r)ire irtcrcra 

fyalver* iov tcard ttovtov, ar/ec 84 re Xatkanra iroXkfjP, 

plrfqaev, re ISwv viro re aireo? rjka<re p,i]\a' 

Tolai ap,' Aldvretrtn Siorpetyicov al^rj&v 280 

hrjlov €? iroKepbOV TTVKival kLvvvto fyakayye? 

tevdveai, Gcucealv re kcli eyyeai 7T€<f>pi/cvicu. 

teal tov$ fiev yrfOrjaev IScov tcpeuav 'Ayafiifivav, 

Kai <r<f>ea<; <f>(*vri<Ta$ eirea TTTepoevra 7rpo<rr)v8a* 

Alavr', 'Apyelcov rjyrjTope xaX/eoxircovayv, 285 

<r<f)<oi fiev (ov yap €olk' orpvvifiev) ov tl tceXevco* 
avro) yap fidXa \abv dvdayeTov l<j)i fidxecdai. 
at ydp, Zev re irdrep zeal 'Adrjvaliri teal "AiroXkov, 
to?o? iraaiv Ovfib? ivl <iTr)Qecr<Ti ykvoiTo" 
t& tee tdy} rj/ivcreie 7roXt? IIpid/jLObo ava/CTO?. 290 

yepaiv vcf)' r/fierepyaiv akovcrd re 7rep0Ofi€vr) T€. 

next, to Nestor ; 

/' *{2$ elirwv tov$ fiev \iirev avrov, ftr) 8k fier* a\\ov$. 
evd' 6 ye Nearop' ererfie, \iyvv Hvkl&v dyoprjTijv, 
ofi? irdpovs ariWovra koX orpvvovra fia^eo-Oat,, 
a/j,(f)l fieyav UeXdryovTa * AXdaropd re Xpofiiov re 295 
Aifjuova re icpeiovra Blavrd re, irotfieva "kawv. 
i7T7rrja<i fiev irp&ra avv twiroiaiv teal ox^a-^tv, 
ire£ov$ 8' e%6iri0e aTrjcrev ircikia? re zeal i<r0\ov<; 
Iptco? I fiev iroXi/jLoto* /eatcoif? 8' €9 fieacov ekaaaev, 
8<f>pa teal ovk iOeXcov rt,$ dvay/caiTj 7ro\efit£oi. 300 

ImrevGiv pep irp&T 9 €7reTeWeTO' tov$ yap dvcoyei 
c<f)ov$ Xttttovs eykp.ev firj8e tcXoveeo-ffai o/uXy 

IAIAA02 A. 89 

MrjSe tis linroavvrf re teal rjvoperjfa ireiroiOw 
0Z0? irpod' aXXcov fiefjudra) Tpweao-t, /xaxeaOai, 
IjltjS' avax&peiTW aXairaSvorepoi yap e<r€<rde. 305 

09 be K avr)p airo <ov oj(eo>v erep apfiau ucrjraL, 
eyj(€C ope^dadco, hrel f) 7ro\u <j>epT€pov ovtw. 
&8e teal 01 irporepoi iroKta^ teal rei^e' eiropBeov 
rov8e voov teal Qvyubv ivl <TTr\6e<r<nv eyovTe*;. 

*/2? 6 yeptov &rpwe iraKai 7ro\ep,a)v et el8di)<z. 310 

teal top fjuev yrjOrja-ev I8cbv xpetcov 'Ayafiefiveov, 
teal jjliv <t>(ovrj<ra<; eirea irrepoevra Trpoa-rjvSa' 

*/2 yepov, eW\ ©5 Ovfibs ivl OTr)9e<TGi <j>[\oi<rw, 
<5? rot yovvad* jhroiro, fiirj 8e toc efi7re8o<; elrj. 
aXka ae yfjpa? reipei ojjlouov w o<f>ekev ta? 315 

avSp&p a Wo? e^e«/, av 8e leovporkpourt, fierelvau 

Tbv 8' rj/ielfieT 7 eiretra reprjvto? liriroTa Nearcop' 
9 Arpel8rf, fiaXa fiev rot iywv iOeXotfio teal avro*; 
&? ejAev, g>? ore 8lov 'EpevOaXioova tcari/crav. 
aW' ov 7Tft)5 a/Lta irama Oeol 86<rav dv0p(O7roi<riv % 320 
el rore /covpo? ea, vvv aire fie yr)pa<; 6*ira£ei. 
aXKa teal «? hnrevat, fierea-aofiac r)8e /ceXevo-eo 
fiovKfj /ecu fivdoiaf to yap yepa? earl yepovrwv. 
at%/^9 8 7 alyjiaaaovGL vedrepot, ol irep ifieio 
oirXorepov yeydaav ireTrolQaaiv re filrjfav. 325 

next, to Menestheus, 

*/2s e<f>aT\ 'ArpeiSr)? 8k irapwyero yr)06(rvvo<; /crjp. 
eup 9 vlqv Uere&o Meveadrja ifkr^nnrov 
€OTo6t\ dfi<f>l 8* 'AOrjvaloi, prjVT capes avTr)?. 

go IAIAA02 A. 

and to Odysseus, 

Avrdp o ifKria'iov earrjKei irokvpqriQ 'Ohwaevs, 
Trap he KetfyaWrfvcov dp,<f)l ot/%€? ov/c akairahvaX 330 
earaaav ov yap iron a(f>tv dfcovero Xab? avrifc, 
a\Xa veov avvopivopbevat kLvwto <f>d\ayy€<z 
Tpd)G)v Imrohapcov Kal 'Aytu&v oi he pAvovre? 
earacrav, oinrore irvpyo? *A%ai&v aWos i7re\0a>v 
Tpddcov oppbrjcreie teal ap%eiav iroXepuoio. 335 

to £9 he Ihcov velxeaaev aval; dvhpSiv 9 Ayap,€fiva>v 9 
teal o-^ea? <f>covij(ra<; eirea Trrepoevra 7rpoarjvha % 

*/2 vie Hereto, htoTpe(j>eoq fiao-iXrjo?, 
Kal <rv, KaKolcri hokouri /cefcacrpeve, icephdke6<f>pov 9 
Tt7TT6 KaTaTrT(ixr<rovT€<; d^earare, filpuvere h'&Wov?; 340 
<r<f>w£v fiev r* eireoLKe puera irpwTourw eovras 
eardpbev rjhl pbdyrj^ Kavarelprj^ dvTiftokrjo-ai* 
irpdnTG* yap Kal hairb? aKovd^eaQov epueio, 
oinroTe Sacra yepovaw e<f>OTr\i%<op>ev 'Amatol. 
evOa <f>i\ 9 oirraXea fcpea ehpuevac r/he KinreKka 345 

olvov TTivepuevai /LteXtT/Seo?, o<f>p 9 eOekrirov 
vvv he <f>i\c0$ % opotpre teal el heica irvpyoi ^AyaiSiv 
vpuetoov irpoirdpoiOe pbayplaro vrfKei ^aX/caJ. 

who resents Agamemnorts rebuke. 

Tov h' ap' virohpa Ihwv irpoaefyr) 7ro\vpLr)Ti$ 'OSvaaevV 
'Arpelhr), irolov <re 67T09 <f>vyev ep/co? ohovr&v. 350 

7T&$ hi) <£$9 TTdkepLOlO fl€0L€pL€V, OTTTTOt' 'AjQOUOi 

Tpaxrlp e<f>* ImrohdfiQio'iv eyelpopuev o%vv aprja; 
oyjreai, fjv ideXrjada, Kal at xev toi ra fiefirfXy, 
TrfKepLayoLo <j>l\ov irarepa 7rpopbdj(oi(ri /Myevra 
Tpcocov Imrohdpuov <rv he ravr* dvepcoXca /3a£e*9. 355 



Top S* iirtfietStja-a^ wpoo-i^tj tcpslwv * Ayaptavrnvj 
&$ yvw j^op.evoio* irdXip S' o )e Aafero av&ov* 

Atoyeves Aa€pTtd$i} r TroXvfirjxav* 'OSvaa-eVt 
ovtg <T€ veuceia TrepiwtrLov ovre tfeAei/w 
olSa yap w? rot dvpos £vl aTTjGe&o-t tptXotcrtp 360 

Tjwta Bijvea ot&e- ra yap (fypovhw a r 3 iym irep* 
dXX' 16 l m ravra S' Sirta-ffep ap€o-<r6pt,e$\ m ti Katcov vvv 
€ip7}rai f ra Be irdvra ffeol perafjb&vta 0elev* 


He reproves Diomedes for want of zeal \ and bids him imitate the 
example of his father Tydeus, 

A i2? eliriou tovg pep Xlirep avrov f &rj Se per* aXXovq. 
eipe Be TvBeos viQVj Inrep&uiLQv Al0ft,7jBea M 365 

eerTaoV eu 0* tTnroKTi teal apftam tcoWfiToitrf 
Trap Be oi iar7]fC€i S9ii/eXo^ t Kairavrjiaq vtoq* 
teal top fiev peCtceaa-ev IBtbv tcpsmv J Ayaaep>pmp f 
teal fiw $wvi]<TWi eirea wrepQevra 7rpoo-TjvBa t 

V J2 /iot, TvBeos me Baitypovoq, iinrQ&apLGtQ* 370 

Tt TTTwo-a-et?, ri S* QTrtireueis TroXifioto ye<pvpaq; 
ou p.ep Tv&ei y* wSe <f>tXov 7rTG)o-tca££p,ev ^ev, 
aXXa woXv wpo tpiXtav Irdp&v Bvjiotat pA^ecOat, 
cw<? (ftd&ap ot fitv tSovro Tropevpiemv * ov yap iyw ye 
tjvti)(t' ovBe ISov wept S 1 aXkwv <patrl yep£a0at. 375 

whose exploits he recounts at length* 

*H rot ftev yap arep woXepov ei<7ijX9e MvtcTjvas 
^etvos ap? avriOetp UoXvveiicei, Xaop ayelpcov, 
oi Be tot* io-Tpa.Towv0* lepa wpbv refym SjjjS^?, 
/cat pa fidXa XIv&qvto Bdaep tcXetrov? iirtKovpov?. 
ot 5* WeXov Sojievat teal eirriveop w etciXevov 380 


dWd iJeu? erpeyfre irapataca arjfiara <j>alv&v* 

ol 8' €7rel odv fp'XpvTO ISe irpb oSov iyevovro, 

'A<r(D7rbv 8' t/eovTO fiadvaypwov XeyerroiTjv, 

evO' aZr' dr/yeXlrjv iwl Tvhrj arelXav 9 A)(euoL 

avrctp 6 #?), 7roXea? Se Kij^o-aro Ka$fieia)va$^^ 385 

Scuvvfjuevovs Kara S&fia /Sir)? ' Ereo/eX^eir]*;. 

evO' ovSe %elvo$ irep e<ov lirirriKaTa Tvheixs 

rdpftei, fiovvos e<ov iroXeaw fieri, KaSfieloio-tv, 

aXX' o y' deffXeveiv irpoKaXi^ero, irdvra &' ivltca 

p^i'Sta)?* rolrj ol eirippoOos fjev 'AQrfWf. 390 

ol he ypXcoadfievoi KaSfieloc, rcevropes "mrtov, 

&yfr avaepxofievtp ttvkivov Xoj(pv elaav ayovres, 

fcovpovs irevTr)KOvra % Svo) 8' fjyrirope^ fjcavt 

Ma lcdp AlfiovtSr)?, eiriei/ceXo? ddavaTOCO'iv, 

W09 t j Avro<f>6voio f fieven-ToXefid? HoXvfyovrris. 395 

Tv&ev? fiev feal toutlv aet/cea ttot/jlov i<j>fjfce' 

lrdvras eire<f>v\ eva S f olov f lev ol/eovSe veeadcu* 

Malov 1 apa irpoerjKe 0e£>v repdecro'i iriOrja-a^. 

T0Z05 erjv TvSev? Alrdikios' dXXa rbv vlbv 

yeivaro elo %epeia fid)(rj, ^1°?V &* T> dfieivto. 400 

A if2? <j>aT0 9 rbv S % ov tl TTpoa-efyr) /eparepb? AiofirfSy? 
alSeaOeU fiaaiXrjo*; eifiirrjv alSoioto. 
rbv 8' 1/105 Kairavrjos dfielyfraro /cv&aXlfioio • 

Sthenelos repels Agamemnon's imputations. 

^ArpelSr), fit) yfrevSe' eTna-rdfievo^ adfya elirelv* 
ijfiei? roc irarepoDV fiey' dfieivove? ev^ofieO* elvai* 405 
flfiels teal Orjfiris eSo? eiXofiev eirrairiXoio 
iravporepov Xabv dyayovO 9 irrrb retype apeiov, 
iretOofievoi repdeaac 0e<2v icaX Zrjvb? dpayyr)' 

IAIAA02 A. 93 

tcecvoi Bk o-<f>6T€pTj(riv draadaXirjcrcv o\ovro, 

rq> yJ\ fJLOi rrarepas iro6' 6/Moly evdeo rifig. 410 

But Diotnedes justifies Agamemnon 's reproof, in view of its motive \ 
though it fall upon himself 

Tbv 8' ap' viroBpa I8<bv irpocre(f>rj k par epos Alo^Btjs' 
rerra, ci(D7rr} ?J<ro, ifi<p 8' eiriireiOeo fivOcp. 
ov yap iya> vefieaA 'Ayafiejivovt,, iroupbevi Xa&v, 
orpvvovri pAyeaBav evKvr\iiiBas *Ayatois % 
rovrtp fiev yap tcvSos aft 9 etyerai, el /eev 'Ayaiol 415 
Tp&as Brjcocrcocrcv eXxocrl re "I\iov iprjv, 
rovrtp B 9 at fieya irevOos 9 Aj(ai5sv BycoOevrcov. 
oU' aye Bfy /cal vfol fie&wfieOa OovpiBos dX/cfjs. 

9 H pa, /cal if* oyetov avv revyeatv akro xay^a^e 9 
Bewbv B 9 eftpaye yakicbs eirl artjOeacnv ava/cros 420 
opvvfievov viro Kev rakacrtypovd irep Bios et\ep. 

The advance of the two armies is now described* 

*fls B' or 9 ev atycaXm iroXyq-yil tevfia 0a\da-crrjs 
8pvvr 9 eiraaavrepov Ze<f>vpov vrro Kivrjaavros' 
rrovrtp fiev re rrp&ra Kopvcrcrerac, avrap eireira 
%e/Hrg> pvyvvpuevov fieyaKa fipifiei, ap,<j>l Be r' ate pas 425 
Kvprbv ibv /copv<j>ovTai, airorcrvei 8* akbs ayyqv 
ft>9 tot 9 eiraacrvrepav Aavacov kLvvvto <f>d\ayyes 
vwkepk4(os *7r6\ep>6v8e. xekeve Be olcriv e/cacrros 
^yepuovtav oi 8' aXkoi dfcrjv Xcrav {ovBe /ce <f>air)s 
rbcrcrov \abv eireaQai eypvr 9 ev crrTJOecriv avBrjv) 430 

ayr} BevBiores crrj fidvro pas' dfi(j>l Be itacn 
rev-yea rrotic'OC ekapfire, ra elfievov ecmypcovro. 
Tp&es B\ &s t' oles iroXvrrdfiovos dvBpbs iv avXfj 


fjuvpiai ianj/cao'iv dfieXsyopevai yd\a Xevfcov, 

afiy^e? fiefjuiKvlac, aKovovcrat oira dpv&v, 435 

&9 TpoKov akakrjTos avk arparbv evpvv opcopec 

ov yhp iravTtov fjev ofib? 6 poos ov8 9 ta yfjpvs, 

aXXa yXoHro-' ifjuifii/cro, TroXv/cXrjTOi 8' eaav av8pe$. 

The Trojans are led by Ares; the Greeks by Athena. 

*S2p<re 8e tou9 fih> "Aprj<?, tou9 8k y\av/cSv7ns 'AOrjirq 
Aeifios t' r)8k $6/809 Kal "Epw dfiorov fiepxivia, 440 

"Apeos av8pocf)6voio Kaaiyvr\Tr\ erdpr} re, 
fj T y oKlyr) fiev TrpSsra Kopvaa-erac, avrap eireira 
ovpavtp io-T7Jpif*€ /cdprj teal €7rl %0ovl ftalvei. 
fj acf)iv teal rore velicos ofioilov efiftaXe fieatrtp 
ipftOfiivT] Kad* o/juXov, 6(f)e\\ovaa arovov avSpwv. 445 

The combat begins and results unfavorably for the Trojans. 

01 8' ore 8rj p* e? X®P 0V ^ va £wtQj>T69 Hkovto, 
avv p effaXop §ivoy<;$ <rvv 8' eyyea zeal fieve* dv8p&v 
Xa\K€oda>pi]/cc0V drdp dairiSe^ dfjL<f>a\.6e<r<rai 
eirkrjVT dWrfXyo-i, 7ro\v$ S' o£yjjw$Q$ opcopet,. 
evOa 8* ap <rip*ryv T€ Kac €v^a>\^ ireKev dv8p&v 450 
oWvvtcov re zeal oWvfievcov, pee 8' atfiart, yaia. 
a>9 8' ore *)(eLp*appQi irorafiol /car 9 opea^i peovres 
€9 /jLicrydytcecav a-Vfij3dWerop SPpL/xov v&cop 
KpovvS>v etc fieydXcov, kolKtj^ evToade xapdSprjv 
r&v 8e re rrjkoa-e Sovttov ev ovpeaiv eKXue.sirwjjurp* 455 
&9 t&v fiiayofievcov yevero layi) re ttovos re. 

The slaughter is begun by Antilochos, the son of Nestor, 

Hp&ros 8' 'AvtlKoxo? Tpdxov e\ev av8pa KopvoTrjv 
i<T0\6v iv\ irpofiaxoMTt,, 0a\v<rid87jv ^E^eiraiKov* 


top p' e/3a\e irp&ros leopvOo? <j>d\op imroSao'elr)*;, 

ip 8k iieroDirtp irijge, Triprjae 8' ap' ocrriov elaco 460 

alyjir\ yaXfcelrj 9 top 8k a/coro? oaae icakxrtyev, 

fjpnre S' a>9 ore irvpyos ivi tcparepfj vafiivrj. 

top 8k ireaovra iro8&v ekafBe tcpeioov ^EXecfyijvcop 

Xa\/CG>8ovT(,d8ri<i 9 fieyaOvfiav apyps 'A/Sdvrw 

%\/ce 8' V7r' etc fieXeav, \ekLT)iLevo$ o<f>pa rdycoTa 465 

T€t5%ea <rv\rj<r€t,€' jiivvvOa 8e oi yheO* opp/f\, 

ve/cpbv yap p* ipvovra I8a>p fieyddvfto? 'Ayqvcop 

ir\evpd, rd oi Kvyfravrc irap* d<nri8o$ igecfradpOrj, 

ovrqae (fu0Te5 yaXx^pel, Xvae 8i yvia. 

a>? top fikv Xwre Ovjios, ew' avr<S 8' epyop erv^jdrj 470 

dpyaXeov Tpdxav teal J A%cu&v oi 8k \vtcoi &9 

dWtfXois eiropovaap, dvfjp 8* av8p i i8voTrd\i%ev. 

and continued by Ajax^son of Telamon> 

*EvQ y efiak' ' Av0€fiia)vo<; vibp TeXafidbvio? Atas, 
y ffleqp OaXepov, Hifioeio-iov, ov ttotc fi^rrjp 
"ISrjdev KaTLOvaa Trap* oydyo'ip HifioevTos 475 

yeivar\ iiret pa Toteevaiv ap? eovrero firjXa ISecrOcu. 
Tovve/cd flip icdXeov 'Stfxoeicnov' ov8k TOKevat 
ffperrrpa <j>ikoi$ dweSeo/ce, fuvvv9a8io$ 84 oi aloov 
e7r\ed' vtt 9 AlaPTo? fieyaOvjiov 8ovpl Safievri. 
irp&TOP yap flip lovra /Sake gttjOo*; irapa p,a£bp 480 
Segiop* dvriKpv 8k 8c f wfiov %d\/c€op €7^05 
rjkOep* o o& tcovlycn %ap,a\ ireaep alyeipo? &$, 
rj pa t' ip elapAvf) e\€09 fieydXoio ire(f>v/crj 
Xefo], drdp re oi 6%oi €7r' d/epoTdry nrefyvao-f 
TTjp fiev 0' dpfiaroTrrjybs dpfjp afflcovi a-i8rjp(p 485 

igeTap,', 5<f> pa trvp /edfiyfry irepvicaXXel 8Uf>p<p % 

96 IAIAA02 A. 

ij flip t 9 d^ophrr) Kevrat Trorafwio wap' H^da?.} 

toIop ap 9 'Av0€fii&7)v Stfioelciop ifjepapif-ep 

Ata? Bioyepfc. tov 8* "ApTt,<f>o$ aloXoOdoprjg 

IIptafilBrjs /caO* ofiiXop dtcoprurep 6%ei SovpL 490 

tov fiev &fiapd 9 , 6 Be Aev/cop, 'OBwaeos iaffXop kraZpov, 

(3ef3\i]fC€t ftovft&pa pitcvp crepcac* ipvopra* 

Up tire B 9 afixf} 7 avrfi, pe/cpb? Be ol eKireae jfeipos* 

and by Odysseus, 

Tov 8* 'OBvcev? fiaXa Ovpubv diroKTafiepoio %oX(0&ri, 
ftrj he 81a 7rpofid^a>v KetcopvOfi&po? aWoirt *)(aXic& > 495 
ottj Be fid\' iyyix; leap, koL aKopnae Bovpl <j>aeipa> 
afi<j>l 8 iraTrrfiPas. biro Be Tp&es /ee/ed8oPTO 
apBpb? aKOPTLtraapTo^ 6 S' ov% aXiop /SeXo? fj/cep, 
a\X* vlbv IIptdfioLO poOop fiake Arj/jLOfcocovra, 
5? ol *A/3vB60ep f)\0e irap 9 Xirtrtap coKetdcov. 500 

top p* *OBvo-ev<; erdpoto ^oKtoadfievos /3d\e Bovpl 
Kopa-rjp' 7) 8' erepoio Bui fepordefyoco ireprjaep 
alxflV xa^e/iy* top Be a kotos oa-ae /cdXvyfre. 
Boinrqa'ep B& ireacop, dpdftrjae Be Tev^e* err' avrfi. 
X<oprja-ap B' tnro re irpofxa^pv teal <f>alBifio<i "E/ertop* 505 
'Apyeioi 8k fieya Xaypp, epvaavTo Be pe/cpovs, 
tdvcav Be tt6\v irpoTepto. pefiearjae 8* y AiroXKoap 
Ilepydfiov itctcaTiBcov, Tptoeaab Be tce/cXer' divas. 

until the Trojans are rallied by Apollo. 

OppvcO* ImroBafioi Tp&e$, fir^B 9 et/ceTe %dpiiJ]S 
'Apyeiow, iirel ov a<f>i XlQo? xpa>? ovBe aiSrjpo? 510 

jQtiXieop apcuryeadai Tap»eai)(poa /BaXXofiepoiaip. 



pdpvarai, dXX* eVi Vf)v<rl ^okov OufiaXyia irea-aet, 

,1l i2? <f>dr 7 dwb tttqXlos &€tvb$ #eoV airdp \/i#aiow 
mptre J to? ffvydr^p xvBiaTTj rptToyEPeta, 515 

€pXop,€W} /ca9* SpLiKovg 68 1 p,£&i€itTa*; IBoitq* 

*£p& f *Ap,apvytceii>Tiv Aiwpea pwip 1 eirehrj^re* 
veppaBitp yap jSXrjro irapa tr<f>vpov Ofcptoevrt 
/cvqpi}v Be^tTep^p" ftaXe Be Opytctov #70? dpBp&p, 
FLetpoos *Ip.j3paffiSr}<; f 8? ap J AlvaBep etk^XaCdet- 520 
dfAtporipw Be repovre fcal oarea Xaas avathi}? 

affile d-K7}X0il}<T€V 9 O S 1 VTTTtQ? £p KQvtj}<Tt 

KdTnre&ev dft(fim X € ^P € ^>^°^ erdpoiat TrerdersraVt 
&up,hv dwoTrvetMvi 6 8 1 iweSpafiev 09 p 1 eftaXep irep 
II e 1 poo? a o$ra Be Boupl Trap 1 QpjfaaXov etc B'apa irdcrat 525 
•%yvTQ %apm j^oXaSeft top Be a-tearo? oaae tcdXwtye* 

The booh closes with the slaughter of Fciroos, chief of the 

Top Be 80a? AltmXo? dweffavftepop fidXe Bovpl 
arepvop virep pLa^olo t irdyri §* iv TTPevpiovi ^aAtfo?. 
dy%lp.oXop Be oi 7}X0e B6a<s, etc S' oft pip, op ey)(p<s 
eaTrd&ara trr&pVQio* epv<T(raro Be %t<f>a<; ofu, 530 

to* 5 ye yacrepa rvyfre //.etrqp, ix B' aivvro Ovjlqp. 
revyea B 1 ovk diriBvcre* Trepio-rqaap yap eratpot 
&pilitc€$ dfcpQ/CQfjJu BaXlx e r fx ea X € P ai}/ e%0PTe?, 
ate p,eyap 7rep £6pTa teal t<f>6tfiav teal dryavop 
wcrap diro cfyeiwv o Be x aa 't Tt *P'€V Q s irekeptxffv* 55$ 

&<z to) y* $» kopItjO'i irap* aKXTJXotrtn rerdaOr]v t 
i} rot o fiev &pr}KWP w 6 S* *Ewei&p x a ^ X0 X l ™ P(&}/ * 
fffepopes' woXXol Be Trepl K-etvovTo teal aXXot. 

98 IAIAA02 A. 

*EvOa tcev ov/cerc epyov avrjp ovotravro fierekOcbv, 
09 Tt? er* a$X?/T09 koX avovTCLTO? ogit 'XjaXxw 540 

hivevoi Kara fiiaaov ayoc Si i ITaWa? 'AOrjvr) 
^€fc/)09 iXovaa, arap fteXecop airepv/cot, ipwijv 
7ro\\ol yap Tpdxov teal *Ayai5>v rjfiaTi tcelvrp 
irpqvees ip KovvQai irap 9 aKkfjkoiai reravro. 



Athena endues Diomede with might, and sends him into the fray \ 

"Ev0* ai Tv&etSy AiofirfSeC ITaWa? 'Adtfvrj 
S&tce vivos /cal 0apao<; 9 Xv €/c8rj\o<; fiera iracnv 
'Apyeioccrt, yevoiro ISe /cXeo? iaffXov apoiro. 
hale ol i/c tcopvOos re /cal da-irCBo? d/cdjjuiTov irvp, 
acrkp* OTT(opiv& ivaXvytciov, 09 re fidXiara 5 

\afJL7rpbv 7ra/jL^>aiv7j(rL Xekovjtevo? 'flfceavolo* 
tolov ol irvp Baiev a/iro /cparo<; re /cal wfioav, 
&p<r€ $€ fiiv Kara picaov, o0c irkeiaroi kKov&ovto. 

Phegeus falls, and Idaios flees before him, 

9 Hv 8e T19 £v Tp(De<r<ri A dpi)? dfyveib? dfivficov, 
ipev? ^HtfraLcrroto* 8va> Be ol vlee? tjo-ttjv, 10 

$rjyev<; 'IScuos re, fid^r)? ev elBore Tracy?. 

TG> ol a7TOtCplV0€VT€ ivaVTLCD 6pfJL7]0T]T1]V 

to) jiev d<j> Xmroilv, 8' diro j(0ovo$ &pvvro «7refo9. 
ol 8' ore Brj- oyehbv Jjaav €7r' aWijXoio'iv lovre*;, 
$r)yev<; pa irporepo? irpoUi Zo\bj(pa/aov ey%o?« 15 

TvBelSeco S' inrep &p,ov apccrrepbv rjkvO* a/coo fcrj 
ey%€09, ovS f e/3a\ y avTOV* 6 B' varepos &pWT0 ^aX/co> 
TvSeiSr)?* tov 8* ov% akiov ffeXo? e/ctfrvye %ety>09, 
d\X' $/3a\e ot?)0O9 fierafid&ov, &cr€ S* d<j> y Xirirayv. 
'Iiato? S 9 diropovae Xvttgdv irepucaXKea hfypov, 20 


ovB' erXrj irepifirjvai dBeX<f>eiov tcTapevoio* 

oiBe yap oiBe /cep avTo? irrre/cifrvye terjpa fieXcuvav, 

aU' " H(f>cu<TTO<; j-pirro, crdcocre Be pv/ctI teaXvyfras, 

ft)? &y ol firj 7rarfxy yepcop aicayjqiL&tos etq. 

iinrovs B y e^eXdaa^ fieyaOvfiov TvSeo? via? 25 

8a>/eep kralpoiGW /caTar/ecv fcolXas €7rl pf}a$. 

Athena next persuades Ares to retire from the fray. 

Tp&es Bi fieydffvfioL errel IBop vie Adprjro? 
top fiev dXevdfiepop, top Be* tcrdfiepop trap* oyzcrfyt,, 
iracip opipOrj 0tyzoV drap yXav/c&iris 'AOrjprj 
j^po? gXovg* eireeao^i 7rpoo-rjvBa Oovpop "Aprfa* 30 

*Apes, "Apes fipoToXotye, fiicu<j>6p€, Tei%eaw\i}Ta, 
ovfc ap Brj Tp£>a$ flip ecuratfiep /cal 'A^cuovs 
fidpvacr0\ omrorepoiai Trarrjp Zeit? /cv&os opejjg; 
p&i Be xa£a>fA€o-0a, A to? 8' dXedofieOa firjpip. 

The Trojans retire^ and many are slain : Odios, 

*/2? elirovaa fid^V^ e%rjyaye Oovpop "Aprja. 35 

top fiep eireira tcaOelaep eV rjioepri S/cafidpBptp, 
Tp&a$ 8' e/cXipap Aapaol* eXe B' apBpa etcao-TO? 
Tjyefioptop. 7t/og>to9 Be apa^ dpBp&p ' Aya/JL€fipa>p 
apypp ' AXi£d>pa>p, 'OBLop fieyap, etefiaXe 8l<f>pov 
vrpdyrq* yap oTpe<j>0ePTL jjuera^pepq) ep Bopv irtf^ev 40 

&fjwp fieaariyv^ Bca Be o-rijOeo-fap eXaaaep. 
{Bowrrjo'ep Bi ireatbp, dpafirjo-e Be Tev^e' ctt' avT<p.] 

Phaistos and Scamandrios f 

'IBojievev? B' apa ^aurrop iprjparo, My opo? vlbp 
Bd>pov, &9 i/c Tdpprjs ipi/3<oXa/co<; etXrjXovdeu 


rbv fiev ap* 9 I8o/jl€V€v? Bovpl k\vt6$ &f)(el fULKpfp 45 

vvf;' imrtov i7nftr)<r6fievov icard he%ibv &fiov 

r\pnre h 9 if; oyimv, arvyepb? h* a pa fiiv a koto? etke. 

Top fiev ap y 'Ihofievrjos eavkevov Oepdirovres* 
viov he Srpo<f)Loco 2/cafidvSpiov, aifiova Oijprj? 
9 Arpeihrj<; MeveXao? eV eyyel ogvoevTi, 50 

ecffkav 0T)pr)Tf]pa' hlhage yap * A pre pus avrrj 
(idWeiv dr/pui vravra, rd re rptyei ovpeaiv v\i). 
d\\ f ov oi rore ye xpaiafi' "ApTefii? lo%iaipa, 
ovhe eterjftoXiat, fjaiv to irplv y i/circao-To* 
aXXd fiiv 'Arpelhi)? Sovpl /cXeirds Mevekao? 55 

irpoaOev eQev <f>evyovra fierd^pevov ovraae hovpL 
\&fiM)v pLeacrjyfe, 61a he arrjOeatyv eXaaaev.] 
rip tire he irpqvfa dpdfirjae he Tevye 9 eir 1 auT&>. 


MrjpiovT)? he $epe/c\ov evrjparo, Te/eTovo? viov 
* Apfiovlhew, $$ yepalv eiriararo haihaXa irdvra 60 

Tevyew e^oy^a ydp fitv e<f>vKaro IlaWds 'AQr)vi\* 
09 /cal 'A\ef;dvhp<p reKTrjvaro vfja? eiVas 
apyeicdieov*;, at vraa-t, /ea/cbv Tpdoecai yevovro 
oit' avrS, iirel ov tl Oe&v i/c OeafyaTa rjhrj. 
top fiev Mrjpioprjs, ore hrj Karefiapirre Sicoiccov, 65 

fiefiXtf/cei yXovrbv /card hel*i6v rj he hid irpo 
dvTi/cpv Kara kvotiv inr' ocreov fj\v0' d/ca/eij. 
yvv% h* epiir' olfuo^as, Odvaros he fiiv dfifc/cdXtrsfre. 

Pedaio5 y 

Tlrjhatov 6° dp* eire<\>ve Mey^?, y Avrr\vopos viov, 
o? pa v60o$ fiev h\v> irvKa h' Srpefe hla Oeava> 70 


lea <f>iXouri T€/c€<r<ri, yapi^opAirf) iroael $. 

top fiev $vXel8r)<; Sovpi tcXvrbs iyyii&ep iX0a>v 

fiefSXriKet, tce<f>aXf)<; icard Ivlov o£a iovpl* 

avTiicpv 8* av 68ovra$ inrb yX&aaap rd/ie yak/cos. 

flpiire 8* iv Kovlys, yfrvypop 8' eXe *)(a\icbv oSovaw. 75 


EvpvirvXo? 8' EvaifioviSrjs 'Tyjrqpopa Slop, 
vlbv V7r€p0vp,ov AoXottiopos, 05 pa Xicafiavhpov 

dprjTTjp €T€TVtCTO, 0€O$ 8' 0)5 Tt€TO SrjfJLfp, 

top fJL€p ap' EupV7rv\o$, EvalfjLovos 07X00? W05, 
wpoaOep edep <f>€vyopra fieTaBpofidBrfp eXaa' &fiov 80 
<f>aaydp<p dt%a<; 9 dirb 8* egeae X € *P a fiapeiav* 
alfjuaroeacra 8£ X eL P 7r€ 8^f> ireae* top 8e tcaT f ocrae 
cXXafte irop<f>vpeo<; OdpaTos teal fiolpa KpaTai/q. 

Diomede signalizes himself beyond all others in the slaughter of 
the Trojans. 

*fl$ oi fjbh ttopcopto icard /cparepfjv vcrfitprjp* 
TvBeiSrjp 8' ovk &p 71/0/175 iroTepoiac fJL€T€LT), 85 

r}% fl€T€t Tpdoecraiv ofiCkeoi fj /x,€T , '-patois • 
0vp€ yap a/A vrehtop vroTap.$ irXrjOoPTi, ioufcws 
%61/JidpfHp, 05 t* &fca pecov itcehatrae y€<f>vpa^. 
top 8* ovt dp T€ ye<f>vpac iepfi&pai iayapococnp, 
oSr* apa eptcea to-yei dXcodcov ipiQrjke&p, 90 

kXdoPT* i£a7rlpr)$, ot* eiri^piarj A to? op,/3po$ 
vroXXa 8' vtt* avTOv epya tcaTrjpnre kclX* al^rj&p. 
&5 irrrb TvSetSy irvKtvaX tcXopeopro <f>dXayye<; 
TpaxDP, ovS' apa ficv fiifipop 7roXee5 vrep eoi/res. 


He is wounded by Pandaros, 

Tbv 8* c»9 ovp ivorjae Av/cdovo? dy\ab$ 1/109 95 

Ovvovt' ap, 7re8lov, irpb e0ev teXoveovra <f>d\ayya$ t 
ahfr* €7rl TvBeiSrj eTvraiveTO KapurvXa Toga, 
teal f}d\' iirataaovra tvx&v Kara Se^cbv wfiov, 
Ocibprjtcos yvaXov, SiA 8' eirraro irc/cpos oIVttoV 
avTLfcpv 8k hUa")(€, iraXdaaero 8' at part dcoprjf*, 100 
tw 8' €7rl fiatcpov ai)ae Av/edovos ay\ab$ vlos* 

"OpvvtrBe Tp&es fieyd0vp,oi, /eevTopes imroDV 
fieffXtfTcu ydp apiaro? 'Axcu&v, ovSe e (jyrj/Mt 
hrjO* avayYitTsaQai Kparepbv ftekos, el ereov fie 
&p(T€P ava% Aib? vlb? diropvvpevov AvKirjOev. 105 

A /29 efar' evxpfievos* top 8' ov fieXos gmcv Sdfiaaaev, 
aW dvayoaprjaas irpoa0 f Xmrotlv real oyetrfyiv 
earrj, teal XdeveXov 7rpoae(f}rj t Kairavrjlov vlov 

"Opao ireirov Ka7ravrjcdSrj, Kaia^qaeo 8{<j)pov 9 
8<j)pa fioi el; copoco epvaarjs iriKpbv olarov. no 

*fl$ dp* i<j>rj, SdeveXos 8e tea0 y Xmrayv aXro j^a/iafe, 
vrap 8£ <rra9 j3e\o$ wkv hiafnrepe*; e%epva* wpov. 
alpa 8' avT)/e6vri£e Sid arpeirroto xnwo?. 
ht] tot* eireiT* rjpaTO fiorjv dr/aBb? AtofiijBw 

but, on prayer to Athena, is miraculously restored, and enters the 
combat with new fury, 

K\v0l fiev alyto'xpio A cos Te/co$, drpvTwvq, 115 

el woTe pot ical irarpl (f>iKa fypoveovaa Trapiarrj^ 
Srfttp iv iroXefMp, vvv clvt* ipe <f>l\at *A0r)vi) % 
80$ Si t£ fi avhpa ekelv teal 69 opprjv ey%€09 iXdelv, 
09 fi ifidke <f>0dfievo$ teal eirevxeTai, ovSe fie fact, 
Srjpbv €T* oyfreaOai Xapirpbv <f>do$ rjeXloio. 120 

104 IAIAA02 B. 

A /2? €<f>ar* evxpfievov rov 8* €tc\ve IIa\\d$ 'ABqvrj, 
yvla 8' edrjicev i\a<f)pd 9 7ro8a9 teal %eZ/>a9 mrepOev 
arfxpv 8* iarafievrj ewea irrepoevra 7rpo<r7jv8a' 

Qapa&v vvv AiofirjSes iirl Tp&e&o'i fia^eaBau* 
iv yap tol tmjdeao-i fiivo? irarpdalov fjica 125 

arpofiov, olov e^eovee <rare€<r7ra\o<; ImroTa Ti/8eu? - 
a-)(kvv V av tol air* d<f>da\ficbv ekov, fj irplv iirrjev, 
o<f*p* €v yiyvaxrtcT)? fjfxev Oebv r)8e koX dvSpa. 
tS vvv, at K€ Oeb? Treipw/ievo? ivOaS* iterjrai, 
yJ\ ti <rv 7' dQavaTOKTi 6eoZ<; avrifcpv pAyeaOat, 130 
TO69 aWoiv drdp ef /ce A 10$ Ovydrrjp J A^>po8irr) 
e\0r)<r* e? TroXepov, rrjv 7' ovrd/iAv of-el 'xclKkw. 

*H fiev dp* w? elirova* direftr) yXav/c&7rt<f 'AOrjirr), 
TvBeiBrj? 8* igavrts Icov irpoixd-^oiaiv ^i%6r\ % 
Kal irplv irep 0vp,<p /ze/zacb? Tpcoeaat, fiayeaOaL, 135 

8r) Tore fitv rpU roaaov e\ev fievos, ft>9 re Xiovra, 
ov pd T€ iroifi-qv dypw eV' elpoTro/coi? oteaai 
Xpavo-7} fiev t* avXfj? virepdXfievov oi8e 8afid<r<ry 
rov fiev re a0evo$ Sypaev, eireira Si t* oi irpoaafivvei, 
dXkd tcard araOfiov? Sverai, rd 8' iprjfia (jyofieirai* 140 
al fiev r* dy%i<rTivat, eV' dXXrjXyoL xi^vvrai, 
airdp o ififiefiato^ /3a0erf<f igdXXeraL avXrjv 
ft>9 fiefiaw^ Tpdoeaai pfyv /cparepb? AiofirjSr)?. 

He slays Astynoos and Hypeiron, Xanthos and Tnoon, Echemmon 
and Chromios. 

Ev0* eXev 'Acttvvoov Kal 'Twetpova, iroifikva Xa&v, 
rov fiev virip fia^olo fiaXcbv xaXfCJjpeZ 8ovpi, 145 

rbv 8* Srepov gifai fieydXtp fc\r)l8a irap* 3>fiov 
irXrjg*, dirb 8' av^vo? &fiov iipyadev 778' dirb voorov. 


T0U9 fiev €cur % 6 8' "Afiavra fiera^ero koX IloXviSov, 

vUas EvpvSdfiavros, 6veipo*iroKQU> yepovros, 

to2$ ov/c ipxpftevoi? 6 yepa>v eKpivar* ovelpovs, 150 

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Aeneas comes to the rescue, first calling on Pandaros to explain why 
he does not meet Diomede. 

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el fit? ti$ 0eo9 ioTi Koreaadp^evo^ Tpcoeo-aw, 
Ip&v firjviaa^' xaXeTrrj 8e Oeov ein firjvis. 

Pandaros describes how he has recently wounded Diomede ; but can- 
not engage in hand-to-hand combat with him, for lack of a 

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Xtp&l hiafe\ao°<ra$ * dvepmkta yap pot oVi^Se*. 

Aeneas induces Panda ros £& mount his chariot \ and the two heroes 
advance against Dtamede, 

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108 IAIAA02 E. 

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Sthenelos warns Diomede not to encounter two such mighty 


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But the hero repels the warning, and gives his esquire directions 
concerning the immortal steeds which he expects to capture. 

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Pandaros begins the combat by discharging his spear, but without 


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Diomedes slays Pandaros and disables Aeneas, who is rescued by 

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eptco? efiev fteXetov, fitj t*9 Aavacov rayyirdiKtov 
XaX/cbv evX aT^deaat fiaXcbv iic dvfibv eXocTO. 

Sthenelos possesses himself of Aeneas' 1 s steeds, sends them to the ships, 
and returns to Diomede, who pursues and wounds Aphrodite. 

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ov ydp alrov eBova 9 , ov irivova' 9 aWoira olvov, 
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The goddess lets Aeneas fall, who is rescued by Apollo, while Aph- 
rodite, under the taunts ofDiomede, is led away by Iris to Ares. 

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Ares lends Aphrodite his steeds, which, Iris being charioteer, convey 
her to her mother y Dione. 

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Dione, having heard the cause of her daughter's distress, comforts 
her by recounting other deities who have experienced humiliation 
at the hands of mortals : Ares, Hera, Hades. 

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rfKeaar 9 ' ov fiev ydp tl /caTadvrjTOs, 7' irerv/cro* 

ayirXio^i o/3pifioepyo<; t 09 ov/c oQer* atavXa pefov, 

&9 Togotcnv e/crjBe Oeovs, oc "OXvfiirov fypvai* 

She explains that the present assault was instigated by Athena > and 
heals her daughter's wound. 

Sol 8' €7rl tovtov dvrjtce Bed yXavK&irt? *A6r)vr\ % 405 
vrprios, ovBe to o28e /card <f>peva TvBeo? vlos, 
otti fidX 9 ov Brjvatb? S9 ddavdroccn fidyryrai, 
ovS4 ti fitv iralBe? ttotI yovvaac irainrdtpvcnv 


i\06vr* ire iroXe/ioio teal alvfp SrjVorrjro^. 

r& vvv TvSelSrjs, el teal fidXa tcaprepo? 4cm, 410 

<f>pa£€<T0Q> yd) rfc ol dfieivav crelo fid^rai, 

fir) 8ijv AlyidXeia, irepfypwv 'ASprjarivrj, 

etc xnrvov yoococra <j>t\ov<; oltcrja? iyelpy, 

tcovpiStop irodiovaa irbtnv, rov apurrov y Ayai&v> 

tydlfirj aXoxos Atofirfheo^ iTTTroSdfioio. 415 

H pa, teal a/jL<f>0T€pj)criv air* i^A x €l P * o/wpyvv 
&\0€to x € tp> oSvpeu Se KarryinotovTO ftapeiai. 

Athena and Hera banter Zeus upon Aphrodite 's discomfiture, 

At 8* air elcropoacrai 9 A0r)valr) re teal "Hpy 
tcepTOfiloi? eireeaac Ala KpovlSrjv ipkdi&v. 
rola 1 Be fJLV0a)v %px € € & ykavic&iw 'Adrjvrf 420 

Zev irarep, fj pa ri fioc teexo^dcreai, otti ieev eXirw; 
fj fjuaXa Bq Ttva KxnrpLs 'AxaudBav dvieicra 
Tpaxrlv ajia cnrecr0ai 9 tou? vvv eicrrayk* i<j>t\/rjcr€ 9 
r&v Ttva /cap pi£o vera 'Axaud&cov evTreifk&v 
irpb? xP va *V ictpbvy tearafiv^aro x e W a apaiqv. 425 

*J2<; <f>aTO, fielBrjcrev Bk irarrjp dvBp&v re 0e£>v re, 
Kai pa tcaXecrcrdftevo? irpoaetyrj xP v<r ^V v 'AQpoBiTrjv 

who counsels Aphrodite to leave war to Ares and Athena, 
Ou toi, Teicvov i/jbbv, BeBorai irdkefirjla epya, 
dXka crv y* Ifiepoevra fierepx^o epya ydfioio, 
Tama 8' "Aprjl 0o<p zeal *A0rjvr) irdvTa fieXrjcrei. 430 

Diomede attacks Aeneas, now under the protection of Apollo, but ** 
repelled by the god with savage warning. 

A /2? ol fiiv Toiavra irpo? aKXqkovs dyopevov. 
Aiveia 8' iiropovae fiorjv dya06<; AiofjLrj&rjs, 

Il6 IAIAA02 E. 

yvyvaxriccw o oi avroq inreipexe %etpa? 'AiroXXayv 
dXX* 07' ap* ovSe Oebv jieyav a£ero, Xero 8' alel 
Aiveiav /crelvat /cal airb /cXura Tevyea ivaai. 435 

rpls fiev €7T€VT y eiropovae /cara/crdfAevai fievealvav, 
rpl$ Si oi icTVtfreXige <f>aeivt}v ao"7rl8' * AttoKX&v. 
dXX 9 ore Srj to reraprov eireo-avro Saifiovt 2<ro?, 
Seiva 8* ofjLOtcXijo-a? Trpoo-tyr) e/cdepyo? y AiroKXoav * 

$pd£eo, TvSelSrj, /cal %a£eo 9 firjSe Oeolaiv 440 

la' edeXe <f>poveeiv, iirel ov irore <j>OXov ofiolov 
dOavdrav re Oe&v ip^ofJievoov t' dvdpdrrroDV. 

*/2? <j>aT0, TvSelBrjs 8* dve^d^ero rvrdbv oiriaato 
firjvtv dXevdjievos e/carrj/BoXov 'AiroXXcovos. 
Alveiav 8* dirdrepdev ojjliXov Orj/cev *AiroKX(ov 445 

Hepydficp elv lepfjy odi oi 1/170? y' ereTV/cro' 
fj toi rbv ArjTcb re /cal "Apre/ii? loykaipa 
iv fieydXq) d8vT<p drceovTO re tcvSawov re. 

Having driven back Diomede, Apollo sets a phantom- Aeneas among 
the combatants, and incites Ares to re-enter the combat, 

Avrdp 6 el8eoXov TeOf dpyvporoljos ' AttoXXcov 
avr<p t* Alveia 1/ceXov /cal rev^eo-i toiov, 450 

dfi<f>l 8* ap 9 el8(oX(p Tp&es /cal 8I01 'Amatol 
Syovv dXXjjXoDv d/ji(j>l CT'qdeo'O'i ftoeias 
dairihas ev/cv/cXov? Xaiarfid re irrepoevra. 
8rj Tore dovpov "Aprja wpoarjvSa $ol/3o$ 'AwoXXav 

9 Apes, "Apes ftporoXoiye, fjuiaufyove, TevxeanrXriTa, 455 
ov/c av 8tj tov8' avSpa fidxv^ epvaaio fiereXdwv 
TvSeiSrjv, 85 vvv ye ical av Ait irarpl fid^piro; 
KvirpiSa fiev irp&ra ayehov ovraa-e X € *P' * 77 ^ /capirq>, 
avTap erreir' avTtp fioi eireaavTo Saifiovt, hros* 


who re-animates the Trojans. 

*/2? elirtbp avrb? fiev i<f>e£eTO Ilepydfup a/cprj, 460 

Tp<pa$ 8k <rr(xa$ . ofi\o$ "Apr)? &rpvve fjuerekdav 
elSofievos 'Atcdfiavri 0otp, fpf/jropi Qprjic&v 
vidtri Be Hpid\xoio 8ioTp€<j)€€<r<ri teeXevev 

*S2 vUis npcdfjioio, 8ioTpe<j>eo$ ftao-ikrjos, 
i$ rl en KreiveaOai idaere Xaov * Amatols; 465 

1} eU 6 /cev dfi<j>l 7ru\i7? ei Troir}Tr)<Ti fid^povrai ; 
fcelrac dvrjp, op r laop iriofiev "Etcropi 8l(p, 
Alvelas, vlb$ iieydkrjTopos 9 Ay^iaao. 
aW ar/cr' etc <f>\oL<rj3oio caaxro/iev iadXbv kralpov, 

*/2? eliroDV &rpvve fievos teal Ovjjlop ktcdo-rov. 470 

iv0 y ai Sap7T7]8(ov fidXa veitceaev "Etcropa 8 top* 

Sarpedon reproaches Hector, contrasting his remissness with his own 
sacrifices and courage. 

"Eterop, irfj 8ij rot fievos oXyeTat, § irpXv e^eovce?; 
^9 irov arep \a&v iroXw €^ifjb€V rj8 9 iirucovptop 
olos avp yafiftpouri tcaaiyprfToio'L t€ aolai. 
t&p pvp ov tip 9 iya)V iheeiv hvvap,' oi8e pofjo'ai, 475 
dXXa KaraTTTOixra'ova'L tcvpes a>9 d/j,(f)l \eovra* 
ridels 8' av fiaxojiead' , 0% irkp t iirtKovpoi eveifiev. 
teal yap iya>p iirttcovpos ia>p p.d\a rrjXodev rj/ca)' 
rrjkov yap Avtclrj, 'Sdvdtp eiri Bwrfevri, 
evd* aXoypp re <f>i\r)p ekmov fcal vrymov vlop, 480 

kcl8 8k KTrjpLara iroXXd, rd r 9 eXSerai, 05 tc 9 iiriSevi]?. 
dXXa teal c5? Avtctovs orpvpa) teal jiifjuop 9 avrb$ 
dv8pl ihayfiGaaQav drdp ov rl fiou ivOdSe tolop, 
olop k' rj€ <f>ipocev 'Amatol rj tcep ayow 


tvptj 8' lo-njieas, arap ov8' aXXoici /ceXevec? 485 

Xaolaiv fjueuefjuev teal dfivvifjuevac cbpe<r<Ti,. 

firj 7TO)?, &)? ayjrla-i Xlpov dXopre 7ravdypov, 

avhpd<TL hva-fieveea-a-cv (tXcop koI tcvpfui yeprfO'Oe* 

oi 8k ru>X €fC7rip<rov<T* ev vaiofMeprjv ttoXlp Vfitfp. 

col 8£ xpr) rdSe irdvra jjueXew pv/CTa? T€ teal rjjjiap, 490 

dpxpv? Xia<TOfiev(p TrjXeicXevT&v eirucovpayv 

pcoXefjueeo^ ixifiev, tcpaTeprjp 8' diro0ka0ai ivLirrjv. 

Hector feels the reproach, enters again the combat, and rallies the * 

Trojatis. u- 

*/2? <f>dro Sap7T7]S(ov f 8d/ce 8k <f>pepa<; "Eicropi, fLv9o<;. * 

avTitca 8' e£ o^icop avp rev^eavp dXro ^afia^e, 
TrdXXoop 8' ogea Sovpa Kara arparop gS%€to TrdpTy, 495 
orpvvcop iiaykaaaOai, eyetpe 8e <f)vXo7rip alprjp. «• 

oi 8* eXeXixOriGap teal ipaprloi earap A^ai&p* 
'Apyeloi 8' v7rifjL€Lpap doXXee? ovSe <f)6/3r)0ep. 
c!)? 8' avefio^ aypas (fropiet, lepd? tear* d\coa$ 
du8pcop XiKfjLcoPTCOP, ore re £ap0r) ArjfjbTJTrjp 500 

/epipy eTreiyofjuipcop dpi/jicop tcapirop re /cal a^pa?' 
ai 8' viroXevtcalpoPTaL d)(vpfual % &? tot 9 A^acol 
XevKol v7T€p06 ykvopTo KovLadXtp, op pa 8i % avT&p ''- 

oupapop €? TToXv)(aXicop eireirXtiyop TroSe? Xirirayv, 
ayfr iTrifiLO-yofJLepw virb 8* e&Tpecfrop rfPio^rje^' 505 

oi 8h fiepos / yetp6i)p I0v<s <j>epop. d/M(j>l 8e pvKTa 
0ovpo$ v Aprj<; i/cdXvyfre fid^r) Tpcbeo-aw dprfycop, 
TrdpToa* eiroixo/jLepo*; 9 tov 8' i/cpaiawep ifeTfids 
$oll3ov ' AttoXXcopo^ ypvaaopov, o? jmp dvcoyei 
Tpwaip 0vfjLOP iyelpai, €7rel ?8e UaXXaS' 'A0j]prjp 510 
olxpfieprjp* r\ yap pa ireXep Aavaolatv dprjycov. 


Avrb? 8* Alveiav fiaXa iriovo? ef aSvroto 
fj/ce, /ecu iv GTrjdeaai, jievos /3d\e iroLfievu Xacov. 
A Iv € las 8' erdpoicrt, fjueOicrraTO' rol 8' i^dprjerav, 
a>9 elSov £a>6v re teal dprepMa irpoaiovTa 515 

teal jievo? icrdXov fyovTa* fierdWrjadv ye fiev ov n. 
06 jc\p ea irovos a\\o?, ov dpyvporogos eyeipev 
"Apr\$ re /3poro\ovyb$ "Epi? t* apjorov fiefiavia. 

On the other hand, the leaders of the Greeks, the AJaces, Odysseus, 
and Diomede, rally their men. 

Tov$ 8' AXavTe Svco fcal 'OSvcrcrevs teal Aiofni&rjs 
&rpwov Aavaovs 7ro\e/-u£e/xei/* oi 8e koX avrol 520 

ovt€ /3la$ Tpdxov virehelhicrav ovre Icotcds, 
aW* €fJb€Vov v€<j>e\rjcrtv doi/cores, a<? re Kpovlcov 
VTjvefAir)? ecrrrjerev €7r' d/cpoiroXotcriv opecrcnv 
aTpejJLas, 8<j>p' evhyen fievo? Bopeao /cai aXXcov 
£ a XP €L ® v dveficov, 01 re V€(f>ea crKcoevra 525 

TTvoifjcrw Xuyvprjcri hiacriahvacTiv aevre?' 
&9 Aavaol Tp&a$ fievov e/nreSov ov$* icfiefiovro. 

Agamemnon exhorts the host, and slays Deikoon, 

'ArpelSris 8* civ 9 oiiCKov tyoLra iroKKa tceXevcov 
*£1 <f>i\oi, dvipes ecrre seal oXkijiov fyop eXeaOe, 
dWrjkov? t' alheurde Kara fcparepas vo-filva?. 530 

aiSofievcov 8' avSpcbv irXeove? aoot rje irkfyavrai' 
fevyovTODv 8' ovt* ap /c\eo$ opvvrai ovre t*9 d\/crj. 

*H, teal d/covTicre Sovpl 0om, /3a\e 8£ irpofiov ctvBpa, 
Alvem irapov fieyadvpov, ArjlKocovra 
Ilepyaa-lcyrjv, hv Tpcoes 6fju&<; Ilpidfioio Teicecrcn 535 

riov, iirel Bobs Icvce fierct irpdaToicn, iidytadai. 


tov pa tear' dairlBa Bovpl fidXe /cpeioov 'Ayafjuifivcov 
17 8* ovtc eyx o<? ^P VT0 > $^ ^9° ^e eXaaro ^aX#co?, 
vetalprj 8' iv yacTpl Bed £a><TTf)po$ eXaowe. 
Boinrqaev Be ireacov, dpdftrjae Be Tei^e* en-' avTo}. 540 

Aeneas slays Krethon and Orsilochos. 
y Ev0* avr* Alveias Aavacov eXev dvBpas aplo-rovs, 
vie Aio/cXrjos, KprfOcovd re ^OpaCXo^ov re. 
tcov pa iraTrjp puev evaiev ivKTtpLevrj ivl $r)pr) 
dcfrveios ficoroio, yevos 8' fjv iic Trora/Jioio 
'AXfyetov, 09 t* evpv pkev IlvXieov Bed yalrjs, 545 

09 rifcer* 'OpalXoxov iroXeeaa avhpe<r<riv ava/cra* 
'OpaiKo'xos 8* dp* ctiktc AioicXr\a fieydOvfiov, 
itc Be Aiofc\i]o<; 8i8vp,dove iraZBe yeveaOrjv, 
KprjOwv 'OpaCkoxo? re p>d%r)s ei elBore irdat]^. 
to> pep dp 1 r}^Tj(ravre pbeXaivdeov iirl vrj&v 550 

"IXiov €19 eviroiXov ap,' 'Apeloiciv €7re<r07)V, 
Ttfirjv 'ArpeiBr]?, ' Ayap.ep.vovi real MeveXdtp, 
dpvvp,evw tod 8* aWi reXo9 Oavdroio tcdXvyfrev. 
oca) rob ye \eovre Bvco opeo? Kopv<f>r}<rcv 
erpa<f>eT7)v virb pbrjrpl ftaOelr)? rdpfyeaiv vXw 555 

TO) p.ev dp* dpird^ovre j36a$ /cal i<j)t,a purjXa 
araOpLovs dvOpcoiroav Kepat^erov, S(f>pa teal avra) 
dvBp&v iv iraKdp.rjdi fcareferaOev o%ei ^a\tfa>* 
to ceo to> yeipeaaiv vir* Aiveiao Bapuivre 
Kainrea'eTTjv, eXaTrjaw eot/cores vyfrrjXrjo-c. 560 

Pity at their fate touches Menelaos, and he seeks, aided by Antilo* 
chos y to avenge them. 

To) 8k ireaovr* eXerjaev dpyfyCXo*; MeviXaos, 
ftfj Be Sid irpopLa^eov Keicopv6p.evo<i aWoiri ^aX/cw, 
aeuov iyxeirjv tov 8* tirpwev p,evo<; "Ap7j$, 

IAIAA02 B. 121 

ret <j>pov€CDV t Tva 'XfpaXv vtt 9 Alveiao Safieirj. 

top 8 9 X8ev 'Avrikoxos, fjueyaOvfiov NeaTopo? vl6$, 565 

fir} 8k Sea Trpojidxw irepi ydp 8ie iroifiivi kacov 

firj ti Trddoi, fieya 8i c<f>a$ aTroc^keie irovoto. 

tod pat 8r) %efy>a9 re teal ey^ea 6%v6evTa 

dvrlov aXkrjkeov i%eTrjv jLefia&Te fid^eaOa^ 

'iliTtXo^o? 8k fidk* arp^L irapiaTaro iroip,kvi \a£>v. 570 

Alvelas 8 9 ov jielve 606$ irep iiov TrokefiioTr}?, 

a>? el8ev 8vo (f><OT€ Trap* dXkrjkoiat, jj,£vovt€, 

ol 8' iirel oiv ve/cpovs epvaav jjuera kabv 9 Ayamv* 

TO) fikv dpa Seiko) fiakeTrjv iv x e P aiv eTaipcov, 

avrco 8k arpetfrdevTe fiera irpdnToiai fmyeaOriv. 575 

"Evda Ilvkaifiivea ekeTrjv drdkavrov "Aprjl, 
apypv HaQkayovaiv fieyaOvfuov, do-irio-Tdcov 
tov fiev dp 9 'ArpeiBrj? Bovpl /ckeiTos Mevekaos 
co-toot 9 ey%« vv]~€ tcaTa /ckrjiBa TV%i]<ra<f 
' Avrikoj(p<; 8e Mv8<ova /3d\\ fjvio-)(pv OepdirovTa, 580 
i<r0X6v 'ATV/ividSrjv (0 8 9 vireoTpefye pxavv^a^ Xinrovs;) 
%€pfjLa8l(p dyictova tv^cov fieaov* i/c 8* dpa ^etptov 
fivia kevtc 9 ekefyavri %a/L&al ireaov iv Kovirjaiv. 
*AvTi\o-)(p<; 8 9 dp 9 iirat^a^ fjlcfrei ffkaa-e /copo-rjv 
avTap 8 y 9 do-0/jLalvcDV evepyio? eKireae 8l<j>pov 585 

KVfj,/3axo<; iv /coviyo'iv iirl fipe^fiov re teal e5/xou<?. 
Brjdd jid\ 9 karrjicei, TiJ^e yap p ' dfid0oio /3a0€i7]$, 
S(f> p* i7nra) irkifeavTe %a/^al fidkov iv /covlgai, 
TOV9 tfjuzc 9 'Avrtkoxos, fjb€Ta 8e aTpaTov fikao- 9 9 A%ai,u)v. 

This brings Hector into the fray. He is attended by Ares; and the 
Greeks, including Diomede, shrink back, 

Tovs 8 9 "EtCTGip ivorjo'€ icard GTiyas, &pTo 8* iif avTov? 590 
tctickqyw* d/jua 8e Tpcocov g'ittovto (fydkayyes 


tcparepat* fip%e 8' &pa a<f>iv "Apr}? teal irorvC *Ewd>, 

jj fikv expvaa tcvSoijiov dvatZea BrftorijTO^, 

*Apr}<; 8* iv iraXajJurjcn ireXcopcov ey%o? ivwpui, 

(f>oira 8' &Wot€ fikv Trpoad' " E/cropos, aWor* oiricrOe. 595 

Tov 8k I8a>v piyrj(T€ fioijv dyadb? AiofjLTjSrjs. 
c&5 8* or' dvrjp a7rd\a/j,vo<?, la>v 7roXeo? weSloio, 
<rnjy in* &>ievp6(p iroTap.& SXaSe TTpopeovn, 
a<f>p<p fiopfjivpovra IBcov, dvd r' %8pafi' 6irUraa> 9 
a>? tot€ TvSelSrj? dye^d^ero, efare re \oa>° 600 

*/2 <f>l\oi, olov 8r) 0avjid%ofjb€V "Efcropa 8lov 
alxP'V T V v T * €fi€vai teal QapcaXkov 7ro\ep,io"n]V 
tg3 8' alel it dp a el? ye de&v, $9 \01yby dfjuvvei' 
teal vvv oi irdpa tcelvo? "Apr)? ftpOTtp dvSpl ioitcws. 
dkXa 7T/0O? Tp&a? rerpafifiivoi aikv oirUrcna 605 

el/cere, firj8k deol? fjueveaivepev l<j>c p,d%€crdai. 

*/2? ap* e<fyr), Tpwe? 8k fidXa aj^eSbv rjkvOov avr&v. 

€vd' "EtCTCDp 8vdt) <f)&T€ KCLT6KTaveV €l8oT€ X^Pf 17 )**, 

elv ivl Sl(j>p(p iovre, Mevicrdrfv y Ay%la\6v T€* 

except Ajar, son of Telamon, who slays Amphios 9 and striven 
to despoil his corpse, 

Tib 8k ireaovr 1 ikeqae fieya? Te\apbd>vio<; Ala?' 610 
arrj 8k fidX' eyyu? id>v 9 teal d/covrure 8ovpl (fxietva), 
teal fiakev "Afi<f>iov, SeXdr/ov vlov, 09 p* ivl Ilauro} 
vale irokuKrrjficov iroXvXijiof;. aXkd k fiolpa 
jjy' eiriKovprjaovTa jiera TlpUbfiov re teal via?. 
tov pa tcara ^coo-Trjpa fidXev Tekapuovios Aca$, 615 

vealprj 8' iv yatrrpl irdrfi) hokvyjlxTieiov ey^09, 
8ov7rr)<rev 8k ireadtv. 6 8' eVeSpa/ie <f>al8cfio<; Alas 
T€v%ea avkrfamv Tp&€$ 8' iirl Sovpar' iyevav 



avrkp a Xa£ 7rpo<r/3a? etc veKpov ^tiXtfeop iyx°$ & 20 

itnra&aT*' ouB* ap* €r r aXXa Svuijuaro reu^ea Kaka 
wfMouv a<f>e\£o-8at m iirelyero yap fieXieaa-t, 
Sacre !' o 7' dp,$ifta<rw teparepTjv Tpd>mv dye/xi^aw, 
o? ttoXXqI re teal iaBXol ifyiuTtLtrav eyx € * t%oifT^ t 
01 e pttyav irep iovra teal t<fi6tp l op tcai cpyavop 625 

w&ap awo o~$eiwv~ & Se ^aa-Q-a^vo^ TreXefiiftdrf. 
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T\iqirok£p>Qv S 1 t HpatcXeLBt}v i rj'up tc p,e<yav re, 
utpaev e7r* avriB&tp 3^p7r^Sot>t potpa fcparattj. 
oi 8* ore Brf a-^jeBbif ycrap £tt j dXX^Xotatp ioPTes, 630 
vlo? 6 i vi&)v6<z re £los v£<p£Xv}y€p€Tao, 
top teal TXt^woX^o^ irpQT€po<; Trpos pvdov eetTre* 

Thpalem&s challenges Sarpedon to single combat* 

JtapTTTj&QV, Av/ctmv fiovXTjfpopG, rtV to 1 dvdy/cq 
TTTQJG'crGtv ivddS* iopTi p*d%7}<s dh&ripLQvt tfxaTt ; 
-frtvBo/jrevoi Se <xe (patrt A to? yovop alyiox 010 &3$ 

elvaij ctt^I iroXXov Kzivmv CTrtSei/eat dpSpwv, 
ot dtos i^eyipoPTO iwl Trporeptap dp$pd>7rmv t 
dXX* olov Ttvd <f>a{ri /}itji> ' HpaK\7}€tJ}P 
etvai, ifjLOP iraTepa 0paa-vp t £pipova QvpoXioPTa* 
0$ 7Tore Bevp* gX&wp epe% tinrttiv AaofiiBopTo^ 9 640 

££ °^ ^vv pTjva-l teal dpBpd&i TravporepQia-ip 
'IXlau i^aXdtra^c woXtp, xVP mtT€ 5* dyvtds* 
<rol Be aatco*; p,ep 8vfj,6$ t d7roxf>dtPvffovfrt Be XaoL 
ovBe rt &€ Tptbe&o-tp aXxap evea-dai 
iXOopr* ix Avtci7]^ t avB* el pdXa /capr€p6$ io-o-t> 64$ 

dXX utt* iftol BpT}&GvTa TfvXav *A'tSao WGpij&ew* 


Sarpedon replies, the spearsare discharged at the same moment, and 
the challenger falls. 

Top B* ai SapTnjBcov, Avtcuop ay 6$, avrlov rjvBa* 
T\r)7ro\€fJL 9 % rov tceipo? aTrcbXeaep "Tkiov Iprjv 
avipos a<f>pa&L7)<TLV aryavov AaofieBopTO?, 
09 pa> p>i<v ev ep^avra teatca) 7]PiiraiTe fivdtp, 650 

oiB' aireBcox* iTnrovs, &v ewe tea rrjXodev fj\Be* 
aol B' eyo) epddBe <f>r)/ju <f>6pov teal tcrjpa fjuekawav 
ef ifieOev revfjeo'dai, €/xa> S* xnro Sou pi Bafiepra 
eC%09 ifiol Bcbcreip, ^frv^rjp 8' "AiBi tc\vTowa>\<p. 

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fie&Xij/ceiP, alxfirj Be Bteaavro fiacfiaxoaa, 
oare<p iyxpifiifrdetcra, irarrfp B* en Xoiybp afivpev. 

While his companions are carrying off the grievously wounded 
Sarpedon, Odysseus slays many of the Lykians, 

01 fiep ap' aprideop SapTrrjSopa Slot, eralpoi 
el*e<f>€pov iroXifioio' ftdpvpe Be pup Bopv fiatepbp 
eXteofievop. to fiep ov Tt9 eire^pdaar 9 oiB 9 iporfcre, 665 
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fiepfirjpt^e 8* hrena /card, <f>pepa /cal Kara 0vfibp 

fj Trporipco Aib$ vibp ipiySoviroio Siw/coi, 

rj 6 ye r&v ttXcopcop Av/cieop dirb 0vfibp eXoiro. 

ov8' dp* 'OSvo-afji fieyaXrjTopt, fiopatfiov y\ep 

t<f>0L/jLov Aib? vibv diroKTafiev o£e£ xaX/ea>* 675 

tc5 pa Kara irKrjdvv Av/cloop rpdire 0vfibv 'Adijvr), 

evd' o ye KoCpavop etXep 'AXdaropd re Xpo/iiov re 

"AXxapSpop 0' "AXiop re Norjfiovd re HpvTaviv re. 

but is checked by Hector ', who, seconded by Ares, slays many of 
the Greeks, and forces them, stubbornly resisting, toward the 

Kal vv k en irXeopa? Av/clcov /crape Bios y 08vo-aev\, 
el fJirj dp* ogv porja-e fieyas /copv0atoXo$ "E/crcop. 680 

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ev(f>pav€€cv aXo'Xpp re <f>iXr)p teal prpnop vlop. 

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OB E. 

126 IAIAA 

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valov BomotoI fjudXa irlova Btj/jlou expvres* 710 

Hera and Athena resolve to come to the succor of the Greeks; and 
the battle of the gods begins. 

Toi><; 8* C09 oZv ivorj&e Oeci, XevKcoXevos "Hpr) 
'Apyelov? dXefcovra? evl Kparepfj vct/jllvtj, 
ovtIk 'Adrjvalrjv hrea irrepoevTa irpoarjvSa' 

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fj p* aXiov tov fivOov VTrea-Tfjfiev Mevekdtp, 715 

"Tkiov iiarkpiiavT evret^eop diroveeadcu, 

el ovrto /jialveaOcu idaofjuev oJikov "Aprja. 

aW wye Sf) teal vcol fieSwfAeOa OovpiSos a\/d}?. 

Hera prepares her chariot of war. 

*[%$ €<j>ar\ ovB 7 diridrjo-e 0ecb yXavtcaTn? 'Adrfvrj. 
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IAlkAOS E. 127 

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iTnrov? doKwroSas, fiejMivV epiSos ical dOrr}?. 

Athena arrays herself in armor. 

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And the two goddesses, with Hera as charioteer, hasten to 

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evpov he Kpovlwva Oe&p arep fjfiepov aXKcov 
dxpordry fcopv<f>r) 7ro\vheipdho$ OvXiifjnroio. 

and beseech Zeus to arrest Ares, in his destruction of the Achaean s. 
*Ev0' imrovs arrjo-ao-a Oea \evrcoo\evos "Hprj 755 

Zrjp 9 xnrarop Kpopthrjp e^eipero /ecu irpoaeevwe' 

Zev irdrep, ov pefieal^rj "Apy rdhe tcaprepd epya; 
oaaamov re /cal olov airwXeo-e Xabv 'Ayaifitv 
pdyjr, drap ov Kara koct/jlov, ifiol h* a%o<;' oi he e/erfkoi 
rkprroprai Kvirpis re /cal dpyvporogo? 'AiroXKcop 760 
&<f>pova rovrop dvevres, 05 ov riva dlhe OejMora' 
Zev irdrep, fj pa ri fiot, /cexoTuoceai, at /cev "Aprja 
\vypw irenrXrjyvla fid^rjq e^a7rohio)fjLai ; 

Zeus permits the goddesses to interfere, and to punish Ares. 

Ti)v h' dTrafieifJofjuevos irpoae^rj pefaXrjyepera Zeis* 
ay pet fidv oi etropvov y A0r)patr)p dyeXeirjp, 765 

fj & fid\co'T > eca>0e icaicfjs ohvprjet ire\d£eiv. 

They return to the Trojan plain, where Hera, with the voice and 
form of Stentor, rallies the Greeks, 

*/2s etftar', o&h' aTTiOrjo-e dea Xev/cdoXePo? "Hprj, 
fido'Ttgev h* Xmrovs' ra> h y oi/c de/copre wereadrjp 



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roa-o-oit iirtOpmaKovcn dz&v &^q%€C? i-rrirm* 

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while Athena reuses Dwmede to engage in combat with Ares* 

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avirlBos evxvtckov Tip reipero, /cdfive Be %efy>a, 
&v B 9 Iv'xpv rekafiwva fceXacvecfre? at/i 9 dirofiopyw. 
imreiov Be Oeh, firyot) tfyaro (fxovrjcriv re' 

She begins by reproaching her favorite as less courageous than his 
father, Tydeus. 

*H oXvyov 61 iralBa iotfcora yeivaro TvBevs. 800 

TvBev? rot fii/cpb$ fih/ erjp Befias, a\Xct fiaj(rjr^. 
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d\Xd aev fj /cdfiaros irokvdl^ yvla BeBvtcev, 
rj vv <re irov 8eo? to"X €t dfcqpiov ov av y 9 eireira 
TvBeo? eteyovo? iaat Bat<f>povo<; OlvelBao. 

Diomede reminds his protectress that it is because of her prohi- 
bition that he refrains from combat with the gods. 

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yvyvwo-fCG) ae Bed, Ovyarep Aco? alyioy(pio % 815 

t$ rot 7rpo<f>poveco<; epeto €7ro? ovB 9 einiceva-to. 
oire tI fie 8eo? to-yet, d/cijpiov ovre ri$ Stevos, 
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ofi ji 9 cfa? fiafedpecrcri deot? dvriKpv fidyeaQai 
to J? aWow drap et tee Aib$ Ovydrrjp 9 A<f>poBcTff 820 



tXdrjtr* e? TroXeftiw, nyv y* ovrdfiev o^e'i j^aXictp* 
raSvetca vvv avros t 1 ava^d^o^ai ?JSe xal aWovs 
'Apya'ovs itc&Xeu&a aXiq^evai ivddBe Trdvras* 
ryvyvtti&xQ} yap "Apqa pd%*l p "*"* KQipavkovra, 

Athena not only revokes this prohibition^ but promises her aid in 1 


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Tpw&l pba)$o'€<r0at t drap ^Apyetotatp dp^etv, 
pvv Be fiera Tpmea-a-tp ofitKett r&v Be XeXaarat. 

She takes the place of Sihcnefos, ana* together the goddess and hero 
approach Arcs. 

*if2? <f>ap,£p7} ^0eve\op p,kv d<£* Xwirmp &a€ y(apa%e 835 
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Sup' V Ai8o$ KVVeiJVt $L7l jlLV t&Ot SflptflQS *Ap7f$. 845 


Ares leaves the corpse which he is despoiling, and launches his spear 
at Diomede; Athena turns the spear aside, 

r /2? Be IBe fipOToXovyb? "Apt)? AcofitjBea Blov, 
r) toi 6 fiev Hepifyavra ireXcopiov avroO 1 eaae 
tceUrOai, 06 1 irpSrrov /creivcov ifjaiwro Ovfiov, 
avrap 6 fir) p' I0v$ AtofirjBeos ImroBafioio. . 
oi B y ore Br) <r%eSoi/ r)aav iir' dXKrjXoLcriv lovres, 850 
irpoaOev "Apr)? wpefjaO* irrrep fvyoi/ r)vCa 0' fanrtov 
eyxet %a\*€^t> fiefiam otto Ovfiov e\e<r0ai' 
teal to ye X €l P L ^fiovaa 0ea yXavfcanri? 'AOrjprj 
3>aev V7r' i/c Bfypoio eraxrcov ai^Orjvcu. 

but so seconds Diomede* s cast that he wounds Ares, 
Aevrepos aid 9 topfiaro fiofjv aya0b$ AiofirjBrjs 855 

<hx € * %<*^*e*p* errepeure Be IlaXkas 'AOrjvrj 
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tow B' ap' tnro rpojios etXev 'i4%a«>u? re Tp&d? re 
BelaavTas* roaov efipax* "Aprj$ aro? irokefwto. 

who disap^mes from the battle-field, passing through the clouds to 


Otrf B 9 e/c v€<f>ea>v epefievvi) <f>aiverai drjp 
/cavjiaro? ££ avifioio Svcraios dpvvfievoto, 865 

T0&9 TvBeiBy AcofirjBel ^a\*609 "Apr)? 
<j>alve0 9 o/JLOv v€<f>€€<rcnv Iwv els ovpavbv evpvp. 

IAIAA02 B. 133 

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Bel%ev B 9 ap,/3poTov alfia tcarappeov eg dyreiXf}?, 870 

zeal p 9 6Xo<j>vp6fievos eirea irrepoevra irpoarjuSa. 

where he tells his woes to Zeus, 

Zed irdrep, oit vefieal^t] op&v rdBe /caprepa epya; 
alel rot, plycara deol rerXtjores el/iev 
dXXrjkwv Iottjtl, %dpw avhpecrcn (ftepovres. 
col frames fiaxo/iecOa* cv yap rexes a<f>pova tcovprjv, 875 
ovXofievrjp, J} t' alev drjovXa epya /AefirfKev. 
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cot r 9 eimrelQovTai /cal BeB proceed a etcacros* 
ravTTjv B 9 ovt* eirel irporifUdXkeat, ovre ri epytp, 
dXX* dvvels, eirel avrbs eyeivao iralB 9 dtBrjXow 880 

fj vvv TvBeos vlov, v7rep<f>(aXov AiofirjBea, 
fiapyaiveiv averjteev eir* dQavdroici Oeolcu 
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avrap eireiT* avr£ fiot, eireccvro hallow loos* 
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airov irrfiiaT 9 eiraa^pv ev alvfjciv vetcdBeooiv, 
7j zee fo>9 dfievrjpos ea yaXicolo rxnrfjcu 

who at first shows little sympathy, 

Tbv B 9 ap 9 VTroBpa IBcov t rrpoa-e , <f>rj veQeXrjyepera Zevs* 
firj rl fioc dXXoirpocaXXe Trape^bfievos fiivvpc^e. 
e^Otcros Be pot eccv 0e&v, 0$ " OXvfiirov expvciv 890 
alel yap roc epis re <f>CXrj ir&kep,ol re p>d%at re. 
jJLTjrpos toi p,4vos early ddc^eTOV, ovk eineiicTov, 
"HpTjs' rrjv fiev eya) cnrovBrj Bd/Avrjp, 9 eireecctv. 


tc3 o*' o&> /eelvrjs rdSe irdayeitV evvealrja-w. 

a\\' ov fidv a* eri, Srjpbv dvegojiat, aA/ye* fyovTa' 895 

i/c yap ifiev yej/o? i<r<ri t ifiol Be ae yeivaro fitfTrjp. 

el Be rev if; aXXov ye Oe&v yevev &8* dtBrjXos, 

teal tcev Br) irakcu r)a0a eveprepo*; Ovpavcwvcov. 

but at length commands Paeon to heal his wounds, 

*/29 <f>a,TO, fca) Ilanjov* dvwyew Irjaao-Oai. 
t$ B* iirl Haufjwv 6Bwhj<f>aTa ^>dpfia/ca irdaaev 900 

[rj/ceo-aT*' ov fiev yap rv KaraOvrjTO^ y' erervKro']. 
©? B' ot* 07T09 ydXa Xevtebv eiretyofievos aweirq^ev 
vypov eop, fidXa S' &tea 7repiTpi(f>€Tat kvkocovtc, 
ft)? apa fcapTraXl/jLcos Irjaaro dovpov "Aprja* 
top S' "Hftrj Xovaev, yaplevra Bk eifiara low 905 

Trap B% Ait Kpovicovi /caOe^ero icvBei yaicw. 

Ac B' airi? 7r/)05 Bco/jlcl A 16$ fieyaXoto veovro 
"Hprj t 9 *Apyeli) feal y A\a\icofievrjU 'AOrjvrj, 
iravaaaai fiporoXoiybv "Aprjv dvSpofcraacdwv. 



The Achaeans retain the advantage. The gods having left the field, 
various chieftains signalize themselves ; among them Ajax, Dio- 
tnede, Odysseus, and Agamemnon. V '* * - 

Tpcocov 8* olcoOtj /cal 'A%at,&p fyvKoTri? alvr)* v v . » 

iroXkcL o° a/>' evda kclI evd* XOvae fid^rj TreBioto, ^*^j' 
aUijki; lOvvofxevoov %a\/cqpea 8ovpa t 
fieaaryyif^ Stfioevro? ISe UdvOoto podcov. 

Alas 8e irptoro? TeXa/icbvtos, eptco? 'Axai&v, 5 

Tpdxop pfjfje <f>d\ayya, (/>o&>9 8' irdpOKriv €0r)K€V, 
avSpa ftaXcov, 09 apiaro? hit QprjKeaav t€Tvkto, 
vlbp *Ev<r<rd>pov, 'AtcdfiapT* rjvp re fieyav re. 
top p ' efiaXe irp&ro^ icopvOo? <f>d\ov iirirohaaei'q^ . 
iv 8k ft€Ta>7TG> irrj^e, ireprjae 8* ap* oareov etaa* \ 10 
al'Xjirj %a\fC€LT)' top he <t/coto9 oaae /cd\v>Jr€P, 

"AgvXop 8' ap J hreifrpe fiorjp dyadb? AiopLrj8rj<; 
TevOpapfihjp, 89 evaiev ivKTifieprj ip ^Aplo-fty K rt , * . » 

d<f)P€Lb<; fttOTOto, <f>i\o<; $' ?Ji> ap0pd>7roiw ^^ t . . 
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aXXa 06 ot; Ti9 twj/ 76 tot' rjp/ceo-e \vypbp oKedpop 
£irp6o-0€P irjraPTidaas, pX\ J a/JL<f)a> Ovjibp dirrjvpa, 
' avrbp fcal Oepdiropra KaXrjaiop, 09 pa t60* XinreDp 
€afC€P v<f>r)pioxp<;* to) 8* dfj,<f>a) yaiap i8vrrjp. 

I36 IAIAA02 Z. 

Aprjaov 8* EvpvaXo? /col *0<f>eXTiov ij-evdpige* \*$* 

fir} Be fter' Alarprov xai HqBaaov, otfe irore vpttfh^ 
vrjtq * AjUapjSapir) rex* apLVfiovi BovkoXUovu \f A, 
BovkoXudv 8' f/v 1/109 ayavov AaofieBovro*; ' 

irpea^vraro^ yevey, vkotlov Be e yeivaro fiqTqp* t ^\J" -> 
woipai'vwv 8' eir* oe<r<ri fiiyrj <f>i\oT7)Ti /cal eivfL 2^ 

t) 8* inrotcvcrafJLevT) BiBvfidove yeivaro iraiBe. j\1>^\jJ^ \ 

r *al ftev raw inriXva-e fievo? /cat (balSifJia yvia / Q^'A^ 

Mr)KiaTTfidBr)^, teal air* &pa>v reu^e' iavXa. 
^ 'AarvaXov 8' ap' erre^ve pLeveirr6Xep,o^ JToXifTro/n;? 

IIiSvTrjv 8' 'OStxreus UeptccsMTiov egevdptgev \^qU- ' , 

ey%et %aX*€4a>, Tempos 8' 'Aperdova Bio v. VuK .* vv 

'^4i/ti\o^o? 8' *Af3Xrjpov evTjparo Bovpl (f>a€ivS ty 

NearopiBrj^, *EXcltov Be aval; dvBp&v *AyafjLep,vcov\ • J x 
vale Be SarvioevTos euppeirao Trap* 8%0a$ 
FLqSacrov alireivriv $vXa/cov 8* eXe Aqiros rjpco<; 35 

<f>evyovr J ' EvpvTrvXo? Be MeXdvOiov e%evdpi%ev. 

Menelaos captures Adrastos, and is inclined to spare his life, 

"ABprjorov 8' ap* eireira ftorjv ayaObs MeveXao? A 

%cobv eX'* i7nr(o yap 01 ' arv^ofievco ireBioto, . , / V^ 
ofyp evi fOXafyti&Te' fiatpifcivw, dyicvXov dpfia m^)- 
a%avr* ev irpwrat pvfjucp aura) fiev efir)Ti)V 40 

7rpo? ttoXlv, rj irep oi aXXoi drv^ofievov (pofteovro, 
avrbs 8' ex Bi(j>poco irapa rpoypv egeicvXiadrj 
Trprjvr)? ev tcovirjatv hft o-rofia. Trap Be oi earr) t 
"ArpelBr)$ MeveXao? e-^janv BoXvxpaiciov eyxos. 
"ABprjo-TO? 8' ap' hrecra XafScov eXXlaaeTO yovv&v 45 

Zarypet 'Arpeo? vie, ait 8' a%ia Begat airowa. 
iroXXa 8' ev a<f>veiov iraTpb? tcei/JLyXia tcetrai, 

j£a\tcQ? re xp i/(JO? re TroKvtcpifTos T€ <r {hypos, 
t&sv teiv rot ^apta-atro Trarfjp arrcpciai a7roiva> 
d K€v e/ii fabp Trm-vOotr' iirl ptjvo-Ip *A%ata>v* 

*fl$ <f>dro f TsS 8' dpa 8vp,bv ipl ar^0€a-o-uf £7rct0e. 
teal S*j fiiv to>x fy^kXe' Boas irrl vi)a<; ^A^atw 
Bd>a€iv o5 BepdyrovTi Karate fiev aXX* ' Aya^fipayu 

aVTlQS ffK0€ 0£WP 9 KOl 6p.0K\flffa$ 67T09 7}u8a* 

hut Agamemnon's taunt leads him to relinquish his thought of 

*fl ttcttop, <S McvtXae, rl § 8£ trv tftJSeat ovrms 55 
ap8/>ft>t>; *j trot apiara TrcirotijTat Kara altcov T| 
*rrpb$ Tpmmp* rmv p$ -m vir^K^vyot aiiruv oXeffpov Vi 
^etpas #' 7}pL€T€pas t jJ,7}S % op Ttpa yao-ript* ^ryp M 

icovpop iopra $>£pot t ftyS' Ss $vyot t dXX % ap,a wdvr&t 
*IX{qv HzairoXoia-T* aKiffigtrrotr #at a<f>avrot. 60 

, *if2<f cnrow erpetycv dBeXfaiov (fipevas ypm^t A 
ai&tpLa rrapenrwv. o afro eaep tag-am %£ipt> v 
y jjpta Aopy&Tov* top oe tcpzimp Ayajj>€p,pwv 

Jra Kara XaTrApyv 6 8' dverpdir€r\ 'ATpuSys £e 
if ip G-ryOeo-t ]$a<? i^fTTracre p,ei\iPov ey^o?. 
N caret) p 8* ^Apyeiotaiv €kgkXeto fiafcpop dvcras. 

Nestor exhorts the Greeks not to turn aside for sfioil) but to follow 
up the pursuit. 

*I2 <f>tXot Tjptaes Attvaoi, Bepdiroprev "Apyo^ 
pj\ rt? pvv ivdpwp i7rt/3aXX6/j.£vo^ pberoTrtaBe 
jj,tf±P€Tw t eSs /ce ttXg terra <f>ipo>v eVt vtjas tKTjratj \ 
aKX* avfipas tcrelpwfiep* eiretTa Se teal tA etcrfkot, 
P€/cpovs ap> TreSww o-vXt}o-£T€ TsOvqSyraft* 


And the two goddesses, with Hera as charioteer, hasten to 

"Hprj Se fido-Tiyi, 0o&$ eirepualer 9 ap 9 vinrovs* 
avrofUiTac Bk wvXac jjlvkop ovpavov, a? 2%oi/ *flpai, 
T17? etnTerpairrai fieya? ovpavos Ov\vpnro<; re, 750 

fjfiev avaicXivai ttvklpop ve<f>o<; rjB y eiriOeivai. 
rfj pa Si' aird&p tcePTprjpetcea? e^op ittttov?. 
eipop Be Kpovlcova Oe&p arep rjfievov aWav 

CLKpOTCLTri KOpV(f)fj 7TO\v8eipd8o$ Ov\vfl7TOlO. 

and beseech Zeus to arrest Ares, in his destruction of the Achaean s. 
"Ep0 9 i7nrov$ <mj<ra<ra 0ea \evfeco\evos "Hprj 755 

Zrjv 9 virarop KpopiSrjp i^eipero teal irpoaeenre 9 

Zev irdrep, ov V€fi€<ri£r) "Apy rd8e xaprepci epya; 
oaa-drtov re teal olov dtrwXeo-e Xabp y A-)(ai&p 
fidyfr, drap ov tcarh teoafiop, ifiol 8' a^09* ol 8e etcrfkoi 
ripTTOprai Kvirpis re teal dpyvpoTogo? *Air6\\a>p 760 
a<f>popa tovtop dpepres, S? ov rwa ol8e OepLiara 9 
Zev irdrep, f\ pd rl p,oi tcexpXdxreai, at tcep "Apn\a 
\vyp&$ TrerrXrjyvia p>dyys i^airohitopbav ; 

Zeus permits the goddesses to interfere, and to punish Ares. 

Tr\p 8 f aTrafi€il36/j,€P0$ irpoae^yq pe^ekrjyepera Zevv 
aypec fidp ol eiropaop y A0rjpairjp dyeXeirjp, 765 

9\ k fiaXurr 9 eX<o0e tcatcrj? oSvprjac ireXd^eip. 

They return to the Trojan piain t where Hera, with the voice and 
form of Stentor, rallies the Greeks, 

*/29 efar', oi8 y dirfflrjo-e 0ea \evtc<i>\ePO<; "Hprj, 
fidar^ev 8 y Stttcw to> 8' ovtc detcopre irerre<r0i]p 



fi€0 , arjr/v^ yavr}? re kcli ovpapov aarepoevros* 

oaaav B 1 ijepoeiBh avijp tBev o<f>9aXpotaiP 770 

ijpevos iv aKQirt^j Xevaawp iwl otvowa irovrov t 

TQffaOV iTTidpttXTfCQVtrL Oewp tnjrr^ee? LTTTTQi. 

dXX' ore Btj TpoiTjv t^ov 7rorapd> re peopre, 

VX l P ®** ^LfiQtW avp^dXXerop rj&e SxdftavBpo?, 

evO 1 Zmrous ttrrijat Bed XevK&Xepos "Hp?) 775 

Xvaaa* ££ dftitoV) rrepl B' rjepa rrovXvv ^x €V€ ' 

rolatv 8 J dp^paat^v St-pons dperetXe pepeaBat. 

At Be fidrrjp rprjptaai rreXebda'tP Wpaff* opotat, 
dpSpdtriv 'ApyeloiatP dXe^epepai pepavtat* 
aU' ore By p J ttcavop 081 rrXeiarot teal dp tar ot 780 

k*araaav t dp<f>l $ti}p Atop-qBeo? hrwoBdpoto 
etXopepot, Xeiovaw eoitcores wpofaiyotatp 
7} aval fcdirpoiaiPs reap re o-8£pq$ ovfc dXairaBvop 
epBa araa* ijva^e Bed XevKtokepos Tf Hpi} f 
Srepropi et&aptPT} peyaXtfropt, ^aXKeo^^p^ 7S5 

bg roaop avSTjaaa-^t oaop dXkot rrevr^fcapra' 

AiBmq *Apyetoi, tcatc* eXeyftea, elSos dyrjroi' 
o$pa pep €? iroXepop rrmXea/cero Bio? ^xtXXevs, 
oiBe Trore Tp&es rrpb rrvXdo&v AapBaptdwir 
oi f )(peatcop m Kzipov yap eBeiBtaav ofiptpov eyx a $ m 790 

pvp Be item TroXtos icotXrjs eirl pi}va*l pd%oprat* 

A i2? €L7tqvg'' mrpvve pepos teat ffvphv itcdarov* 

whtie Athena rouses Diomede to engage in combat with Ares, 

TvBdB^ S 1 erropovae Bed yXav/cwrrw 'AB^vt}* 
evpe Be top ye dvatcra nap' tiriratiriv teal 6x^a(ptp 
ektco? dpa^v-xppray to ptv fidXe UapBapoq t$. 795 

iBp£>? yap pip eretpep viro rrXareo^ reXapmpaq 


cUnrlBo? ev/cv/ckov t$S relpero, ledfipe Be yeipa, 
&p 8* to")(<ov TekcLficova /ee\cupe<f>€$ alp,' diro/iopypv, 
imreiov Be Oea %vyov rysfraro <jxoprjaep re' 

She begins by reproaching her favorite as less courageous than his 
father^ Tydeus. 

*H okiryov ol iralBa iot/cora yeCparo TvBevs. 800 

TvBev? rot fii/cpos fihf erjp Bifias, dWd fM)(r)Ti]$. 
teal p' ore irep fiiv iy<o TroXefilfetv ov/c etaa/cop 
ovB' i/ciraufidaaeip, ore t 9 fjXvOe poafap 'A)(at&p 
ayyeXo? e? Orj/3a^ iro\4a<; fierd KaBfieta>pa$, 
BalpvaQai p,ip dvayyov ivl fieydpotaip IterjXap' 805 

avrdp 6 Ovjjlop i%G>p op xaprepop, <J>? to irdpo? irep, 
/eovpovs KaSfieuop TrpofcaXi^ero, irdpra 8' evUa 
[prj'iSlw roirj ol iy<op eirirdppodo^ fja\. 
crol 8' % rot fiep eyco irapd 0' tarafiai rjBk <f>v\daaa>, 
/cat ae 7rpo<f>pop€6i><; /eeXopai Tpweaai fidxeaOai* 810 

dXXd aev fj fcdfiaros iroXvai^ yvla SiBv/cep, 
rj pi ae irov 8eo? ta^ei aK-qpiop' ov av y' eirecra 
TvBeo? e/cyopo? eaai 8at<f>popo$ OlvelSao. 

Diomede reminds his protectress that it is because of her prohi- 
bition that he refrains from combat with the gods. 

Ttjp 8' dirafieifto/jbepos irpoaety) icparepb<; Aiofi^Sr^* 
yiypQHTfcco ae 0ed, dvyarep Au>$ alyu>%oto* 815 

T$ roc 7rpo<f>povecD<; ipeco €7ro? ovB' iiri/cevacD. 
oire rl fie Seo? "axei d/etfpiop ovre ri$ otcvos, 
aU' in aetop fiefiprj/iat, i<f>€Tfi€€OP, a? iirereiXa^ 
06 fi, 9 etas fJLa/cdpeaat, Oeoi\ dpri/cpv p&yeaQai 
to J? aXXow drap et ice Alb? Ovydrrip 'AQpoBiTTf 820 



rofii*€ica vvv avros r 1 ava^d^ofiat $&€ teal a\\au$ 
'Apyeiow; ixeXevtra aktffAevat 4vBd$€ wdpraq* 
TfvyvteGfCG} yap *Aprja pa-fflv ava tcaipaveoura. 

Athena not only revokes this prohibition^ but promises her aid in j 


Toy S* ljfielfieT* twetra &m yXavKwirts *A8^v^ m 825 
TvietSij Ai6fii}ies t ipuS tc€%apt<Tti£v€ 8vfib> t 
ftijrc <ru 7' "Apya to ye ieiiiftt, p^rs tip* aXKov 
adavdrwv Toirj rot, iycov hnrappoOos ct/u. 
dXX* ay* ctt' "ApTjl 7rpd)T<p €^e fi^vv^m lttttovs, 
rutyov Sc cr^Siyp, fjw}$* a£eo dovpop *Apija 830 

tovtov fiaivofievov, Tvtcrhp tcatcov* aKKoirpoaaXKop^ 
89 wptovjv fi€V i/iol T€ teal ^Hpr} gtsvt 7 dyapevtdp 
Tpw&l fia)£y<r€iT&ai t arap *ApyeiQi<iip dp-j^m*, 
vvp Be fiera Tpwe&mp QfttXel, twi' Se XiXaa-rai. 

She takes the place of StheneIos t and together the goddess and hero 
approach Ares, 

A /2? <j)apL£vT} $8£}t€k0P p,€V d<f>* LTTTTtUV &&€ JfftpL&^e 835 

^ipl ttoKlv ipv&ati** 6 8' ap* e/ijM*7re&>9 diropovaev* 
*J B f eV &t(f>pov efiatvG wapal AtoftijBea Hop 
ififieftavia Bed* pwya IV e/?pa%e $*]yivo$ agwv 
ftpi&Q&virrj* Seivrjv yhp dyev Ogop dvBpa r* apto-TOV* 
\d%€TQ Se fidcrrtya teal fjvta UaWdq 'AOrfpy 840 

avrtK eV* **Ap7}l TrpdiTtp l#€ p,wwx&$ iWot/e. 
% rot 6 fikv n<-pi$avra irektoptop ifjevdptfcv, 
AItwXwp ox* apttrrovt ^Offitriov dyXaop vlov 
top p.£p "Apif? ivdpttjE p>tat$Qvo$ * avrdp ^ABr^pT} 
Sip* * Ai$w Kwiyv, fi-q fjuv Hot 6$pip.o$ "Apy?* 845 


Ares leaves the corpse which he is despoiling, and launches his spear 
at Diomedej Athena turns the spear aside, 

f /2? Sk ISe ftpoToXotyb? "Apr)? Avop/qSea Slop, 
rj roi 6 fiev Hepfyavra TreXcopiov avr60 f eaae 
KeiaOai, 80i irp&rov ktcipodv i^aivxno 0vp,6v, 
avrap 6 firj p' 10 v$ AtOftrfSeos ImroSafioio. . 
oi S 9 ore St) <r%e8bv fj<rav iir 9 aXkrfkoicriv lovres, 850 
irpoaOev "Apr)? wpifjaO* irrrep £vybv ffvCa 0* Xinrtov 
eyX € * X a '^ jee ^V p€ft>a><os cnrb 0vp,bv e\e<r0ai' 
real to ye X €t P L ^afiovo-a Oea yXavK&Tri? *A0rjvr) 

CM76I/ VTT* €K Sl&pOLO €T(OatOV aCX^V val ' 

but so seconds Diomede's cast that he wounds Ares 9 
Aevrepos ai0* wpfiaro ftotjv aya0b<; Aiofjbrj&rjs 855 

SyX € * X^X/cc/p* iirepevae Be IlaXXA^ 9 A0r)vq 
veiarov i<s teeve&va, o0l ^(ovvvaKero fJLiTprjv 
rff pa fiw ovra Tvy£>v> Sia Se XP° a Ka ^° v ^Sayfrev, 
i/c Si Sopv airdaev aims. 6 S' eft pax* %aX«€0? "Apr)$ 9 
oacrov t' iwedxCKoi eiriaxov fj Setc&xCXoi 860 

avepes iv iroXeficp epiSa gvvdsyovTe? aprfov 
tou9 S 9 ap 9 inrb rpofjuos elXev 'Axcuov? re Tp&d$ re 
SeUravTas* tocov efipax "Aprj? aro$ 7ro\€/AOio. 

who disafroa*? from the battle-field, passing through the clouds to 


Oiff S' €K ve<f>€cov ipefievvrj (fxtlvercu dtjp 
icavfiaTO? 5f dvefioLo Svo-a&o? opvvfiivoto, 865 

T0J05 TvSecSrj AtofAr/Sei x^** * "Apr)? 
(fxilveO* 6fxov ve(f)€€crcnv l<ov ek ovpavbv evpvv. 

IAIAA02 B. 133 

KapTraXifjLcos B 9 tfcave de&v I805, alirirv "OXv/iitop, 
irap 8k Ait Kpovlcovi KaOe^ero Ovfibv a%€va>v, 
Bel^ep B 9 afifiporov alfia /carappeop ig a>Teikf}<;, 870 

Kai p 9 6\ocf)vp6fi€VO<; eirea irrepoepra irpoarjuBa. 

where he tells his woes to Zeus, 

Zev irdrep, ov vefiealtyi op&p rdBe tcaprepa epya; 
alei rot, piyiara deol rerXTfore^ el/iep 
dXXrjXwp Iottjtv, X^P VV o^Bpeaav <f>epopT€$. 
crol travTGi fiaxbfieaOa • <ru yap reices a<f>pova /couprjp, 875 
ovXofjbiprjv, fj t 9 alep arfavKa ipya fiifirjXep. 
aXXoi pep yap frames, ocroi Oeol ela 9 iv 9 OXv[Lir<p, 
trot t 9 einirelOoPTai /cai BeB/irffieo-Oa e/ca<rTO$* 
ravrrjv B 9 ovt 9 hrel irpoTifidXXeai ovre tc %py(p, 
aXX* avieis, eirel airo? iyeivao iralB 9 dtBrjXop* 880 

fj pvp TvBio? vldv, VTT€p<f>ia\ov Aiop,r\8ea, 
fiapyaiveiv avirj/cev eir % aOavaroiai, Oeoiai. 
Kvwpi&a flip irp&Tov o"xehov ovraae %eZp' eirl Kap7ra> 
avrctp eireiT* aira* fioc eireaavro Balfiopt, Z<709* 
dXXd p, 9 vTnfjveLKav rayee*; TroBes. fj re tee Br) pop 885 
avrov irrniar 9 eiraa-^pv ep alvfjaiv peKaBeaaip, 
% K€ fo>9 dfjL€vrjv6<; ea xjoXkoio TVTTrjaL 

who at first shows little sympathy, 

Top B 9 ap 9 viroSpa lBa>p irpoa4<fyq pe^eXrjyepera Zeis* 
fir) ri fioi dXXoirpoo'aXXe irape£op*epo$ /upvpt^e. 
€;£0*<rro9 Be jioi i<r<rc 0e&p, 0$ "OXv/juttop exputrw 890 
alei yap rot epi<z re <f>iXr} iroXefiol re p>d%at re. 
jjbrjTpo? rov p,4po$ iarlv adayerov, ovk eirieiiCTOp, 
"Hp7)v rrjp fiep iyw cnrovBrj Bd/Mvrj/i 9 eireeaaiv. 


rS a* otto /cetvrjs rdSe irdayeiv iwealrjtnv. 

a\\* ov [idv <r' en Brjpov dvegoficu aA/ye* e^ovra* 895 

4k yap ifiev 761/05 i<r<rl t ifiol 8e ere yeivaro fiVTVP* 

el 8e rev ef aWov ye Oe&v ykvev e&8* at&rjXos, 

icai Kcv Si) irakcu fjaOa iveprepos Ovpavuovwv. 

but at length commands Paeon to heal his wounds. 

*/2? <f>a,TO, Kai Hcutjov* avwyeiv IrjcraaOai. 
tc5 8' iirl IlairjcDv 6Swri<f>aTa <j>dpi±aica irdaaev 900 

[fiKea-ar' • oif fiep yap rv /caraOvTjTO*; y* irervKro], 
©? 8' 6V' ottos yd\a Xevicbv iirevyofievos owerrqgev 
vypbv iov, fiaXa 8' &tca ireptTptyercu /cvfeocovri, 
&? apa fcapTraXificos irjaaro dovpov "Aprja* 
rbv 8' w Hfirj \ovo~ev, xcbpUvra 8e eifiara ea-ae* 905 

irap Be A A Kpovtcovi KaOe^ero icvSel yawv. 

Ac 8* aims 7r/>05 Scopa Au><; fieyaXoto vkovro 
"Hprj r 9 y Apy€L7j zeal 'AXaX/cofievrjU y AQrpn) t 
iravaaaai fJporoXotybv "Api)v dpSpofcraa-idcov. 



The Achaeans retain the advantage. The gods having left the field, 

various chieftains signalize themselves; among them Ajax, Dio- 

mede> Odysseus , and Agamemnon, VA '' l - 

«. ^ l 
Tpcocov 8' olcoOrj teal ^A^ai&v <j>vko7n$ alvrf VA . 

iroXXa 8' ap* evOa teal evO* tdvae fid^rj ireBioio, yj&^y* 

d\\i]\(ov Wvvofievow %a\/ci]p€a Bovpa, 

fieo-o-rjyvs SifioevTO? iBe HdvOoio pod&v. 

Alas Be *rrp&TO<; Tekajjuovios, ep/co? ^Ayai&v, 5 

Tpdxov prjge <f>d\ayya, <£oa>9 S' erdpoiaw eOrj/cev, 
avBpa ftakcov, 09 apiaro? ivl Qpyiceaai t&tvkto, 
vibv 'Evo-<rd)pov, 'A/cdfiavT* fjtiv Te fieyav T€. 
tov p y efiaXe irp&ros /eopvOo? <j>d\ov iinroBaa-ebq<; 9 \ . 
iv Bk fjb€T(oir(p irfjge, ireprja-e 8* ap* oareov etaa* t 10 
alyjix) flaX/cely tov Be c/cotos oaae /cdXinjrev. 

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' airrbv ica\ OepdirovTa KaXtfo'iov, 09 pa t66* Zirirdnv 
Icr/cev iHfnjvloxps 9 tod B 9 dfi<f>(D yalav iBvrrjv. 



Aprjaov 8' EvpvaXo? teal *0$eXriov igevdpige* \&$* 

fir} 8e fier' Aitrryirov teal TIrihaaov, otf? ttotc Vpflfaf 
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Bov/coXicov 8' fjv vlos dyavov Aaop.e8ovro^ * 

\ irpeafivTCbTos yevefj, atcoriov 8e e yelvaro fiqrrjp* y j\£ > 
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t) 8' viroKvaap.evq 8i8vp,dove yelvaro iral8e. 
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ey^el X^Xice/y, Tevtepo? 8' *Aperdova 8lov. \^ 

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Neo-TOp&ris, "EXarov 8e aval; dv8p&v *Ayay£yuHOV % \ t'S* 
vale 8k SarvioevTos ivppeirao Trap* o^Oa? \ 

Hri8a<Tov alireuvrjv 9 $vXateov 8' eXe Arjlro*; rjpQ)? 35 

favyovr' • EvpvirvXo? 8e MeXdvBiov igevdpigev. 

Menelaos captures Adrastos, and is inclined to spare his life, 

"ASprjorov 8' dp* eireira /3orjv dyaObs MeveXao? A 

£a>oi/ eX'' L7nrco yap oi ' drv^ofiivco ireSioio, , ^. /; - ^y^^ 
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d^avr* iv 7rpd>T(p pvfup avra> fiev i^rrjv 40 

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*A8pT)<TTO$ 8' dp* eirena Xaftwv iXXlo-a-ero yovvtov 45 

Zcoypec 'Arpeo? vie, av 8' df*ia 84f;ai diroiva, 
iroXXd 8' iv d(f>V€Lov Trarpb? /cec/JirjXca /celrac, 

<)(aXKQ<i T€ XpVO-6% T£ 7ro\UKfl?}TO$ T€ tTL&TjpOS, 

T6>f K€V rot %apt<TatTO Trarfjp airepeiaL airoiva, 
el K€V ip>e £woi> V&Fi$0QiT > €7rl vtjvitIp * Abactor. 

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Biavei v (0 Bepdirovrt KaTafjip>ev* a\\ y ' Ayap.iptpojv 
avTios §X0e 0£(Dv t Kal Qpo/eXnaas tiros t/uSu* 

KuJ &&#": t 

but Agamemtton*s taunt leads him to relinquish his thought of 

*J2 irkirov, & MeveXae, tl $ Be <rv tnySeat ovtwv 55 
avBpmt; $ trot apttTTm TrerroiTjrat tear a oIkop \JImX 
irpos Tpd>Mv* t&v pJi rt? irrreK^vyot alirw 6Xe9pop 
^etpa? 9* rffierepasj ju^S' ov Ttva jaaripi pi}Ti)p 
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,.><' t 

ra Kara Xairdprjv o S' aver pair er*, ^ArpelBTjs Sij 
if ip tfTrfSetrBpas e£t'<T7ra<7e peiXtvop ey^o?. 
Ni&rwp B 1 ' Apyeiota-tp €k£kX€TQ p,atcphv aucra?* 

Nestor exhorts the Greeks not to turn aside for spoils but to follow 
up the pursuit* 

*/2 (f>tXoi, TjpweK Aavaol, depdirovrw *Ap7}o<; t 
ftij rtg vvv ivdpwv eTrifiaXXojAevQS p^eroincrBe 
p>tp*v&TWt (S? tee TrXeta-ra tftepcov eirl vrjas M^rat, 
aXX* avSpas KTelvcofiev eiretra Be teal t<1 etcTjXot 70 

V€Kpav<i apt ireBtov a-vX^aere Tedv7j&>Ta$ t 


And the Trojans would have been driven within the walls of Troy, 
had not Helenos appealed to Aeneas and Hector. 

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kv0a K€v aire Tp&es dprjV<j>l\a>v vtt % 9 A^at&v 
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<f>€vyovTa$ ireakew, Srjtdio-i Se ydpfia yeveaOai. 
avrap iirel /ce <j>d\ayya$ iiroTpivryrov air da as, .- 

rjfiei^ fiev Aavaolcn fia^aofied 9 avOt ftevovTes, (W 
ical fiaka reipofievol irep* avayxalrj yap hrelyeu 8j 

He begs Hector to go to the city, and direct the matrons to suppli- 
cate Athena. 

"Eicrop, arap ait iroKtvhe fieripyeo, elire 8* eirecra 
firjT&pi arj ical ifiy* f) Se fjvvdryovaa yepcuas 

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otfjaaa fckrjiSt dvpas iepolo Sofioco, **' 

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eXvai ivl /leydpcp /cat ol iroKv fytkraros airy, rl fv 

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f\vi$ r)ic4o-Ta<z lepevaejiev, at k ikerjay ,. •.' 

&otv T€ ical Tpdxov aX6)(pv$ ical vryiria ri/cva, 95 

, ■"_;. 


at xev TvBetK vihp airotr^ri 'I\iov tpr}$, 
ayptov at%j$lTrip, Kparepop ^jcrrmpa <poj3oLQ, 
ov Btj iym icdprKfrap 'A^atm* <frr}p>t yev£cr8at* 





ovS Afttkfja ttqB* &B4 y eSetSi/iOJ, op%apov av&p&v, ,A 
op 7rip <pa&L #ea$ iijepifiepat* d\\* oSe Xl-qp iQg\r^ 

p t aip€rat i oiBi rk oi Bvparat $l£pq$ io-otfraplfetp* <y0* 

fitter complies \ h a ving first ra Hied the Trojans and exh or ted than 
to courage during his absence. 

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Tpw€$ viripdvptQi TrjXetcXeiTQt t' iirltCQupoi, 
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efarw 0ovX£vr§<rt real ^terep*?? aXo^oia-t 
hatpioatv ap^<raa-8ai t irrroo-^eaSai 8* itcaTopfia?* 

The combat continues during Hector's absence^ but with diminished 
}ury^ and opportunity is given for quieter scenes. Episode of 
Gtaukos and Diomede* 

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dfL(f>l Si fiiv trojvpk tvtttg teal ai)(€pa fttpjua KcXaivop, 
apTV^ f rj irVjAaT'r} &€€P aairiSo^ optpaXoio-cri}?. 




Ares leaves the corpse which he is despoiling, and launches his spear 
at Diomedej Athena turns the spear aside, 

r f2$ Be tBe fiporakoiyb? "Apr}? AtofitfSea Blov, 
i) tol 6 fiev Ilepfyavra 7re\coptov avroO' eaae 

K€L(r0CU) 001 irp&TOV KT€LV(OV i^dlVVTO 0V/JLOV, 

avrap 6 ftr) p' I0v$ dio/jLrjBeos ImroBdfioio. . 

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irpoaOev "Apt)? &>pe%a0 % virep %uybv fjvia 0' ittttoov 

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ical to ye X ev P L Xafiovaa 0ea ykav/c&Tri? *A0ijv7) 

&aev U7r' eic Bfopoio eToaaiov ai%0fjvai. 

but so seconds Diomede's cast that he wounds Ares, 

Aevrepos ai0* dypfiaro /3of)v aya0b$ AioiirjBr)? 855 

HyX& xdk/celip* eirepeiae Be FlaWa? *A0r\vr\ 
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Saaov t' evveax^KoL e*iriax ov V Se#a%t\o4 860 

avepes ev *iro\ifi<p epiBa gvvdsyovres aprjos* 
tov9 B' ap* irrrb rpop.os etkev * Axaiovs re Tp&as re 
BelaavTav Toaov efipax "Aprj? aro$ iroXefioio. 

who disa&Detk's from the battle-field, passing through the clouds to 


Oltj B 9 e/e v€(f>€G)v ipefievvr) <j>alv€rai ar)p 
/cavfiaros ££ avefioio Bvaaeo? opvv/ievoio, 865 

T0Z09 TvBelBy Aio/irjBei %a\*€09 "Apr)? 
<f>alv€0 y ofiov ve(j>€€cracv liov eh ovpavbv evpvp. 


KapTraXl/jLco? 8' i/cave de&v £809, aliriw "OXvfnrov, 
irdp 8k Ad KpovUovi icaOe^ero Ovjxbv a^evoDV, 
Seigev 8' ajifipoTov atfia tcarappiov if* a>Tet\rjs, 870 

zeal p y 6\o<f>vp6fi€VO<; eirea irrepoevra irpoarjuSa. 

where he tells his woes to Zeus, 

Zev irdrep, ov vefieai^rj op&v TaSe tcaprepa epya; 
aiei toi pir/iara deol t€t\t]6t6$ elfiev 
aWtfX&p ioTTjri, %dpiv avhpeaat, (fr&povres. 
col irdvres fiaj^OfjueaOa 9 av yap rexes a<f>pova tcovprjv, 875 
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col r* imireiOovrat /cal SeB/irffieaOa etcaarov 
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ak\* dvieis, iirel avrbs eyelvao iralh' aiSrfkov 880 

f) vvv TvSios viov, vrrep$ia\ov Ato/jur/Bea, 
fiapyaivew avirjicev €7r' dOavdroiai OeoZai. 
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air dp eireiT* avrqi fioi iirecavro halfiovi la OS* 
d\\d fi virtyveticav rabies Tro'Ses. r\ re zee Srjpbv 885 
airov irrjfiaT 9 erracxpv ev alvfjcw ve/cdSeacw, 
fj Ke £a>9 dfxevqvbs ea *)(akicolo rvrrfjai. 

who at first shows little sympathy ', 

Tbv 8* dp 9 viroSpa l&cov irpoce^rj ve^eXrjyepira Zeis* 
firi rl fioi aXKorrpoaaXXe Trape^bfievos fiivvpi^e. 
e^durros Si fwl ecci Oe&v, ot "OXvjiirop exovaw 890 
alel ydp toi epis re <f>ikr) iroXefioi re fid^ai re, 
firjrpos rot, fievos ecrlv ddcyerov, ov/c eirieiKrov, 
"Hprjs* rrjv fiev iyo* cttovBt} Sdfivrjjj,' eireecaiv. 


Tfl) a otco /eetvrjs rdSe irda^eiv iwealyo-iv. 

a\\* ov fidv <t* kri Srjpbv dvk^oyuai aA/ye' eypvra % 895 

€K ydp i/Jb€V yevo? eaai, ijiol 8e <re yelvaro yJ)TT)p. 

el Si rev ef aXKov ye 8e&v yevev e&S' at&rfKo*;, 

teal tcev 8^ Tzakai fjaOa iveprepo? Ovpavubvcw. 

but at length commands Paeon to heal his wounds. 

*/2? <f>a,TO, Kai Uavfjov* dvcoyeiv IrjcracrOai. 
r<5> 8' iirl Hairj&v 6hvvrj<f>ara <f)dp/jLa/ea irdaa-ev 900 

[rj/cecaT* • ov fiev yap ri /caTaOvrjTO? y y irirv/cro]. 
eo? 8' ot* 07TO? ydXa \evicbv eireiy6fievo<; awerrq^ev 
vypov iov, fidXa 8' &tca irepirpe^erau kvkocovti, 
&? apa /eap7ra\tfiG)$ Irjaaro Oovpov "Aprja. 
rov 8' "Hfir) Xovcev, yapievra 8k eCfiara lace* 905 

irap 8£ Ait KpoplcovL tcaOe^ero Kvhel yauov. 

Al 8' airi? 717*09 8a>/xa Alb? jjueyaXoio veovro 
"Hprj r y 'Apyelrj teal *A\a\/cofievrjU *A6rjvr) 9 
irav<ra<rai ftporoXovybv *Api)v dvSpofcracrtdcov. 



The Achaeans retain the advantage. The gods having left the field, 
various chieftains signalize themselves; among them Ajax, Dio- 
mede, Odysseus, and Agamemnon. V '"' - 

Tpwoav 8* olcoOrj teal *Aj(ai&v ^vKottls alvrf * ' i v ] 

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aXkrfk&v Wwofievav yakK'hpea Bovpa, 
fiea-arjyvs ^i/xoevros I8e BdvOoio podcov. 

Alas 8e irp&ros TeXafubvios, epKo? * Ayai&v, 5 

Tpcocov pfjge (frdXayya, <f)6a)<; 8' erdpouriv edrj/cev, 
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vibv 'Evcacbpov, 'A/edftavT* rjiv re jjueyav T€. 
tov p* e/3a\e irp&ros KopvOo? <f>d\ov iinroSaaeirjs,] . 
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a *%W X^XtfeMy rbv 8e ckoto? 6<rcre /cdXvyfrev. 

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W^ dXkd oi ov Tt9 r&v ye tot* fiptceae Xvypbv okeOpov 

^irpoaOev inravTido-as, pXX' dficfxo dvfibv dirr^vpa, 
«?•■' avrbv Kal Oepdirovra Ka\rjai,ov, 09 pa t60* ittttodv 
^ iiricev iHfyqvtoxpv tg> 8' dfi<f>a) yalav i8vrr)v. 


ApTjaov 8' EvpvaXo? /cal ^OfyekTiov igevapifje* \Pdr 

fir) Be fier' Alarjirov ical IlrjBaaov, 0C9 irore VVltffy^ 
irqh * Afiapfiaper) TeK dfivfiovi BovkoXUovi. \^ A. 
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v irpeafivraros yevef}, <tk6tiov Be e yeivaro fi^rrjp* t ^C -f 

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: MTjfCKTTTjid&Tjs, teal a7r' cbficov rev^e' iavka. J ,J^ 

^ r 'AarvaXov 8' ap' eire^ve fieveirToXefio^; UoXv7rom79' v 

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eyxel ^aX/ce/a), Tevicpo*; 8' 'Aperdova Biov. YoK i^ /^ 

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i/ate 8e Sarvioevros evppeirao trap* o^Oa? 
n^Saa-op alireivrjv $vkaicov 8' eXe -/l^iro? ^/>&)<? 35 

fyevyovT '• EvpvTTvkos Be MeXdvOiov igevdpigev. 

Menelaos captures Adrastos, and is inclined to spare his life, 

"ABprjorov 8' ap' eireira fiorjv dya0b$ Mevekao? f\ 

%a)bv eX'' r7T7rft) 7^0 ol ' drv^ofievco ireBLoio, . ^. /y-'flr 
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a\;avT ev irpcortp pvfiro avTQ) fiev ifiijrrjv 40 

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"ABprjo-TOS 8' dp 9 eirena \a/3a>v eWco-aero yovvav 45 

Zcoypec 'Arpeo? vie, ai> 8' a%ia Begat, airowa. 
iroKXa 8' ev d<j>v€iov irarpb? KeifirfKia /eelrai, 


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aprlos 7}X8e 6 imp, Kal QjAOKXritras eircm ^vBa" 

hut Agamemnon's taunt leads Mm to relinquish his thought of 

*J3 wewop, & MeveXae, rt ^ Be trif K^Beat oSrcav 55 
avhpwp; fj trol apitrra ireiroiriTai Kara ol/cop 1jl 
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*IXtov i^airoXolar 1 atcrfSearot Kal atfcapTot. 60 

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aitTijAa irapmrmp* 6 £' utto €0€p maaro ^eipl 

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ovra Kara Xairnp^p' a cT aver pan er' \ 'ArpelB-qs Sg 
NttTwp S y 'ApyeiottftP ifciKXero fiaxpop auaas. j 

OOl t 


Nestor exhorts the Greeks not to turn asi^efor sfioilt hut to follow 
up the pursuit. 

* II <£/Xo* Tjpwes Aapaol, depdiropr^ "ApijQSt 
fit} rt? vvp epap&v e7TLJ3aXX6p,€vos fieroTTiade 
fitpLperte, <3? K€ -TrXeicrra (foepiop em pfjas iKyrat, 
aXX' avBpas ktupw^v* €7T€tra Be koI to, jzktjXoi 70 

pexpovq Aft, weBlop trvXtfo'eTe Te&prjwras* 



And the Trojans would have been driven within the walls of Troy, 
had not Helenos appealed to Aeneas and Hector, 

*/29 eliroav &rpvve fievo? Kal Ovfwv itedorov. 
tvOa /cev aire Tp&es aprjltyiktov vir* *A)(cu&v 
"Thiov elcaviftrjaav dvaXxelrja-i Safiivres, 
el firj ap* Alvela re /cal "E/cropi elire irapaara\^ 
TIpia)iLhr)$ "E\evo<;, olcovoiroKtov 8% apwrosy^ 

Alvela re teal "E/crop, iirel 71*01/09 vfi/u fiaXcara 
Tpdxov teal Av/clcov iy/ce/ckirai,, ovve/c* apurroi s 

7ra<mv en-* fflvv iare fidyeaOal re <J>pov4et,v re, urS 

oTfJT* ai)Tov, teal Xaov ipv/cd/cere irpo irv\dxov pft 80 
irdvry iiroiypixevoi) irpXv avr' iv x € P a ^ ywauc&p 
QevyovTas ireceew, Srjtbiai Se yap pa yeveaOai. %P 

avrap iirel ice <f)d\ayya<; iiroTpvvrfTov airdaa^, -** 

fffieh fiev AavaolcrL yjtyr\aopLeQ y avOt jiivovres, \/ 
Kal fidXa reipofievol irep' away/tali) yap hrelyeu 8j 

He begs Hector to go to the city, and direct the matrons to suppli- 
cate Athena. 

"E/CTop, drap av irdXivSe fierepyeo, elire 8* eirevra 

firjrepi <rfj /cal ifir}* fj hk fjvvdryovcra yepaias 

vrjbv 'AOrjvalrj? y\av/c<bin8o$ iv iroXei a/cpy, 

ol^aaa /cXrjlBt Ovpas lepoco Bo/jlolo, "* 

ireifKov, 09 ol Soviet ^apiec-Taro? rjSh fieyurro? 9°\J-' 

elvai ivl fieydpq> /cat ol iro\v (jytKraros airy, ( ^^ 

Qelvai *A0r}va(7j<; iirl yovvaaiv rjv/cojioio, ■- *- ft 

/cal ol vTrocxkaQai Svo/calBe/ca /3ov$ ivl vr)<p \> 

rjvi? rjfceaTa? lepevaejiev, at k iketfo-y 

ootv re /cal Tpcocov aXo%ou9 /cal vr\ina ri/cva, 95 


at tcep TvBeas vtop airotr^p ^IXlov tpfjs, 

ayptov aijQj^n^v, tcparepov fnj<rrmpa $o/?oio t 

ov Sjj eyas tcdpTto-rov 'Ay^attop (frtjpii yeviaSm* fj\JiP^ 

ouS* *AyjXria ttq9* <£Se 7 1 iSelBip&Pt op^ap^op apBp&Vt 

op irip tpatrt Seas ei-ipaevat* aAX* 5Se Xirjv iogv^ 

patverat, ovBi rl$ ot Svvarai p.£vo$ t&Q^api&tP* 

Hector complies, having first raUiedthe Trojans and exhorted them 
to courage during his absence. 

*/2? I^atf'j "Etcrayp B* ov n Kaaiyp^roj airtBrivtv. 
avritca 8* cf oxioop cvv rev^co-tv aXro ^a/wtff, 
iraXkwv B % o£m Bovpa tcar& crrpaTOv fr^ero iravrp 
orpvvmv p^ayia-^Oat^ eyetpe Se tpvXoTrip aiv^v* l 105 
ot B* ikcK^(&j}ifav teal epavrloi ecrrav ^A-gamp* J| 
y Apy€totr S* virexwpvwv, Xrjijap Be <f*6v<HO t ■ 
tpav Si rip 1 aSavarw i£ ovpavov aarepQevTo? 
Tpmclp dX^^rjtTovra /careXOipAV &<? cXt'Xt^fley, 
*EtCTG>p Be Tpd)€cr<TiP itcitcXero aatcpoit auow no 

Tpweq vwipdvpLot, Ti}X€teX€tTot r* iwiKovpot, 
avipes Icrre, (f>tXoi, fiptf&ao-de Be OovptSos aX/cr}?, 
00/?' av iyw fietm irporl *lXtop rjBe yipovctp 
€i7ro> ftovXevrpcn teal Tj/ierepi?? aXo^ourt 
haipo&w aprj<raa0cu r {nro&xiaQat, S' itcardpfia*;* 115 

The combat continues during Hectors absence, but with diminished 
fury, and opportunity is given for quieter scenes. Episode of 
Gtaukos and Diomede. 

*I2$ apa tfxairritras dW$ij tcopuGatoXo*? "Ejcrcop * 
ap,<pl Si flip er<j>vpa tvtttg teal airgiva cepfia teeXaivov, 
avrv!;, ?) TrvpArrj 8eev d&7rt$o$ o^aXoitra^ 

140 IAIAA02 Z. 

rXav/cos 8* f Iinrdko'XpLik irate, /cal Tv8eo$ t/fts 
€? fjueaov dfjL(f)OT€pcov auffmjv /xefia&Te nayeaQai. 120 

oi 8* ore 8rj o"xe8bv fjaav eir' dXkrfXoicnv lovres, 
rov irporepos irpocreevrre ftotjv ay adb<; AcojmjBrj^' 

The episode begins by DiomedSs question " who Glaukos is t "for £*/\pK 
will not presumptuousiy engage in combat wtf&jpds. * ^J 

IY9 8k av iaai (fripiore KaraOvrjr&v avOpdirav x%j ^^r 
ov pev yap iroT Sircoira fJbdxV * vl fcvBtaveCpri/ IfnA/V JL 

to irplv drap fiev vvv ye 7ro\v Trpo^e07jltd^ tipcdvr&v iz^^jjA 
v ' era) Odpaei, o r ifibv $o\ixo<rtciov ey%09 ejiewas. ffij ^ 
hv<TTr)V(ov 8e re iral8e^ ifia> fievet avrioaxriv. ' ^^^^j^v 
el 8e Tt9 dOavaroov ye /car' ovpavov el\rfKovOa<; 9 V cjC^ 
oifc hv eyd> ye Oeolaiv iirovpavtoun /j,axolfir)v. 
ovSe yap ovBe ApvavTO? vlos, icparepbs Av/cdopyos, 130 
8rjv fjv, 09 pa deolaiv eirovpavioiaiv epi^ev a.A^I? -i* 

09 irore fiawofievoio Aioovvaoto TiQr)va<i w™ vsA^iJjL'l 

cede /car* rjydOeov Nvarjioy ai 8' afia irdcrai wfjj} 

6v<r6\a yafia\ KaTej(€vav \m dv8po<j>6voio Av/covpyov ^*^& 
^j^uecvofievavffbVTrXijyi' Auovvo-o? 8e <f>o/3r)deh ^35>^ h 

8vae0 y a\o9 tcara /cvfia, &erc<; 8' inreSigaTO koXttw WM**^ 
BetSiora* /cparepb*; yap €%€ Tp6/j,o$ dvBpb? opo/eXr}* 
tm fjukv eiren 9 oBvaavro deol pela %cdovt€<;, \ 

ical puv rv(j>\bv eBrjice Kpovov irate' ov8 9 dp* Srt Brjv -*}* 
fjv, eirel ddavaTOtaw dirriyOeTO Tract deolaiv. L>*4» 

ov8' dp iyco fiaKapeo-at deote iOeXoijit, fid^crOai. 
el 84 Tt9 i<r<ri fipoT&v, oi dpovprj? Kapirbv Zhovcrw, 
acaov XQ\ «9 Kcv daaarov oKeOpov irelpad' Xicqai. 

IAIAA02 Z. 141 

Glaukos replies, commencing with the wonderfully beautiful simile 
in which mankind are compared to the leaves of the forest. 

Top 8' av0 f f IirrroKo'Xpio 7rpoo-7jv8a <f>al8ifio<; viog 9 
TvSelSrj fieyddvfie, ri fj yeverjv ipeelvets; \x-' ■ 145 

oif) irep <f)vWa)v yepet), toltj Se xal avhp&v. 
fyvXKa ra jiev r* avefio? ^a/^aSt9 Y^ei, aXKa 84 0' vkrj 
fj^fr[Ke06(oaa ipvei, capos 8' iiriyvj/Mrai &prj • C*f**AP ^ ^ 
&9 avip&v yeperj f) flip <f>vafc rjr 8' airokijyei. t * : * 
el 8' eOekeis, teal ravra Barj/jueval} 8<f>p' ei €18)79 150 
rjfjLeriprjp yepeqp, iroXKol 8i flip av8pe$ laacnv. 

Sisyphos of Corinth was his progenitor, the father of Bellerophon, 
whose exploits are mentioned at length, and how he was sent to 
Lykia and settled there. . 

"Ecri 71*0X49 *E(f>vpr) fivx<p "Apyeo? liriro/SoTOto, i- ■ 
evOa 8e 2t<rv<j>o<; ea/cev, 8 KcpoLarb^T^f^eT 9 av8payv, 
2(ov<f>o<; AloXlSrjv 6 8' apa T\aiiKov ri/eed' vlov, 
airrap TXclvko? erucrev ajjbvpova JieWepo^ovTrjv 155 

t£ 8k 0eol tcdWos re ical typVpetfp ipbyreLvrjv % r t .^ ^ 

faJAr^ffltaaav* avrdp oi UpoZros /caha firfaaTo dvfiS, 

B? p* etc 8r)fjiov ekaaaep, iirel 7ro\v {jyeprepo? fjev, \ ; 
*Apyeuov Zev$ yap oi irrrb aK^7rrp<p e'Sa/xacrcre. 
.tc3 8k ywtf Upoirov iirefiijpaTO, 8V "Avreia, 160 

,jjJ^nepvirra8Ly (fnXoTtjTi jjutyrffievai • JaXKa top ov ti 
ireW dyad a (frpoviovra, 8at<f>pova BeWepoQopTrjp.l 
ff 8k yfrevcrafievr) Upovrov fiaatXrja irpoa^vSa' 
TeOpah}?, & IIpolT 9 , i} fed/crave BeKKepo^opr'qp, 
59 fi* fflekev <f>iXoTr]Ti fivyqfievai ov/c iOeXovay* 165 

2>9 $aro, rbv 8e dvatcra 3^0X09 \d/3ep, olov aicova-v 



/ereivat, fiev p' aXeeive, aefidccraro yap to ye Ov/jl 
irepnre Be aw Av/ctyyBe* jropev 8' 6 ye a-rjfiara Xvypd, 
ypdyfras e^^ii^ifrifkfW iroWd, 0wtV 

Bel^at 8' rjvdryet, & irevOeptp, ocf>p* airoKoiro. 
avrdp 6 fir) Av/ccTjvBe Oe&v U7r' d/iv/iovt, irofiiry* 

)\ dXk' ore Br) Av/clr)v l%e UdvOov re peovra, \^r^\ ' 
J 7rpo<f)povecD<? fitv riev aval; Avkltj*; evpeh)*?*^** 

ivvrjfiap ^elvicrtre teal evvea fiovs lepevvev. S 

dXX* ore Br) Be/cdrr) i(f)dvrj poBoBd/crvXo? 97©?, \f^j^^ 175 
koX Tore fivv epeeive teal yree <rr)fia lBe<r0cu 9 
ottl pa oi yafifipoio irdpa Upoiroio <j>epot,ro. j 

avrap €7rel Br) arjfia /ca/cbv irapeBe^aro yafifipov, (?"' 
irp&rov fiev pa Xlfiatpav dfiaifiaKevrfv itceXevae 
irefoefiev. r) 8' ap f erjv Oelov yevo? ovB* dvOpcoirav, 180 jf 
irpoade Xecov, oiriOev Be Bpd/ccov, fiecrcrrj Be* yly^aipa 9 V^ 
Beivov diroTrveiov<ra irvpbs fievos aWofxevoio. * s^f 

koI rr)v fiev Kareirefyve Oecov repdeaai TriOrjaas. A/^" ^j 

Bevrepov aft XoXvfioicri, fia^Tjaaro /evBaXlfioiaf . LA^vT 

/eapTio-TTfv Br) Trjv ye fid^v <j>dro Bvfievat dvBp&v* (85 jir 

rb rpCrov aft Kareire<f>vev 'Afia^ova? dvTiaveipas. wA 

tA 8' dp 9 dvepxojievq) iroKivbv Bo\ov aXKov vcpatve* i*A f 

}:)Kpiva<; etc Avtctr)<; evpeirjs cruras dpiaTov*; ftA- 1 '' 

j*' elve \6%pv to\ 8' ov ti iraXiv olfcovBe viovro* tjAJft'^' 
Travras yap tcarkirefyvev dfiv/MDV BeWepo<f)6vTi]*. ^jjAjb 
dXk' ore Br) ytyvayaiee Oeov ydvov r)bv eovra, VT^* 
avrov fiiv KarepiJKe; "SlBov B f ye Ovyarkpa r\v> * 
Btaice Be ol Tififj? fiaaiXrjtBp*; r)fiiav irdaw fyjfu 
KaX fiev ol Avkioi wlfieVos rdfibv e^o^ov aXXcav, 
/caXbv <j>VTa)ur}<; teal dpovprjs, 8<f>pa vifioiro. 195 


Belleropkan left three children, one of whom % Hippolochos^ was 
father of Glaukos. 

'II 8' €T€fC€ Tpia TWVtt $at(pp9Vl BeX\€pQ(f>QVT1} I 

*I&avBpov re teal * IirTroXo-^pp tca\ AaoBd^eiav* 
AaoSa/^eljj p*£P trapEXe^aro /jL^rlera Zev$ f 
i} S' ere** aprldeop SapTr-qBopa xaXteoteopvarrfp* 
aXX* ore B*j teal teeivQS dinq^deTO irao-i deotatv, 


op 9up,ov fcari&wVs ttutop avBpoxirwv dXetlp&p* 

"IaavSpov Be ol vlop *Apvs tiros iroXeiioio 

' v^J 1 A > ' 

iiapvaptfvov 2,okvp<Qi{rt KaTEKTave KuoaXt/Xot(n t 

Tt)P Bk J£0\G>Q~ap.€V7} XpViTlJVtQS * ApT€flV$ GfCTa* 20J 

r IttttoXo^os S* I/j6* inters teal etc Tou <p7jfit yevetrffaf 

7T6/47re Be p £$ TpoiTjv, teat fioi fidXa tto&A,* eirereXXev 

a lev apb&Ttuetv teal virttpoxov €fipi€vat aXXtap, 

fifjBe yevos irareptdv aio-^upepLeP, oi piy* apurrot 

tit t* *E(j>vpr} eyepopro fcal ev Avtctr} evpeig. 210 

TavTTjs TOl yeperjs re teal aifULros ev%o}juit eipcu* 

Diomede joyfully recognizes that gitest friendship existed between 
Eellerophon $nd Qinet4s t his own grandfather, 

*£Xq (f>aTO, yt'jdijffas Be fioijv dya&bs Aio^tjSt}^ 
£yX°$ ft* 1 * ^evreir^ev ewl %8op\ irovXvj3oT€ipr} a 
avrap 6 ^etXi^lota-i Trpoo-rjvBa irotp.epa Xa&p* 

*H pd vv fiot gelvos waTpwios e&at, iraXaio?* 215 

Olpevs yap irore Bw apuvpopa BeWepotpQPTijv 
gelvto-' ivl jieydpoLO'tP ieifcocrtp fi^ar* ipv%a$ m 
ol Be Ka\ aXXyXaio'i 7ropop ^eiwrjta tcaXa* 
Olpeits p,hf ^ma'Tijpa ftlBov <f>olvifet <f>a€tv6v t 


142 IAIAAOS Z.^ 

tcrelvat, fiiv y aXeetve, aefUdccraTO yap to ye Ovfiw, 
irefiire Se u,tv Av/cirjySe* iropev 8' 6 ye o-rjfiara \vypd 9 
ypdyfras efcxW&ltfditil^ iroWd, *Wt\'^ 

hel%ai 8' rjvdryei $ irevOepA, o<£p' clttoXjoito. 
avrdp 6 fir) Av/cirjvSe decov vir* d/iv/iovi ironirfj. 
\\ dXK* ore Br) Av/elrjv tf;€ Udv0ov re peovra, 
J* 7rpo<f)pov€co<; fiiv riev dva% Avkit)^ eVpeiff^T 

ivvrjfiap ^eivtaae teal evvea fiov? iepevaev. S 

a\\' ore Br) Betcdrr] i<f>dvrj poBoBdfcrvXo? r)d>$ 9 \*jjJ^ 175 jA\ 
icaX Tore fivv epeeive zeal firee crfjfia ISicrOac, \j/' 

ottc pa oi ya/ifipoio irdpa Upoiroto <f>€poiro. J*^ 

avrdp 67rel Br) arjfia /ca/cbv irapeBe^aro ya/uufipov, [?" 
irp&TOv fiiv pa Xlfiaipav dfiat,fJLatcevr}v e/eiXevae 
ire<f>vefiev. 17 8' ap y erjv Oelov yivos ovS* dvOpcoTrcov, 180 Jf 
irpoaOe \ieov, oinOev Se Bpd/ccov, pAcrat] B\ %ifiai,pa, V*-|l 
Betvbv diroirveiowa irvpos fievo? alOo/ievoio. * v %j ai 

Kal rr)v p,ev Kareire^ve Oecov repdeaai iriOr/aa^. A/^ a 

Bevrepov aJ> 2o\vpLoi<ri pLwyrjaaro /cv8a\lfioi<rc L/VA^\ 

/capTiaTTjv Br) ttjv ye fid^rfv fydro Bvfievat, dvhp&v. JS5 
to rpCrov aJ> Kwreire^vev t Ap,a£6va<t dvriavelpas. ^y 

tA 8' ap 9 dvepypiikv<p ttvkivov Bokov akXov v<f>aive' 1 ia* 

: . kptva? i/c Av/cir)<; evpeirj^ <f>cora<; dpiorov? !*A> 

v elcre Xo%pv rol 8' ov ti irdXvv oIkopBc veovro* KjA/0D*^ 
> TrdvTOK yap Kareire^vev d/JLVficov BeXXepo^ovri]*. *jjjAjb 
dXX* ore Br) y/rfima/ee Oeov ybvov t)vv iovra, VT* 
avrou flip Karepi/xe^ *$lBov B* o ye Ovyaripa rjv, * 
Scarce Be oi Tip,r)<; /3aai\r)t8p<; fjfuo-v Trdaw fyjfb 
Kal /lev oi Avkioi triftevos ra/iov et-oypv aXXcov, 
fcaXov <j>VTa\t,r}$ teal dpovpr}?, 8<j>pa vifioiro. 195 

/■•■■•■■•- ^ ui - 



BelleropJwn hfi three children, one of whom, Hippotochas* was 
father of Giaukos. 

*H S* eretce rpla ritcva Bat^povi BeXX€po(f>6vT7f f 
'IaavBpov T€ teal * IttttoXq^ov teal Aao&dpetav. 
AaoSafieiTj jj,€v irapeXi^aro p^rtera iJeu?, 
t} B* €T€& avri0€ov SapTnjBopa xaXKOteopva-T^u, 
dXX' ore Bi} teal teztpoq aTrij^Bero iratrt deoto-tv, 
?} rot 6 teaw ireZlav to *AXrjiov olo<; dXara 
op ffvfiop xarlSoiVf irarov apQpmtreov dXeelpmp* -^ 

"IcrapSaop Bi ol vtop "Apm aro$ TroXeaoto 

' V i< ' /V'' 

pLoppapevov ZoXvpLotai tcaTeterave tevoaXtpLottrh 

Tijv Se ^oXod^apLipi) ^pva^Pto^ ^ A prefix €ftra> 

f l7T3ro\o^05 S' 1/4 ' €TLKT€ t fCCtl €tC T0V <fif}pLl yGPZtT&ai* 

7T£/47T€ Si /4 1 e? Tpolfjp, teat p>ot pudXa ttqXX* eVeTeXXep 

aUv apiareutw teal v7relpo)(QV ep>p,£vai aXX&p, 

/4^Se yivos irarkpwv ala-^vvifiep, oi fiiy* aptarot 

Iff T* *E<pvpjj ijepopro teal eV AvKtp evpetjj* 210 

ravrr}? rot yevaj? re teal aifiaro^ evxopat elvai. 

Diomede joyfully recognizes that fittest-friendship existed between 
Bellerophon attd Omens, his own grandfather. 

A /2? tf>dro s lytj&tfa-ev Be /3qt]P ayaffos AtOfn)Si]^ 
eyX 0<! P* v xaTemjljev iwl yOovl irovXif/SoTeipji, 
avrap 6 pLetXtfttoim TrpoayvBa iroifihta Xawv 

*H pa PV ftOL feiVo? warpm'to? ecro-t iraXaw m 215 

Otpevs yap wore Btoq dpLVpova BeXXepQtpovTrjp 
fjetiwr* ivl iivyapmerip ieitcocrip *J/4ar T ipv£a<? m 
01 Be teal aXXtfXota-i iropov feipyta tcaXd* 
Olvev? fiht £atcrTr}pa StBov <po(vitei <f>a€tvop f 

144 IAIAA02 Z. 

BeXKepofovrrj? he 'xpvaeov Serra? dfi<f>iKV7reWov, 22 °\l 
Kal fJLiv eya> Karekenrov ioav ev Bcofiaa* ifioiat. -s/-"^ ^ 


TuSea 8' ov fie/ivrjfjbai, iirel p eri rvrdov iovra ^j^ 
KdWi<f>\ or' ev &ijj3T)<rw airdiKero Xao9 'A^ai&v. \ W 

t& vvv <rol fiev eya> feti/09 <£>t\o9 "ApyeZ fieaacp A '.r 
elfil, ax) 8' eV Av/cfy, ore Kev r&v Brjfiov crccofjuu. 225 

And the two heroes agree to avoid one another in combat and ex- 
change armor, 

"Eyyea 8' aXkrjXcov aXecofieOa Kal Si* 6/uXot>* r~\JJ*\ 

iroXKol fiep yap ifiol Tp&es Kkeirol t' errUovpot, ' ^r 
/creiveiv, ov zee Oeo? ye irdpy teal iroaal /ewe ho, J^*^\s 
iroKKol 8' av aol 'Avcuol ev&^p£v\wvKe Svvrjai. 
revftea 8* aWtfkoi? errapeCyffbuev, 6<f>pa teal o/£8e ^k>2Ltk/\ 
yv&aiv or 1 gelvoi Trarpcoioi evxpfleO' elvau ~\^ i* . 

*/29 apa (fxov^aavTe, /ca0* Xinrtov atgavre, g * ' 
%e?/>a9 r' d\\7]\o)v Xafierriv Kal iricrrdxravTo. f^ K 4 ^/f 

8v0' avre TXavKcp KpovtSrj? (frpevas efeXero Zeis, * ' 

$9 717)09 Tvhelhrjv Aiofir/Sea revye* apeifie 235 

Xpvaea ^aX/ceiW, eKaro/jifJoi' ivveafioiayv. 

Meanwhile, Hector has reached the Scaean Gates; and, after direct- 
ing the women who meet him there to pray to the gods, he hastens 
on to Priam } s palace, 

"E/crap 8' ©9 %Kaid<; re wvXa? Kal <f>rjybv Lcavev, -^ 
a/*^' apa fiiv Tpdxov aKoypi diov rjBk Bvyarpe^ 
elpSfievai iralSd? re Kao-vyvrfTov? re era? re k , vv vi u l 

Kal 7ro<rta9' 6 8' eireira 0eoi<; ev^eaOaL dveoyee 240 

irdo-a? efew79" iroWrjai 8£ Krjhe* e^rjirro. lv 

9 A\\* 8re Srj npcd/jbOLo Sofiov TrepiKaWe* have, 
(farTifc aWovarjac rervyfievov, avrdp iv avr<p 



7T€VT$fC0vT* tpz&ap 6dXap.ot georolo \10OIO, 
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KQip&vTo Uptdjioto irapa fipija-rgs a\6%ourt, 
Kovpdmv 8* erip&d&s ivavTiot tvSodev avKvjs 
ScaSetf' eaav Teyeoi 6dXap.oi ^€<ttoiq \16qlq, 
ttXtj&Iov aKKtfKtov SeB^Tjp.evot' £vda hi yaftfipol 
KotpwsvTQ HptdjAQ&Q xap * alSoljis d\6j(QtrCnp* w^^2§q 

Hecuba meets him here f and offers him wine t that he may make Hba- 
tion*to the gods, and drink. 

*Ev6a 01 7)7rt6$wpo$ ivavTiTj ijXvde pi)T7}p 
AaoSlitTjv ia-dyovcra, Bvyarp&v eZSo? dpia-T^p* 

it t If f I m \ V 1 Vi » * Tit U 

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d\Xa jl£v\ 6<ppa tc£ rot ^XnjMa otvov iveitcw, * *.* • < 
ws 1 airM&ys Ait TTarpl teal aXXotf dOfLvdrourL 
wpt*>TQp f eirura Se KavTos ovtj&mt, at tee Tri^G 8 a* 260 
dpSpi §€ KtfCivq&Tt, p,£po<; fj,£ya olvos deffct, 
is tvptj iektcptftews djjivvGov <roi<nv erpcri. 

Hector refuses the wine, but directs her to hasten with the other 
matrons to Athena? s shrine, and to seek to propitiate the goddess. 
Meanwhile^ he goes in search of Paris. 

Ti}p S r 7}fjMtj3eT % ewura ^eya? tcopvBatoXos ^Ettrwp* 
/iij pot qXvov aztpe fi€\t(f>pova irorvia fJifjrep, 
fit} p* aTroyvt<ti<r$<s f p>£v€oq S* dXferjs re XdOwpat, 265 

%€p<rl 8* duiiTTotatp Ati Xclfteip atdoira qXpov 
atfapai* ovSe 7rj? eari K€\aw€<f>£'i KpovlwPt 


144 IAIAA02 Z. 

BeWepofovrr)? Bk ypvaeov Serra? dfjucpiKinreWop, 22 °\V 
teal fJLLv eyo> KareKeiirov la>v iv Bco/iacr' ifiotcru ^"^* 

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tcdWi<f>\ or' iv &ijj3r)<rt,v airdikero Xao9 'Ayai&v. \ fo, 

r& vvv aol fiev eyo) feti/09 <£>i\o9 "Apyei fiecracp A '.V' 
elfit, <ri> 8' 61/ Avklt), ore Kev t&v Brjfiov i/cayfuu. 225 

^4«^/ /£* /ow heroes agree to avoid one another in combat and ex- 
change armor. 

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iroXkol fiev yap ifiol Tpwe? tcXeirol t' iirlicovpoi '^-V ^ v 


iroWol 8' a$ aol 'Ayaiol ^l^elvwnce Svvrjcu, 

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evO' avre TXaviccp Kpovfor)*; <f>peva$ e^ekero Zeis, * 

$9 777)69 TvSel&rjv AtofirfSea rev^e* a/ieifte 235 

Xpvcrea xaXfcemv, €KaTOfjL/3oi' ivveafHolwv. 

Meanwhile, Hector has reached the Scaean Gates; and, after direct- 
ing the women who meet him there to pray to the gods, he hastens 
on to Priam } s palace. 

"E/crcop 8' ©9 Steaid? re TrvXas teal ^>rjyov Ztcavev, ~" , - v 
dfi(f> y apa ficv Tpcixov aXoypt, Oeov rjSe dvyarpes 
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Kal irdena^ 6 8' eireira deovz evxecrOai dveoyee 240 

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tcotfjJiiVTO UpLapoiQ wap* alhoLgs akoxpLatv* l 250 

Hecuba meets him here t and offers him wine, that he may make liba- 
tion*/o the gods 7 and drink. 

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dpBpl 8£ tceKpvqwTt p<ivo<i ptiya otpo^ de£e£, 
a><? Tvuri xifcpxifcas d/ivpoop aoltnv eryen* 

Hector refuses the 'mine, but directs her to hasten with the other 
matrons to Athena's shrine, and to seek to propitiate the goddess. 
Meanwhile, he goes in search of Paris. 

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a%op,at,' ovBi 7Tj7 Icrrt K€\aLpe<f>€t Kpovitavi 






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n^Saaov alireivrjv $vXa/eov 8' eke Arfiros Tjpco? 35 

<f>evyovr J • EvpvirvXos 8k MeXdvOiov igevdpigev. 

Menelaos captures Adrastos, and is inclined to spare his life, 

x f A8pr)OTOv 8' dp* eireira ftorjv dyaObs MeveXao? \ 

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u A8pr)O'T0<} 8 dp eiretra Xaftcbv eXXlaaero yovvw 45 

Zurypet 'Arpeo? vie, av 8' a%ui 8ef;ai atrowa. 
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hwerup cS Bepdirovrt tcarai;€p,€P m dX\ J * AyafiepLvtdv 
dprioq rjXde Simp, teal ifLOKXpcra^ eirc? ijvSa* 

but Agamemnon's taunt leads him to relinquish his thought of 

"T , . * 

* SI ireirovt S> MeveXae s ri tj Sc tri) /ctfBeai ovto*? 
dvSpwp; rf cot aptara Trewo LtjTat, Kara oikqv ^ > 
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ll - Aaf €v o-Tijaeo-ifSa*; TfeerTracre fietXtvov eyx ?* 65 

Neo-rtap S' 'Apyeiottrtp ixmXero patcphp dvara?. 

Nestor exhorts the Greeks not to turn aside for spoil t but to fallow 
up the pursuit, 

*/2 <j>£Xot tfpmfft Aapaoi, OzpaTroPTes v Api}o<s a ' 

pdl rt? pvp ipdpoyp eTrtfiaXXopepos pteTQTrtcr&e 
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dXX* avhpas ktuv^^P' eiretra Se teal ra etcrfXQt, 
v€tcpov$ apt, ir^hiov crvXtfaeTG re8p7}o>Ta^ 



And the Trojans would have been driven within the walls of Troy ', 
had not Helenos appealed to Aeneas and Hector, 

*/29 eliroav &rpvve fiivos teal Ovfiov etcdorov. 
ivOa tcev avre Tp&e? dprjltyhxov vir* 9 Ayaw>v 
"TKiqv el&aviftrjo'av dvaXtcelgo'i SajjuevTes, 
el fit) ap' Alveia re teal "Etcropi, efare irapaaraX^ 
npiajilSrjs "EXevos, olcovoiroXav 8% apurTOsy*^ 

Alveia re teal "E/crop, iirel 7r6vo<z iififii fidXiara 
TpcooDv teal Avtclrov iytci/cXtTat, ovvete 9 apiaroi > \ 

ira&kv iir 9 Wiv iare pA^eaQai re <f>pove€iv re, ^/sr 

aTfjr' avrov, zeal Xabv ipv ted/cere irpb irvXcuav pft 80 
iravTT} iiroit'xpiievoi, irplv afar' iv %e/0<rl yvvaiK&v 
<j>evyovra$ ireaeeiv, Brjtourt Se x&piLa yeveaOai. ^P 

avrap iirel tee (frdXayyas iiroTpvvrjrov dirdcras, ?? 

17/46*9 fiev AavaoZai /jut^TjaofieO 9 aide fievovres, \) 
teal fiaka reipofievol irep' avaytcatr] yap kirelyei. 8$ 

He begs Hector to go to the city, and direct the matrons to suppli- 
cate Athena. 

H E/CTop 9 drap av irdXivSe fierep^eo, elire 8' Sireira 
firjrept, 077 teal ifiy' r) Se* fjvvdrfov<ra yepaids 
vrjbv 9 A0rjvalr)<; yXavteanriSo? iv iroXei atopy, 
oigacra /cXrjihc 0vpa$ lepolo Sojioio, ""' 

irewkov, 09 ol Soviet yapikaTaTos r)8k fieyioro? 9°\J*' - 

elvav ivl fieydpq* teal ol iroXii (frtXraTos airy, ^^ \ 

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teat ol viroa^eaOai, hvoKaihetea ftovs ivl vr)§ \ , y -^ u 

r) vi$ rjtce&ras lepevaejiev, at tc 9 eXetjay \* 

aarv re teal Tpcocov dX6xov$ teal vfyma ritcva, 95 


at tcev Tvheos vlbv airooyr) 'IXfov iprjs, J" , 

dyptov aiyfiffrrfvZ icpaTeftov jJujaTcopa <j>6/3oio 9 - x s K ( K s< 

hv hrf eya> KdpTi<rrfy^*A%ai&v (fyrjfic yeveaOcu. V \L v 
ovh' 'A%iXr)d iroQ y &he y* ihelhifiev, opyayuov dvhp&v, ,A 
hv irep <f>aac 0ea<; egefAfievcu* dXX' She Xirjv i9jgv^ 

fuilverai, ovhe rl$ oi hvvarcu jievo? io-o<j>api£eiv* ^Ki 

r ector complies, having first rallied the Trojans and exhorted them 
to courage during his absence* 

sjs A /2? $<t>aO\ "EiCT&p 8' ov ti KaavyvrjTCp d7rl0rjaev. 

avri/ea h' ef oyetav avv rev^eatv aXro ^afia^e, 
irdXXxov 8' 6f;ea hovpa kcltcl arparbv A^ero irdprv 
irrpifnmv fiayiaaa-Bai, eyeipe he <f>v\6iriv alvrjv. ^ K 105 
oi h' ekerfty&rj&av zeal ivavriot i-arav 9 A^ac&p* I L 1 ■ 
*Apyeloi 8* xnrex ( u>pV <Tav » ^V^ av ^ <f>6voto, * ' ' 
<f>dv he tip* dOavdrcov if; ovpavov darepoepro^ 
Tpoxrlv dXe^aovra tcareXOifiep 9 &9 iXeXij^Oep. 
*E/era>p he Tp&eo-aw i/ci/cXero fiaicpbv dvtras* no 

Tp&es inripOvfiob TrfXeicXevToi t' iiriicovpoi, 
dvepes eare, <f>tXoi, fiprjaaaOe he Oovpiho? d\tcr)$, 
S(j>p 9 hv eyco /3eia> irpori "IXiop rjhe yepoww 
eiircd j3ovXevTr)<ri fcal rffiereprj^ ako'xpia'i 
hatjioaip dpj]<ra<T0cu, inroa-^eadai h' e/earofifia?, 115 

The combat continues during Hector's absence, but with diminished 
fury, and opportunity is given for quieter scenes. Episode of 
Glaukos and Diomede. 

'\f2$ dpa ifxbvriaas dire* fir} tcopvOaioXo? "Ejcroop* 
dfji<f>l he juv <r<f>vph rvirre real avyeva otyfia /ceXcuvov, 
airi/f, fj irvfLaTr) deep daTriho? 6fji<f>aXo€cra7j^. 

•w ■ 


Dutd/co? 8' * iTrn-cikoxpi* irals, /cal TvSio? v!b$ 
is fiiaov dficfyorepcop ovPmjv fiefia&re fid^eaOai. 120 

ol S y ore hi) a"^eSbp fjaav eir' aXXrjXourw lovres, 
rbv irporepos irpoaienre ftorjv dyaObs Ato/iySt)?' 

The episode begins by DiomeaYs question " who Glaukos is t "for ^*/\pK 
will not presumptuously engage in combat XvM^pds. ^ ^ 

IY9 Sk <TV eaai <f>ipt,(TT€ KaradvqT&v avOpcoircov KfJ />*r 
ov fiev yap iror oironira fidxV ^ vt fcvSiavelpnJ (fnXrV ±, 

to irplv drap fiev vvv ye iroXv Trpofte&rjka? aprdv%tmv 12c. ai/A 
* y " &<p Odpaei, 6 r ifJbbp SoXi^aKiov ey%09 ep,€tva$. 1%J \ \ 
hv<TTTjvcov Si re iraiSes ifiS jiivei dvriocoaiv. wfiAr* jyf\ 
el Si Ti? aOavdrmv ye /car 9 ovpavov etXrjXovOas, V jjC^ 
oi/c &v iyco ye deoiaw eirovpaviOKri fia^oifirjv. 
oiSe yap ovSe ApvavTO? vio$ t tcparepb? Avrc6opyo$, 130 
Srjv fy, 0? pa deoiaiv eirovpavloiGiv e*pt%ev % u/^, 

09 Trore fiatvofiivoio Aioavvaoto TiOrfvas W™ ^4 

<reve tear' rjydOeov Nvarjiov al 8' ayji iracrai 

BvaOXa yafjiat icarer^evav bit dvSpo<j>6poio AvKovpyov "V 

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el Si rk eaai fipor&v, 0$ dpovprj? icapirbv iSovtrw, 
daaov W\ &<f icev Oaaaov oXiOpov irelpad' ttctjai. 


IAIAA02 Z. 141 

Glaukos replies, commencing with the wonderfully beautiful simile 
in which mankind are compared to the leaves of the forest. 

Tbv 8' aZ0* ' ImroXo'Xpio irpoarjvBa <f>at8i/io$ vl&f 
TvBelSrj fjLeydOvfie, ri fj yevefjv ipeeiveis ; \^. 145 

dirj irep (pvXKcov yeverj, rolrj Be icaX avSpcov. 
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el 8' iOikew, /cal ravra Barjfievcfc o<f>p 9 ei5 €48*75 150 

fifjb€T6pT)v yeveqv, ttoXKjoX 8e p,iv av8pe$ laacw. 

Sisyphos of Corinth was his progenitor, the father of Bellerophon, 
whose exploits are mentioned at length, and how he was sent to 
Lykia and settled there. M , _ v 

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ev0a 8e 2l<rv<f>o$ ea/eev, b Kepourflfi^tyer' av&p&v, 
2&ru(f)o<; AlohlSrjv o 8' dpa TXavKov re/ced 9 vlov, 
avrap rkavfcos krucrev ap,vjM>va BeWepo^oprrjv 155 

T$ 8k 0eol fedWo? re teal j}i$pi7)p iparelvrjv , .? 

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5? p* etc Srjfiov ekaaaev, eirel 7ro\i> <f>eprepo<; fjev, '. 

'Apyeuov Zsvs yap ol \rirb GtcqirTpto iSd/iaao-e. 

*r<p 8k yxnd) Upolrov iirefi^varo, 8?' "Avreia, 160 

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ireld 9 ar/ada <f>poveovra, 8aAj>pova BeXKepo^>6vr^v.' 
fl 8k ifr€vcra/j,iv7] Ilpolrov fiaaiKfja irpoarfvSa* 
redvabi*;, & lipoid, fj tcd/crave BeWepotfrovrrjv, 
05 p* %Qek€v <f>tXoT7fTv \Liyr\11eva1 ovk iOeKovay 165 

&? fydro, top 8k avatcra %6\o$ \df$ev t olov ateovo-e* 



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ypatyas ^t4^i1^JmtfW iroXXd, *W*V 

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avrap 6 /3fj AvKirjvSe de&v U7r' ajiv/iovi irofiir^. 

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dXX* ore Sfj he/cart) i<f>dvrj poSoSdtervXos ^a>?, \fyj*r 175 A 
koX Tore fiiv epeeipe teal rjree ar^ia ISeaOac, \J/f 

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irp&TOv fiep pa Xifiaipav dfxaifiafcerTjv iteiXevcre 
7T€(f>v€fi€V. f) 8' ap* erjp Oelop yepo? ovf>' dvOpcoTrcov, 180 ■ jf 
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Seivbv diroirveiovcra irvpos /iei/09 aiOofiepoio. * vj^ 

Kal rrjp fiep Kareirefyve Oecop repdeaav TnOrjaas. AjJ 
hevrepop ai HoXvfioiai fia^rjaaro /cvSaXifioMn* LV*'' 

/eapTioTrjv Srj rrjv ye fid)(r)p <f>dro Bvpevai dvSpcov. 185 
to rplrop av Kareire^vev 'Afia^ova? dvriaveCpas. ^ 

tA 8' ap 9 dvepypiikvtp ttvkipop SoXov aXXop v<f>aive* 1 i/v^ 

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Kal fiev oi Avkuol tri/Mho? rafiov ef-o'xpv dXXayp, 

KaXov <f>vraXtri<; Kal dpovpr)?, 8<f>pa vifiotTO, 195 

*■ 1 ■ *■ 

i x '" ■ ' ' :■ .- 'I. 

f yV/ ^* 

IAIAA02 2. 

Betkrophon left three children t one of wkom t Hippolochos, was 
father of Glaitkos. 

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^IaavBpov re teal f l7r7r6\o%op teal Aaohdpeiap. 
Aao&afieig /Aw irapeXi^aro p^rkra Zeis, 
rj 8' eretc* avrideop UtapirrfSova xa\teoteopv<TT$v* 
a\\* ore S^ ttaX tcelvas airtfyOero irao-i Beot&tv, 
% roi a teair rreBiop to *A\ijIqp olo$ akdro ^j4 

op 0vp.hp xariSmv, wdrov avQpwwmv akeeivtav. 
"laavhpQP he oi vlhv ^Ap^ aro? TroXe/xato 
p.appap*€PQV SaXvfAQi&t tcareterape tcuhaAdpourir 
r?/y Be j^oXma'auept} y^pver^PLo^ "Aprepw etcra. 205 

f IirrroXo^o^ 8* && ert/ere, koI etc rou eftypt yevia-daf 
irifiTTE Be p es Tpotijp, teal fiot fiaXa xuW* iirireWcv 
atev apierTedetv teal i/7rdpo)(pv eppLepat, aWiai/, 
fir}&€ yivos irarepcop aia^ype^eVi ot pey* apurrat, 
tv T *Erf>vpj} iyepopTo xal iv Avtelj} evpei$ m 210 

Tavrrjs rot yepajs re teal at par as €v%opai etpa&> 

Dionude joyfully recognizes that guest-friendship existed between 

Belleraphon and Oineus, his own grandfather. 


*/2? (f>(tTO t y?}8r}(T£V Be j3o 7 p ayaBos Ato^Br)^ 
€*fX Q< * &*& Kareir^ev hrl %0ovl TrovkvfioTelpjf, 
avrap p.$Cki*fctotm Trpoa-rfvBa iroipepa Xawp- 

*il pa pv fiot gelpos 7TaTp<txlds eerai 7ra\ai6$* 215 

Qtvev? yap wore Si 09 dp,vp,ova BeKXepo(popT7}P 
iJGtvur' evl iieyapoiaw eelteoatp tfpar' ipvgas' 
ot Se zeal aXkrfXotm wdpop %uprjjia teaXci* 
Oipeift fiev ^oyo-rrjpa BiBov tpotpita $aeivov> 


BeWepocfrovrr)? 8k xpvceov Berra? afifafcwreXkov, 22 °\l 
Kal fjuv eyo> Karekeiirov tibv iv 8d>fiac' ifioici. r j^^ J \- 

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teaWc<f)\ or* iv Srf^rfCLV airdiKero \ao$ *Ayaiwv. \ ta 

to3 vvv col fiep iya> gelvos <j>i\o$ "Apyei fiicc<p X\r^ 

elfil, cv 8' iv AvkItj, ore kcv r&v Srjfiov i/ccoficu. - 225 

And the two heroes agree to avoid one another in combat and ex- 
change armor. 

"Ey%€a 8* aXkrjhcov a\ea>fi€0a Kal 81* ofitKov rtAA^ 

iroKkol fiev yap ifiol Tpcoes xKeiroi t iiri/covpoi ^-V r , 

kt eiveiv, ov zee 0eo? ye iropn /cal iroacl tayelco, 7["^^ 
7roXXoi 8' av col y A\atol evaSpifj^vT^bvKe 8vvrjai. 
revx^a 8 9 oWtJXoi? eTrafiefcjfbueb, 6<f>pa Kal a#B<? £$)L<(fc\ 
yvmav on %elvoi iraTpwioi €v%6fL€0* elvau ^\^ -i% . 

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X&pas; t* ahXrjkav Xafterrjv Kal iricrobcavTO. /^a f £/T i 

ev0 9 avre TXavKtp KpoviSrj? <f>p€va$ efeXeTO Zevs, * * 

&? 7rpo9 TvSeiBrjv AcofirjSea rev^e' afieifie 235 

Xpvcea ^aXtffiW, e/caro/x^Sot' ivveafioiayv. 

Meanwhile, Hector has reached the Scaean Gates; and, after direct- 
ing the women who meet him there to pray to the gods, he hastens 
on to Priam } s palace. 

"Ektcop 8' d><? Sxaids re 7rv\a? Kal (fyqyov Xxavev, o^ 
aftff)' apa fiiv Tpdxov SlKo^ol Oeov rj8k Ovyarpes 
elpSfievat, iral8a^ re Kacvyvrirovs re era? re h jIaa^^ 

Kal irbciav 6 8' eireira deoi? evxecdat, avobyei, 240 / f 

iracas e^euq?' iroWrjct 8k K^8e 9 ifyrjirro. L\a C'-'^^ 

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f-ecrfjs aldovayai rervyfievov, avrap iv avT$ 




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Kovpcittip 8' krepmOep ivavrloi ephodev au\% 
ScoSetf* etrav reyeat 0dXapot gevrolo Xtdoio, 
TrXTjatov aXXjjXwv BeCpLrj^epof €t/8a B£ yap<ji}pal 
KOtpwro IIptdfLOLO Trap ' alBoiTjs aXoxQicrtv* 

Hecuba meets him here, and offers him wine t that he may make tiba- 
tion*to the gods, and drink. 

*Ev8a at rfTrioBtepos ivai/Tiij yXvde p-tfrTjp 
AaoBttcqu ia-ayovtra* Ouyarpayp etBos aptar^p* 
ev T apa oi <pu X^P 1 eiro * T ^ aT €/c T ovofm^e* / j 

Wiicvov, Tiirre Xiitwv woXeftop dpacvp etXyXovSa*; ; 
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fiappdfievot Ttepl aarv* ae B 1 evOdBe 8vfiQ$ dvrjtcep 
iXdovr* e£ atep-qs ttqXws Ad %elpa*% avaa^tv* 
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tls 1 aTrtlo-ys Ad 77 aT pi teal dWots dBavdrotcrt 
TrptoTopt eirena Be fcauTos opi]&ekt f at fee wijjcrOa. 260 
dvhpl Be tc€tcp,7}&Ti fiivQs pAya olvos deceit 
a?? TVPiq tee fCftti] teas dfivvt&v uoifftv eryau 

Hector re/uses the wine t but directs her to hasten with the other 
matrons ta A thenars shrine^ and to seek to propitiate the goddess. 
Meanwhile \ he goes in search of Paris. 

Tijp B* 7}p,eif$€T* hretra tieyas Kopv$aloXos "Etcrtnp* 
/x/J fiat oTpop aeipe peXifypova irorpta pLtjTep, 
(irj p a7royvma-^ r p,ep€Q<* 8' d\«r/s re Xddwpuiu 
Xep&l 8' dpLTrrota-LP Ad XeifietP aXBoira oIpop 
a^opai* ouSe Try earl xeXaLpe<f>ii Kpopitnpi 

146 . \T IAIAA03 JtfiT \ .^ , V 

at/Man ical \vdp<p ireirdKayfievov evxerdaaOcu. ^ u\j y;- 

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epyeo gvv Oveeaaw doWlaacura yepaidv ^ 270 

ireirkov 8\ 05 rk toc xapUcTaros rj8e fieyioro? 
earw ivl fieydptp tcai roc iro\if fytKraro? avrr}, 
rbv 0e? 'Adrivalr)? iirl yovvaaiv tjvko/jloio, 
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fjvis ffKeara^ lepevaifiev, at k ekerjari 275 

aoTV re teal Tpdxov aXoj^oir? zeal vrjirta ri/cva, 
at /cev Ti/Seo? vlbv airooyri *I\lov iprjs, 
ar/piov al'XjjbrjTT^v, icparepbv firjarmpa QoftoLO. 
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*PX €V > *Y™ ^ Ildpiv fi€T€\evaofiaL s 6$pa 
aX k* idiKyo'' elirovro*; aKovefiev, w? /ci 
yala ^dvor fieya yap \iiv ' OXvpmio? erpefye irfj/ta 
Tpcoal re zeal IIpidfi<p fLeyaXrjropi rolo re iralaw. 
el tcelvov ye lSol/al KarekBovr' "AiSo? eXa<o, - \ \ 

<f>alrjv K€ <f>pev' drepirov bltyos iicXekaOeaOau fi^ tXiA 1 ) 

Hecuba obeys the command of her son. ^f 

*{ls €<f>a9\ 1) Be fioXovaa irori fieyap' dfityirokouri . x ' 

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da-rrjp 8' W5 direKaiLirev ckclto 8k velaros aWwv. 295 
/8^ 8' levai, TroXXal 8e fierea'aevovro yepauu. 

:i ol aMt ^p^X 

IAIAA02 Z. 147 

Theano, priestess of Athena, receives the mantle, and lays it on % x 
the lap of the goddess, uttering a prayer which the goddess does } 1 f 
not regard. t ,\ 

Al S* 8re vtjov %/cavov % A6rjvrj^ iv iroXei a/cpy, 
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tt\v yap Tp£>€$ Wrj/cav 'AOrjvalrj*; iepecav. 300 

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Uotvi* 'AOrjvair), ipvaiTTToXi, Bla dedcov, ' 305 

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fyis Tf/cdcTas lepevcofiev, at k 9 iXerjay^ 
aarv re /cal Tpdxov aXoypv? /cal vr\iria re/eva. 310 

*fl$ fyaT evxofi&vr), dveveve 8e ITaXXa? ^ABrjvrj. 

Hector, meanwhile, has reached the palace of Paris, hard by ; and 
he finds him busied with his weapons, but in Helen's apart- 

*/2? al piv p * €v%ovro Aib<$ /covpy fieydXoio, 
^Etcrap 8£ 7rpo9 ofti/Lcar' ' * AXef-dvhpoio fteftrjicei 
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top 8' "Ekt&p veltceaaev lBa>v alar\poi$ hreecrcri* 325' 

He upbraids him for holding aloof from the combat. 


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\aol fiev <t>0Lvv0ov(Tt irepl tttoXlv aitrv re rei^ps . ik 

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&XX' ava, fit) raya aarv irvpbs Brjtoio Oeprjrau ^f^fjL 



Paris acknowledges the justice of the reproof and promises to follow 
him at once. % I 

Tbv 8* aire irpoaeeiirev 'AXegavBpo? OeoeiBfc* I as* 
"E/crop, hrel fie icar alaav eveUe<ra$ oiB' tnrep ataav, 
rovve/ed toi ipeay aif 8k avvOeo teat fiev axovcrov, ^:M^ 

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copfiTfa* €? irokefiov So/ceo, Be fiot, &Be teal avr^. ^ r 

Xa>lov eacreaOai* vt/crj 8* eirafiei^erai avBpas* ftf^*-^ }.*'' 
dXX' aye vvv eirifieLVov, aprjla T€v%ea Bvto' 340 

ff 10\ iya> Be fikreifu* KtyrfaeaOaL Be tr y otco. 



As Hector is turning away, Helen seeks to detain hint, heaping exe- { '. ' 
oration upon herself and her husband. \ ^ \ x 

A /2? <f>dro, rbv 8* ov Tt, 7rpoa€<j)T) Kopvdalo\o<; tf EicT<op % 
top 8' t E\kvr) fivOouri Trpoa-rjvSa fieCKL^loKn* ' (i 

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c5? fi o^eX' rjfutTC t©, ore fie irp&Tov re/ce fitfrrjp, 345 
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et5 Bpos fj eh fcvfia Tro\v<\>\olafHoio BaXdacrq^, • ' ' , 1 * 

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avrap iirei rdSe y* &8e 6eol tca/cd retcfiijpavTO, r 
dv8po$ hreuT* &<f>€\Xov dfieivovo? elvat a/coins, 350 

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8aep 9 iirei ae fiakurra ttovos <f>p£va<t dfi<f>ifHe(iri/cev 355 
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dvOpinroKn TreXxofied' doihifioL iaaofievoiau 

\- \ W_\- ' 

Hector does not delay, but bids her see that Paris quickly follows 


Tifv 8 9 ^fiel/Ser* tireiTa fieya? /copvOaldXos "E/cTcop* 
firf fie icdQi£ 'EXevrj, <f>(Xeovard irep • ov8e fie Trelaeis. 1 36^ 
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Tpd>€<r<r\ 0$ fiey' ifielo irodifv direovTO*; eypvaiv. \\-- 
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Ka\ yap eyebv ol/covSe eXevaofiai, 8(j>pa cScofiai 365 

150 ^ IAIAAOS Z. V 

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ov yap r 618' 9 fj en a<f)iv VTrorpoiros igofjuac afrris, 

fj rj8t) p U7ro %e/><ri Oeol 8afi6(o<7LV ^A^amv. 

Arriving at his palace he does not find Andromache ^ but is directed 
by a servant to the tower above the Scaean Gates. 

A /2? dpa (fyavijaa? aire^ri fcopvOaloko? "EtcTap* 
alyfra 8' hreiQ* r Uave 86fiov$ ei vaierdovras, (370 y>K 

ov8' eup' 'Av8pofid%r}v Xev/c&Xevov ev fieydpoiaiv, \ fo 
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fie Try e? yaXocov fj elvarepoav evTreirhcov, \ 

fj €9 'AOrjvairj? igoixerai, evda irep aXkai rt^^^ 

Tpcpal iv7r\6fca/jiOi 8et,vrjv Oebv IXdo-fcovrai ; i 380 

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yust as he reaches the city wall* Andromache runs to meet him y 
ana* with her a maid carrying Astyanax* 

Evre vrvkas Txave Biepvouevos aiya a&ru 
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» 1 Tf t Ifl \ St 1 » • 1 * ? * * i,* 

ep t apa ot <pu %£tpt e?ro? r e^pax etf t o^o^afe* 

Andromache beseeches Hector to think of her son and herself Her 
whole family are dead, father and seven brother s % by the hand 
of A eh tiles* Hector is every th tng to her* * tfl^jS 

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^ rot y&p Trarip* ap*up awe/crape £Eo? 'AjpXXevs, 



142 IAIAA02 Z. -f 

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Bco/ee Be oi rifir)? fiaaiXrrfBp? fjfiLcrv iraaw t/jfl^ 
/cal fiiv ol Avklol frfftevoq rafiov efjoypv a\\a>v f 

Kakbv <\>VTa\tr)<i /cal dpovprjs, 8<f>pa vifioiro. 195 

*■ 1 * ' 

IAIAA02 Z. 143 

Bellerophon left three children, one of whom % Hippolochos, was 
father of Glaukos. 

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hv Ovfwv KariSwv, irdrov avOpwircov dXeelvcov. 0^\ ; J, 
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r l7T7roXo^o? S f €jm eriKTe, KaX etc Tov <f>7]fic yevicrOai* 
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fjLTjSk 761/0? irarepcDV alo"xyvi[i€V 9 oi fiey' dpcaroc 
t9 t* 'E<f>vpy iyivovro KaX iv Avfcirj evpeirj. 210 

TavTf)? tol yevd}? re teal aifiaros eifxpfjuai, elvai. 

Diomede joyfully recognizes that guest-friendship existed between 
Bellerophon and Oineus, his own grandfather. 

*/2? <f>dro, yrj/Bqarev Sk fiorjv dyadb? Aio/JLrjSrjs. 
fyX°$ P^v Kariirri^ev eirl yOovl trovXvfioTelpr], \, \\ , ■ \ 
avrctp 6 fjLeiX^ioiai 7rpoar)vSa woijtiva Xa&v ^ 

*H pa vv fioc feti/o? irai pantos iaai iraXaios* 215 

Oiveif? ydp irore SZo$ dfivfiova BeXXepo^ovTrjv 
^elvur 9 ivl fieydpoiaiv ieUoarcv f\p,a,T* ipvgav \. t 

ol Sk KaX CLKXrjXoiaL irdpov geivrjta KaXd* 
Olvev? fih> ^(oarrjpa SiSov <f>olvtta <f>aeivov, 


Be\\€po<f>6vT7}$ 8e xpvaeov Sena? afifa/cwreXkop, 22 <>\l 
Kal fjuv iy<b Karekenrov lo>v iv Satfiaa' ifiolai. r*-~®* \'^ 

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Tea vvv col fiev iyo> %elvo$ <\>i\q$ "Apyel fieaaq> % \J^ 
elfit, av 8' iv Av/cfy, ore K€V r&v Srjjiov tfccofiau - 225 

And the two heroes agree to avoid one another in combat and ex- 
change armor. 

"Ey%ea 8* aXXqktov dXeoa^ieOa Kal St* ofitKov r%4A u 

7toX\oI jjlcv yap ifiol Tpcoes Kkeiroi t* hrUovpoL A*^ ^ 

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yv&aiv on f*eivoi irarpdloi ev^ofied* elvau ^\^ -i» . 

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evO y aire r\avK(p Kpovft)7)<; <f>pevas eljeXeTO Zevs, * * 

&? 777)09 TvheiZrjv Aiop/qbea rev\e* afieifte 235 

Xpvcrea ^aXtffiW, e/caro/x^Sot' ivveaftolcov. 

Meanwhile ', Hector has reached the Scaean Gates; and, after direct- 
ing the women who meet him there to pray to the gods, he hastens 
on to Priam *s palace. 

"Em-cop 8' a>9 2 mid? re Trv\a$ Kal (jyrjyov tmvev, oW? 
dfi<f>' apa fitv Tpdxov akoypL Oeov fjhk Ovyarpes 
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tcotpoyvro Uptdfioto irap* aiSoirjq aX&j(pt<rtP. ■ 250 

Hecuba meets him here 7 and offers him w£ne f that he may make liba* 
tion*to the gods t and drink* 

"Ev9a ol ywioStopos ivavrtij i^XvBe ptf T VP 
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d>$ tvvtj K&/cp.i)/ca$ apuvtov aoZa-tv Srn&l* 

Hector refuses the wine % but directs her to hasten with the other 
matrons to A thenars shrine^ and to seek to propitiate the goddess. 
Meanwhile^ he goes in search of Paris. 

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Hecuba obeys the command of her son. f> S^ 

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ftrj 8' lkvai t iroKKaX 8e fiereaa-evovro yepacai 

IAIAA02 Z. 147 

Theano, priestess of Athena, receives the mantle, and lays it on K 
the lap of the goddess, uttering a prayer which the goddess does \i ' 
not regard. t ,\ 

I y< <% 

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*if2? i(f>ar 9 €i>xop>evv> dvkveve Se IIaWa<z ^AOrjvq. 

Hector •, meanwhile, has reached the palace of Paris, hard by ; and 
he finds him busied with his weapons, but in Helen's apart- 

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fl<TTO real ajjL$nr6\oi(TL irepiickvra epya /ceXeve. 
rov 8' "E/crcop veUeatrev 18<ov aiaypol*; cVeeow 

He upbraids him for holding aloof from the combat 

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Paris acknowledges the justice of the reproof and promises to follow 
him at once, % i 

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aXK 9 aye vvv iirtfieivov, aprfia revyea Svco* 340 

7) 10 9 , eyi) 8k jiereifif Kvyr\tretT0ai, 8k a 9 6ta>. 


* or; 

IAIAA02 Z. I49 

As Hector is turning away, Helen seeks to detain him, heaping exe- \ 
oration upon herself and her husband. / *'"i ■ 

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dv 6 p (otto cere irek&fieO* doiSifioL icraofievoicn, 
] ■ \ W\~'. " ' 

Hector does not delay, but bids her see that Paris quickly follows 


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/cal yap iya>v ol/covSe ekevaofiai, o<f>pa tSayfiai 365 






oltcfjas akvxpv re <f>tKrjv teal vriinov vlov. 

ov yap r f ol8\ rj en <r$w virorpoiro^ Zgofiai aim,?, 

Arriving at his palace he does not find Andromache y but is directed 
by a servant to the tower above the Scaean Gates. 

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\A ■' 



Just as he reaches the city wall, Andromache runs to meet him t 
and with her a maid carrying Astyanax* 

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* » if f j » \ if * w * 1 *f * i j t- 

Andromache beseeches Hector to think of her son and herself . Her 
'whole family are dead, father and seven brothers, by the hand 
of Achilles. Hector is every thing to her- 

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warpo? B' eV ^eydpotct /3dX* "Aprep>L$ io^eatpa. 
"Efcrop, arap trv p.ot ia<n trarrjp teal worvia p>$Tf)p 
ijBe tcatjiyvr}TQ$ t ait Be pot BaXepoq wapatcotTi}?* 430 

iAV dye vvp, iXiatpe teal airov filfiv* iirl irvpytp, jT* 
p$ *waZB* optJSml^Ttrjrjs; X^P^ V Te yvvatica- fy^jL 

g-T^irov wap* eptveop, h8a pAXtara . * fzifiL 



dp,<f> y Atavre Bvw teal ayafeXvroP 'IBof&evfja 
§&' dp<j>* 

' 'ArpeiSas teal TvBeos akxtpop viov 

-fa a$w Swire Qeo-TrpQirCtov e3 eiBm t f^\ 

bpLparos icrri irokiq teal ew{Bpop,ov eirXero TCt^oe 

Tpls y&p Tfj 7* eXdovres i7retp^trav0 i ot apta-rat :,j ^fa 

fj wov ri? &<ptv gplavre VeoTrpQirimv ei> ei6m* ^K5r|J-v 
11 pv teal aurwp ffvao? eTrorpupst teal dvtoyu. 

Hector assures Andromache that he does not forget ihe things of 
which she has reminded him* but even though he feels that Trety 
is doomed hs must still lead the defence, 

Trjp S ' aire Trpoo-eenre p,eya$ tcopvOaloXo? r/ Exrmp * 440 
*H teal e/rol rdBe irdvra peXw, yvpat- d\XA pdX* alpms 





alSioaai Tptaas teal TptpdBa? eXjfcroirCTXoir?, 

at K€ /catco? fi>9 voa<ptif aX&(rkd£a> woXif^oto l I \&^ 

ouSi p,e GvfLos avwyev, iirtl pAQov epjievai eVtfXo? 
aUi teal irpdtTQtai perk Tpweo-at p^d^eadat, 445 

"ftpvvp.€VQS war pis t€ pity a tcH§a$ VjJ} 1 iphv avrov. 
e3 yap eya) roBe olSa tear a <f>peva teal Kara Bvpov* 
taaerat ypap oV av ttot' 0X01X37 *IXta$ tpif 
Kal IIptap,Q$ teal Xahq evpipeXtto TIpuiuoio. 

And yet the downfall of Troy and the death of all his father's 
house would not touch him as does the thought of Andromache 
a slave drawing water for her captors, 

V4XX' oi poi Tpwwv tq<to-qv p.iXei 0X709 owlerenDi 450 
o&T* avrfjs r Etcd/3i}$ ovre JJpLdpLoio ava/eTQ?> 
qStg nao- lyvTjTMVi oX tctv ttqX^v ts xal i&BXol / ^JjJ' 
iv teovi7}<7t, weo-oiev bir % dvBpdai Bua-p,€v£eeratv § 0^" 

oaa-QV erGU, ore /civ ti<: *A%aiwv ^aXteo^iT^vaav 
BatepuoeatTav wfqrat iXeuBspov %p&p airovpas* 
Kal tceit €P *Apyet ioutra xpo? kXXtj? ttrrov v<f>alvots, 
\*&al kgv vBmp <f>Qp£oi$ MeaaijtBo^ $ * Tire pelf}*: 
TrdXX' a€Ka%Qf&iv7} 9 Kpar^prf S* iirtfeeltrgT 1 avdytcij 
Kal ware ti$ elwgirtv IBcav teard Sdtcpv ^ova-aif* 
tf EKTapo<; ijBe yi/1/77, 09 dpttTTeuza-Ke pLU^Gadat 460 

Tpmwv iTTTroSdpLWtt, ore *IXtov d r af>€p f d')(ovTO^ f 

&W Troji Ti9 ipSet* &ol 5 J a i veov eo-ererat aXyo$ 
X ? ] T ^ tqlqvS* dv&pos. dfrvww covkiop *)pap. 
dXXd p* r^Bujj&ra x VT § km™ yala KaXvirroty 
irpiv yi rt erf}? re J3oi}<i aov 8 J £XK7}Bp,oio Trv&eaBai. 465 


upas. ' 455 

(LuuuuuM&i*^ v^r* 


V k i ^ «> 

1 54 


Hector stretches out his hands to take his sax/ but the boy, in fright 
at the waving hdmetptume, shrinks back into the bosom of the 
maid. Then the father \ having taken off the helmet and placed 
it upon the ground, kisses and tosses his boy } and, with a prayer 
that his son may be a mighty warrior and a word of comfort 
for Andromache^ departs* i ♦ . . ^ ' ' - * ** * 

, j ,'■''„ . 

*J2<y tlirwv o5 waiBo^ ope^aro $aiSi/H*e rf Etcrmp* a/s~ 
&*jr B 7 <\ irais Trpos koKttqp iv^mvoio Tt&ijirns ^ * 

Tapf3?]<ra$ xaktcop T€ IB& \otf>ov frnno^aiTT^, 
Bewov air* aKpQTavt)*; KopvBo^ vevaora vor^aa^ 470 

etc B* iyeXa&cre ^ranqp re <£/Xo<? teal irirvia pjr^p. 
a&TiK* diro tcpari><; KQpvB* eiXero <paiBtpo$ ^EfCTCop* 
/col Ttjv phv KaT€07}X€v iiri x8° p%l ^^p^avomu-ap* 
airap o y i bv $I\qv vtbv ewel tcvae ttt/X^ re %€po-fo M 
elirev eTTei/fa/jtero? Ait t' SXKqktIv Te Beolcrf 475 

Zev SXkoi re Beot, Bore By teal tqv$€ y€vi<s0at 
iratB* £p4v t to? feat iym irep, aptTrpeiria TpwG&trtv, ^^5 
&Se fiiijv t* ayaBbv teal *I\iov J^t dpdtrcrEM'* 
/cat ttqt€ t*s etVat, ' warpos 7* oSe iroXXoi? ufAeii-tav* 
£k iroXepov avtovra* $kpQt> £' hapa ftpoTomrra 
fcrzivas Brfiov at/Spa, % a P*^ ^ <f>peva prfnjp* 

*J1? etTrwv a\6)£ato <f>iXijs £v yep* 7 ™ tBrj/ce 
walB* €QV rj B 1 a/>a p,iv KTjwBel Bi^aro tcokTrip 
§atcpvo€p yekdo-aG-a* w6cn$ B* iXiijae vo$(ra$ r 

fieigt, T€ piv tcarepegev ewo$ t €tpar etc r QpQp&fy 

7 pal ri XtTfV a/caxt%€G 0Vfi<p* ^ 
ov yap m p' irrrkp altrav dorjp *AiBt wpoid-tyet. 


fAaiimvvi}, p>7\ p t ot rt XtrfV d/ca^/^Vo Bvpfi 
^ov yap rk p,* irrrkp al&av aorjp v AlBc wpou 
$Lolpav S f ou riva <p7fp,i irzfyvypdvov epLpevat avBpwv 

^^ m 


IAIAA02 Z. -^ 155 j 

$^ m y 

oi tcatcop, o&Be pep ia-0X6p t eir^p ra wp&ra yeir^^au^ ( 
aXk* ek olfatp toyaa to <r f avrys epya KQ}u%e> 
itrrav r* ^fxmc^ifir 're, real ap$t7r6Xot<n tciXeve 
epyop eVo^ecrftu ■ TroXe^oy £' apBp€&o-t ^eXiJtrei j 
fratrtp, ep,o\ Be p,d7u<rTa t rol VXt&J iyyeyda&tp* (H^v^ 

"\f2? apa {j}wpr}(Tas tcopvff* etXero $aiBt,ao<; "Exrayp 
LinrovptP* akoxps Be ${Xt} oltcovBe ^ft^/cei JiW^ 

€PTpo7ra\t^Qp r ep7f t BaXepop Kara Bdicpv jf&owa* 
al^a* S* eiretQ* ttcape BopQW? e5 vaierdopra^ 
"EtcTopos dvSpo(f>6voio t xlxw^to B y ipSofft TroWi? ^^ 
dp^nroXovs, Trjatp Be yoov irdar^a^p eptapvep. k^* 1 
at fiep en {jQ)qp yoop iLfcropa w ept, ot/cyp* q$o » 



ov yap fxiv er" e<f>avro v-Trorpoirop etc irohApma 
it;etT0at irpo^vyopra /*eVoe >mt %opa? '^in^aw- U- 

Paris, who kad splendidly equipped himself overtakes Hector at the 
city walL He excuses his delay, a nd the brothers pmceed together 
toward tli€ seem of conflict. \S/^ ) k Jy^ 

OiBk JJdpis $t)&up€p ip {njrriXaio't Sdpoto-ip, 
d\X' 07', ewel xar4Bv tc\ur& reu^ea, rrpiteiXa yaXfcm t rj* 
o-euar* eiretr 1 ava da-rv 7roo-J Kpaarpotai ireirat8m<:. 505 
civ ?/jjP re Ti * 0"toto£ tirwoSt dxoaT^a-a^ iirl ^dry^ t 
oetrpov aTTOppTjgas Betji ireStoto Kpoatpofp, r 
eittidms XqvetrBat ivppeto^ irorap,olo f ^* 
KuBwm* 9 S^ou Be Kapri e^e*, a.p,$\ Be %a%Tai 
mp*Qi$ dt&o-QpTai* 5* cvy\ai?}(f>t TreTroiOws, 
pipL<f>a e yovpa <f>epei p^erd t 1 ?}$ea teal popop fanrwp* 
£}* vtos Uptdpoto ndpis Kara Tlepydpiov atcpi)$, 
rev)(€<n irap^alpcop e3? t j tfXe/CT&p, ifiefiiQKet 
tcayx&Xo&v* ra^ee^ Bk iroBes <f>epop, at^a 8* iiret>ra 


. "E/cropa Slov €Ter fiev aSeXfaov, etrr 9 ap 9 e/jueWe 
V^ 1 orpesfreaO' i/c x^PV** °&* $ odpi^e yvvai/cl. CAj j 

• tov irporepos irpoaeenrev 'AXegavSpo? deoeiSfc* V^ c fcfl^lfi 
"JlOeV, % fidXa hi] ere /cal i&ovfievov KarepvKco hvJT^^ 
rjOvvcav, ov8* fjkBov ivaiai/jLov, co? i/cikeves. \f* y ^ y 

Top 8' airafi€L^6fi€vo^ nrpoae<fyq KopvOatokos" E/cr<op* jgojJ*^ 


a\Xa £/cot)v fieBiet,? f€kal ov/c efleAw to S 9 ifibv tctjp 

iovo a7rap,€ipo/jL€vo$ irpoaeqyq Kopvvacoxo? JL/ercop' jgojJ" 
8ai/jb6vi\ oytc av rk rot airijp, 85 ivaiacfio^ €?«, f ft \tjJ^ 

ijfanrrai iv 0v/iS t SO' virep creOev ata-ye' a/cova \ 

irpb? Tpcbcov, 0$ e^pva-v iroXvv irovov eive/ca aelo. 525 (ivjjfc 
a\\' tofiev rh 8' ftirurOev ap€<r<r6fi€0 y , at dee irodi Zev? ^ , 

Sayp kirovpavioiai Oeots aUvyeveTtjo-i VTv. 1 . ^jdP^ ' 

tcpTjTrjpa <n"q<ra<T0ai i\ev0€pov iv fieydpourtv, \}J^ A ^ ^ 
etc Tpolrjs ekaaavras ivicvi]fii8a<; 9 A%aiov$. 


Autenrieth's Homeric Dictionary . . 4th edition. Harpers. N. Y. 1 88 1. 

conU»ed «.*«*,, «<>*««« . . .j „,!,,„ & c. , New York> l883 

Bonitz, Origin. of the Homeric Poems, translated by 

L. R. Packard Harpers : New York, 1880. 

H. N. Coleridge, Introduction to the Study of the 

Greek Classic Poets Jas. Munroe & Co.: Boston, 1842. 

Gladstone, Primer on Homer D. Appleton & Co, N. Y., or Mac- 

millan & Co. : .London, 1876. 

Gladstone, Juventus Mundi Macmillan & Co. : London, 1869. 

R. C. Jebb, Primer of Greek Literature .... Idem, 1877. 

Mahafiy, History of Greek Literature, vol. I. . . Harpers : New York, 1880. 

Grate's History of Greece, chaps. xv n xx., xxi. . . Harpers : New York, 1856. 

Monro's Homeric Grammar Macmillan & Co. : London, 1882. 

Murray's Mythology Scribner : New York, 1876. 

Seemann's Mythology, translated by Bianchi . . . Harpers : New York, 1876. 
Article " Homer," in Smith's Classical Dictionary. 
Article " Homer," by D. B. Monro, in Encyclopaedia 

Britannica Ninth edition. 

Of poetical translations may be named those of: George Chapman, 
i557- l6 34> Alexander Pope, 1688-1744; Edward, Earl of Derby, 1799- 
1869; William Cullen Bryant, 1794-1878. 

Among recent editions of Homer published in England the following 
may be mentioned : F. A. Paley's school edition of Iliad I-XII, George 
Bell & Sons : London, 1879 » D. B. Monro's Iliad, Book I ; Pratt and Leaf's 
Story of Achilles. The last two were published by Macmillan & Co. : 
London, 1878 and 1880. To these may be added Dindorf's edition in 
four volumes of the Scholia of the Codex Venetus (see Introduction, vii), 
Clarendon Press Series: London, 1875. 

Of helps published in Germany, note the following : Ebeling's Lexi- 
con Homericum (a very elaborate work, begun in 1871, and now approach- 
ing completion) and Seiler's Wbrterbuch der Homerischen Gedkhte (a very 
valuable book) ; Naegelsbach's Commentary on Iliad I— III ; and the edi- 
tions with notes of La Roche, Ameis-Hentze, Koch, and Faesi. The best 
text editions are those of Bekker (1843), La Roche (1873), Nauck (1877). 

Those who have the opportunity are earnestly advised to visit the 
Astor Library in New York, and to request the privilege of seeing the 
Editio Princeps, or first printed edition of the Iliad, which appeared in 
Florence in 1488. Its editor was a learned Greek, Demetrius Chal- 
condylas (lit. 'Bronze-Pen*), who came to Italy about the time of the 
fall of Constantinople. This splendid edition, published in two volumes 
folio, is not only a fine specimen of an ancient book, but gives one an 
excellent idea of the forms of the Greek letters employed in the best 
manuscripts of the Iliad. 


In the following pages, Attic forms are indicated by being enclosed in 
square brackets; they will be understood as being, in most cases, the 
equivalents of the Homeric forms which immediately precede them. 
Reference is uniformly made to the different books of the Iliad by the 
capital letters of the Greek alphabet. Thus A 5 signifies Iliad, Book I. 
verse 5. 

The following are the most important abbreviations : — 

ace signifies accusative. 

N. signifies Note. 









adjective, adjectively. 





adverb, adverbially. 












confer, compare. 

p., pp. 


page, pages. - 
















pf ., perf. 


















pr., pres 




















quod vide, which tee. 



Goodwin's Grammar. 






Allen's Hadley's Grammar. 



scilicet, supply. 



Homer, Homeric. 






id est, that is. 



subject, subjunctive. 






substantive, substantively. 















icat tA \01ud, etc. 









verse, verses. 






vide, see. 






varia lectio, different reading, 






section, sections. 



"AXQa, Turks Xpvaov y Xoijtbv arparov, e^Oo? dvd/cr&v. 1 
Alpha the Prayer of Chryses sings ; the army's Plague ,• the Strife of kings. 

1. fed: 'goddess,' the Muse, — not, however, addressed by name, nor 
known to the poet as one of nine sisters. She is the daughter of Zeus 
and can bestow and take away the gift of song. For an invocation of the 

Muse in English, see Milton's Paradise Lost, Book I. v. 6. HnXiitdSctt 

[TlriKclSou] : the first example of synizesis (see Essay on Scanning, § 4) ; 
pronounce -5e« as one syllable, as if dyo. If we compare the two patronym- 
ics Tlri\riid$ris and IhfAcftqs, we distinguish two forms of the stem of Tlij- 
W j, IhjAif- and IIijAc-, to which there have been added respectively the 

endings -tafop and -t&ris 'A\iXf|o$ : the loss of one A leaves the t with 

its natural short quantity. The substitution of -&>s for -tjos (w— for — w) 
is an example of metathesis auantitatis, or transposition of quantity. The 
Attic form of the gen. [*Ax'AAiw$] could not close a hexameter, for we 
should have w— ^— instead of w — \j- 

2. oi\o|iivT)v [bXofxernv] : 2 aor. midd. ptc. from tfAAv/u. The 2 sing, 
opt. 6\oio is a form of imprecation, ' may you perish ' (cf Lat. pereas) ; 
and the change of meaning in the ptc. is from the pass, to an act. signi- 
fication ; from ' cursed ' to ' bringing a curse/ ' destructive.' Cf. Milton's 

* mortal taste,' Paradise Lost, Book I. v. 2 |ivpC* (observe accent, 

G. 77, 2, N. 3; and see Lexicon) : ' numberless ' ; it is not used in Horn. 

as a definite numeral in signif. 10,000 KOijice : lit. ' set,' *. e. * caused,' 

•made.' 4X71' [&\yn] : in prose the final vowel would not be elided, but 

would be contracted with the preceding. 

3. tyMt&ovs: treated here as an adj. of two endings though in E 415 
we find the fem. form IcpOlfirj. Perhaps the poet avoids the monotony in 
the sound of final syllables which would be caused by l<pelfxas "A*i8i : 

1 The hexameter lines prefixed to the notes on each book, and giving in a form easy to 
remember the subject of A, B, r, A, £, Z, are found in the Commentaries on Homer by 
Eustathius, Bishop of Thessalonica (see Introduction, V.) ; they are ascribed to Stepha- 
nus Grammaticns, a grammarian of Alexandria. The translations of the same are by 
George Chapman (1557-1634), the earliest English translator of Homer. 

l6o NOTES. 

1 to Hades,' — the person, not the place, is meant The form * Affii is a 
heteroclite dat. as if from nom. "Ats. Horn, uses the nominative forms, 

'AfSijs and *htBo»ve{>s ["Aifojs, |5ij$] irpotcu|rcv: 'hurled forward to.' 

low-, stem of idirrco = iac~ ) stem of iacio. Hence irpotatycv corresponds ety- 
mologically to proUcit. 

4. avrovs : ' themselves ; ' the real man to Horn, was the body, not the 
phantom tyvxh* which escaped through the mouth at death. avr6s in 

Horn, with very rare exceptions is always intensive Si 4X£pu& : the 

first instance of apparent hiatus. G. 8, H. 75 D a. £\&pia is really 

FtKwpicu tcvxc |*T€i/x€] : the first instance of omitted augment, see 

Sketch of Dialect, § 4 icvv«r<riv [kvvIv]. 

5. tc : in Attic we should hardly find tc used thus alone, but rather 

Kai iroot : used in colloquial sense, * all there were,' ' all that chose to 

come.' 8' fcrfXcfero [5 * ^TcXerro] : the relation of thought between this 

clause and the preceding is such that ireXcUro gives the reason for rcvx<* 
Instead of 8«, we should perhaps have had in prose the subordinative 
conjunction ydp. A series of clauses connected by co-ordinate conjunc- 
tions forms parataxis ; hypotaxis, on the other hand, is the subordination 
of dependent to principal clauses which is characteristic of sentences hav- 
ing a periodic structure. In an early stage of a language, as in the lan- 
guage of children, we find a great deal of parataxis; as the language 
becomes more developed, hypotaxis is more common, and sentences be- 
come complex. We shall notice many instances of parataxis in Horn. 

6. 4J 0$ 8Vj : "from the very time when ' \cf, Lat. ex quo) tA irp«rra : 

Horn, also uses rb irpwrov and irpwrov, the usual Attic forms. Sio* 

<rriJTT|v : ' parted.' An idea of motion is very commonly associated with 
f<m?jtu in Greek, though generally derived from the context rather than 
belonging to the verb itself. 

7. 'ATpct8t|s : for explanation of patronymic suffix -18175, see G. 129, 
9 c, H. 559 b &va{; = Fdva£ (see on v. 4). 

8. KpiSi. {vWt]kc [<rvvrjKCy 1 aor. from awtti/u] : ' brought together in 
strife,' commisit ; phrase opposite in form, but identical in sense with ftio- 
arfiTriv ipiaavrt, v. 6 |&d\€<r6ai : inf. of purpose. G. 265, H. 951. 

9. Arrrovs ica\ Ai&s vW$: Apollo is meant (cf, v. 36) i y&P'- the 

first example of the article in its pronominal use; restricted iniAttic, in 

Homer usual. G. 140, H. 653. fkunXlp: for construction, G. 186, 

N. 1, H. 764, 2. 

10. vovtrov \v6irov] : 'pestilence.' iXtVcovTO [&Wvvto] : The change 

of tense from «5p<re to oKckovto should be noticed. Thereby the latter 
verb is made to indicate the result, gradually accomplished, of the action 
of the former. Thus lit. we should translate : ' let loose a pestilence 
and the people were perishing ; ' but the meaning is, ' he let loose a pesti- 
lence, so that the people were perishing.' In short, we have another 
example of parataxis (cf. v. 5). 

ILIAD I. l6l 

11. thv Xphrqv [4kcivov rbv Xpltrriv] : ' that Chryses ' ^jTCpaorcv : 

iriftdw and iirifid(u both occur in Horn. ; the first gives aor. V'/"? ^ 

Aptrrijpa : the first example of a spondaic verse. Such verses, which occur 
m Hom. about in the proportion of I : 20, generally end in a four-syllabled 
word which just fills out the last two feet of the verse. Cf vv. 14, 21, 74 ; 
see also Essay on Scanning, § 1. 

12. vfjas [vavs\ : orig. vrjFas, Lat. naves. 

13. Xwrf|ifvos : indirect mid. : ' release for oneself/ * ransom.' Cf. , for 

signif. in act. voice, \v<rai and \v<rw, in vv. 20 and 29 &ir«pf£oV [ftm- 

pos\ : lit. 'endless.' 

14. «rH|i|iaT* : first example of that use of pi. for sing, which should 
usually be noticed in translation, but sometimes has no other reason than 
metrical convenience. Cf v. 28, where oW/t/ia precisely equals (rr4pfiara. 
The word designates ' bands of wool,' ordinarily bound about the head 
of the priest. See Hom. Diet. 

15. xpva4tf [xpv<r$]- Here we not only have synizesis (see on n^tct- 
8ew, v. I ), but the two syllables thus pronounced as one are reckoned one 
short syllable (see Essay on Scanning, § 5, 5). The fillets of the god were 
in this case carried suspended at the end of the staff, or perh. wound 
around it, to mark the priest who came as suppliant as under Apollo's 

16. 'ArpctSa : ace. dual. 

17. KicWj|uSc$ : this resolution of the diphthong, in compds. of efl, 
'well,' regularly occurs when the last vowel of the diphthong is brought 
before such combinations of letters as make it long by position. The 
greaves, which were usually of bronze (see Hom. Diet. ici^/ifc), were often 
elaborately ornamented, and formed a conspicuous part of the armor. 

18. 0foC : pronounce by synizesis as one syllable ; for though final -01 
is reckoned short in its influence upon the accent of preceding syllables, 
it is yet long in quantity, and hence cannot stand as the last syllable of a 

dactyl 8otev: opt. of desire. G. 251, H. 870. The thought is: if 

you release my daughter, my prayer shall be that the gods may grant, etc., 
but the idea is expressed by two co-ordinate sentences, — parataxis. 

19. irtfXlv: for quantity of final syllable, see Essay on Scanning, 


20. $Ckrp : often used in Hom. where we unexpressive people should 

use only a possessive pron., 'my.' Xwrcu and &x«r6cu are examples of 

the infin. used as imv. G. 269, H. 957. tA Airoiva : lit. ' this ran- 

21. Aglficvoi. : the ptc. agreeing with the subj. of an inf. stands in nom. 
because the inf. takes the place of a finite verb. So, in Latin we reg. find 
the nom. as subj. of the hist. inf. 

22. fir-ew{^|fiT]<rav : ed^/t^, cf. Lat. favere Unguis, later means 
'abstain from words of ill omen,' i.e. 'be silent.' Here the meaning is 



more positives shouted assent to his prayer (iwi) f bidding him to/ 
The follg. infs. are explanatory (epexegetieal) of irtw^^fi^cav, 

2$. t*pf)a [i*p*a\ Sixfoil [5^a<r0iii| : 2 aor* Inf., consisting simply 

of stem and ending, for Sfx-^ ai - G, iG, 4, H. 61* 

24. 0upjj> : local dat. * in his soul/ G. 190, H. 783* 

25. Kpartp^v . . , fcrtXW : * was laying a hard (stem) charge upon him/ 
In the separation of ivl and £r**A«i' J we have our first instance of tmesis 
(r/tlftfif from Ttfuw* lit- 'cutting*}, by which is understood the separation, 
in a compound, of the preposition from the verb. All prepositions were 
originally adverbs. In their next stage they blend in meaning with certain 
verbs, forming with them a new compound idea, though often written sepa- 
rately; this js called tmesis* Last, the elements thus blended are uni- 
formly written as a compound verb* In the Homeric language we observe 
all three stages, between which tmesis occupies a middle or transition 
place. It is often difficult to decide whether a preposition is adverbial or 
whether it is separated from a verb by tmesis. If we have a compound, 
it must differ in meaning from simple verb -f- preposition. Here bet and 
$TtK\£v preserve the meaning of the compound fcriWAAfiP : " enjoin. 1 

26. KixikiK not 2 aor,subj. from pres. KixdvM* for that would be ki"x*>. 
This form xix^tm supposes a stem (ft^e-. lengthened to ff.x* l- r ai *d must be 
regarded as a subj. pres. from assumed pres. KixiP 1 - From the stem 
kix*- we have the forms: ipf, 4xixw e ^ SU0 J- *'X*' B i °P*« Ki X*ht inf* *"X^ 
*iu f ptc. jrixcff. For subj., see G> 253, H. 866, I* 

27. SnSvvevTn: for elision, see Sketch of Dialect, § 4, qvtis: 

( again.' 

28. xP -^ "!*!! * 2 aor ' SU ^J' °f a defective verb fxpaurpe. For subj., 
see G, 2ifl, H, 88j. toi (troi] : for dat,, see G. 1S4, 2, H. 764, 2. 

29. wpCv : adv*, not conj., * sooner shall old age come upon her/ etc 
Notice here again the tendency to use short co-ordinate sentences (para- 
taxis), instead of combining several of them into a period |uv [aftr-i?] : 

this enclitic pron. of 3d sing, may stand for all genders, 

30. "Ap^t: used in a broad sense for ' Peloponnesus/ of which it 

was so important a city h\ FoUy : apparent hiatus tr6.rpi^ [rd£- 

rpat or KarptBa j] ; for gen., G. i8a, 2, H. 757. 

31. The frame of the Horn, loom was upright [Iwrit, from TotijmO 
instead of horizontal, as in hand-looms of our day, and the weaver stood 
in front of it, stepping alternately to the right and left as the shuttle was 
thrown, — lirC in £ir-oCx*cr&iH implies repetition : r going to over ant! over 

again, 1 'plying/ dvTuiwo-av r 'approaching,' assimilated form, h 

6.vTidou&n»* The ov passes into u, to which the a is assimilated. See 
Sketch of Dialect, § tS, 1. 

32. M k* v*n,a* [&s 4? vfy] % ** [&y\ is occasionally joined to the 
conjunction in final clauses, G. 316, N, 2, H. 68a. 

3& As l^ttf' [afirtat $$q\ : when £t means * thus,' it is always oxytone 


l6 3 

except in the phrases «d £t, owl * &s iStio-fv : the aug. t is here properly 

used as long, because account is taken of a letter of the theme, remem- 
bered though unwritten. That theme is &Ft- t and the aor.,with lengthened 
stem, i&Ftitrti'. 

34 iropd Giva ; * along the shore** iroXv+Xntcrpoio : suggests by its 

sound its meaning- Such words are called onomatopoeic. 

35. Airttytvfk : ' far away/ AW, £**u, and the suffix -&*v or -$$* 

iroXXct (cogn- ace) . » . ^p^" [fyw"] : ' wa3 praying earnestly, 1 ipf. 3d 
sing* from b-pdofiat* 

36. Aveum : for case, G. 184, 2, H. 764, 2 -nfr [fo] - the first instance 

where the article fills the place of the relative- G. 140, H 275 D Atjt*A : 

1 Leto, T Lat< Lat^na t greatly revered as the mother of Apollo and Arte- 
mis, whom she brought forth on the island Delos. See v. 9. 

37. pu [mow] Xpwrjv : Chryse and KilJa were unimportant towns in 
the Troad. The term Troad ( h Tpvds, st, x&p* or 7$ j designates the region 

about Troy du^ifW(JnKi« : ' protcctest,' lit. ' standest about/ The figure 

may be of a warrior standing over and defending a fallen companion. 
Notice that most of the perfects in Horn, denote a slate, and are to be 

translated as presents, Ttv$k>io 1 for gen., G. 171, 3, H, 741. 

t+i *. 'mightily.* The suffix -$i is properly an instrumental suffix, and has 
its original force here. The same suffix appears in Latin in tJ6i t sibi, and 

39* E)AtF8eO ' * Sminthian ; p this word probably means * destroyer of 

field-mice T {a-plvBos), which infested fields of grain T*t [1x0*] X&p^ 

fvnfli, : pred, adj. with wtfv \»*&v] t may be translated by adv. expression, 

'for thy pleasure.* .hc\ . . tpv^o. (unaug. aor. from ipitpv) ; l roofed 

over/ &*. * built/ 

40. k«it4 . . . ftoja [KorcKavtra] \ ' consumed utterly/ lit. ' burned 
down/ The form laya is produced from the theme if a- (rau or xaF) by 
lengthening the theme-vowel, after the analogy of 1 iq uid verbs* See Sketch 
of Dialect, § 30, 3, 

41. ^fi(i) t orig, correlative of fy*/*, ^ ut often used alone, « Hat 

Kpi\r\vov &XSup [Kpava? r%v t&xfo] '• Horn. pres. is Kpataiv^ strengthened 
form of Attic Kpalvw. 

45L TCcrctav: distinguish t{w, 'honor, ' from rtm, 'punish/ For opt., 
G. 251, I, H. 870 — (3cX«ro*i.v of means or instrument. 

43. to* ! for gen,, G. 171, 2 t H. 742. 

44* KG.T* ; for loss of accent with elided vowel, G. 24, 3, H, 107. > 

OiXip.TTOio [*Ok^jiwov\: 'Olympus' in Thessaly, the home of the gods, 
more than 9,000 ft, high, its summits clad in perpetual snow. Some sup- 
pose the little less lofty Bithynian Olympus to be meant ; this would be 
much nearer the Trojan plain. ~— KW& KapTjvwv : ■ down from summit,* 

where were the palaces of the gods icflp (used only in singular) 

|*ap5{ay] 1 the ace. of specification is especially frequent with verbs 
denoting emotion* 

164 NOTES. 

43. Ipounv [4*1 rots &fxois], see on Ov/i$, v. 24. — ftp fryt ^ l a Ti fapt- 
Tpfjv [icol b(A<pi)p€<prj <pap€Tpay]. imQripe<p4a (&p0i, lp4<p») : ' closed at both 
ends.' Notice that the naturally short final a is here used as long in the 
thesis of the foot. This liberty is taken especially in words ending in three 
short syllables. 

46. IicXa^av: the full theme icXayy- shows itself in the aor., though 

not in the pres. K\d(», G. 108, IV. b, H. 398 b. dp" {&pa) : inferential 

particle, the meaning of which must often be felt rather than expressed. 
Here we might give its force with 94 thus : ' and then it was that,' or 'and 
you may be sure.' 

47* afrod Kivrflbrns : ' as the god himself moved.' airrov stands in 

contrast to blaroi f(U [#«] wktI Ioik6s : * like the night,' *>. 

gloomy and awful ; for case of wktI, G. 186, H. 773. 

48. dircLvcvdc : governs gen. vc&v, though used absolutely in v. 35. _ 
|urd . . . h)KCV : ' let fly into the midst ; ' firrd is adv. (see on v. 25), and 
we have no tmesis. Distinguish : toy, ' violet ; ' 16s, ' arrow ; * tos, ' one.' 

49. SctWj : attributive : ' a dreadful twang began from the silver bow.' 
Distinguish pios, ' life,' and fii6s, ' bow.' The armor and ornaments of the 
gods are generally represented as of gold ; Apollo, as god of light (totfios, 
v. 43) bears the silver (white) bow. There is an evident onomatopoeia in 
this verse. Among many examples of onomatopoeia in Lat. and Engl, the 
following may be given : Monstrum horrcndum informe ingens cut lumen 
ademptum^ Vergil's Aeneid, III, v. 658 (from the description of Cyclops), 
and the lines from Tennyson's Princess, — 

' The moan of doves in immemorial elms, and murmur of innumerable bees.' 

50. otyrijas [optas] : ' mules ; ' the word is perhaps connected in de- 
rivation with 6pos, ' mountain,' mules being specially adapted to service in 

mountain roads ; for case of ovpqas, G. 158, N. 2, H. 712 c eir-Hpxero : 

'assailed;' M has the same force as in v. 31, 'one after another.' 

dp-yofc: the radical idea of the word is 'bright.' Hence the two signifs., — 
1. 'white ; ' 2. (as here) 'fleet,' 'quick,' because quick motions produce a 

dazzling effect like that of white color afrdp : expresses a slighter 

opposition than &wd t but is more strongly adversative than 94. 

51. fKXos (<r)tx.circvic& : example of the lengthening of a final short 
syllable, on account of original initial consonant not wholly forgotten, 
though it had ceased to be written tyifCs : pres. ptc. from ty-l^uT 

52. paW' [£/BaAAe] : 'was smiting.' vckvwv : gen. of material. 

Oapcial: adj., best translated as adv., ' thickly' (see on v. 39). 

53. dvd <rrpaT&v «?X ero : 'sped (up and down) through the encamp- 
ment.' Notice in this and the follg. verse three cases of the omission 
of the article, where it would be expected in prose. 

54. rj ScKdrg : the usual word for day in Horn, is $/xap (cf. adv. 
ivvrjpap, v. 51) ; but this fem. form of the adj. shows that the form rjii4pri 
ly/ilpa] was not unknown to the poet koXAto-qto [IfcaAeVcrro]. 



56l tijj Y^P ^ +P*°^ ^l Kf f- Ta ** £p*<rl* a^ToC iT^Kt v] : * put into 
his heart, 1 £p*W is dat after conipd. verb; t£ is dat. of obj. remotely 
affected. G. 184, 3, H. 767. 

56. ££: see on v. 46. The force of particle may here be given by: 
■ you know, 1 or ' you see. 1 Those acquainted with German will be reminded 

of fa joined to the verb ; f,g. Dcnn sir sak sicja sterhtnd* &pai-o [iwparo 

or Iwpa] : middle voice used without appreciable difference of meaning 
from the active. 

57. fi" 4nr*!o<£v: • and $0 when,* In IjytpQttr [itytpfaftrav] and Apifyc- 
pic* we see the theme of ayttput (ay*p-) repeated : * had assembled and were 
gathered together.' This is an example of Homeric fulness of expres- 
sion. We see the same thing in the Hebrew poetry , in what are called the 
' Parallelisms ' of the Psalms. 

5S. tomti : for case, G. 184, 3, n. 2, H. 767 ; translate : ( rose up and 
spoke among (and for) them/ 

59* vw: Lz. 'as things now are/ fip-p.* [ij^as] : Aeolic form, — - 

TroAijnrXaYx^v-r&s tiF&Ktif t irKdfa) : ' baffled, 1 lit. * driven back.' 

60. ft Kifv) : as Kc{r) = the particle &v t ef «e, = id? (which is never 
found in Horn.) and %#. According to Attic usage this conj* should be 
followed by sub].; but we shall find many instances where tf «k is followed 
by the opt. to express a bold supposition! possible but unlikely ; kc empha- 
sizes the contingency- 

61. it S^j : * if really ; ' B-fj, like Lat. iam, to which it is perhaps al- 
lied, is properly a temporal particle, and means * now; ' and this meaning 
underlies all its uses, even where it is introduced to give dramatic vivid* 
ness to a statement or narrative Saji£ ; fut, not pres + indie. 

62. 4ptLop.€v (from £j>tu, ' inquire of T ) = ipwfitv [Ipurw/Afv] : for hor- 
tative subj,, G + 253, II. 866, 1 pdyri* {paim/tat} « 'seer,' ' prophet j* 

not devoted, like the priest, to some one deity icpevs * r sacrificial 

priest ' (hence hp*vw t ( offer sacrifice, 1 ' slay ') ; he learns the will of the 
gods by sacrifice AwLpoiroXof ■ * reader of dreams/ 

64, k* rfiroi [&? tfirot] : potential opt. G. 226, 2, b, H. 872 6 n: 

the indefinite relatives are reg. employed in dependent questions, 

G. 87, 1, H. 282, 700. The direct question was t t( ix&vwrQ 1 lx*^ 

tr&ro : from x^o^ai. 

65, cv^uXi^s [<*X^*1 J f° r g cn ** G. 173,1, IL 744; translate: 'finds 
fault for a vow (unfulfilled) or a hecatomb (not offered). 1 For deriv. and 
meaning of i h ar<fp0i7, see Horn. Diet 

66, KvGr<rtj$: for gen., G. 171, i, H. 739; * savor,* 'smell of burning 
fat,* Upon this, as it rose to heaven, the gods were supposed to be 

67. povXfTot l^a^KTjrai] : translate with erf jeer, ' on the chance that he 
may wish'; some translate, 'whether he may wish/ and regard as an indirect 
question* Goodwin M T. 53, Jr. z, says that an apodosis, eg * that so we 


may learn,' is to be supplied* L, R. Packard suggests that Iptiaftw is really 
the apodusis, and that the difference between this and ordinary condition* 
is that, whereas usually the verb of the protasis precedes ihe verb of the 
apodosis in time as well as in tkmg&ti here (and in similar cases), the prl* 
ority is only in thought, not in time. Willingness to relieve is evidently 
thought of, in this case, as subsequent to the ipttopiv; hence Professor 
Packard suggests the name pos&rfar wnditiert for such cases,—— ffpty dirb 
Xol^&v dfiGvai \rbif \oijbv awixuvm i?juwv] : dat. of advantage is commonly 
used after this verb in Horn, instead of the gen. of separation, which 
would be quite natural, G, 184, 3, N. 3, H. 767 a. 

6& $>$ clirAv kit 1 Ap* l£*re [ath-tos or ravrn &£* tfak* iKvedfrro}. 

09. *x* ■ occurs only in the phrase t% g fyurroj : * far the best ; * it i. 
thought to be for l^a (^X»» ' project T ), 'eminently/ 'prominently,* 
where, however, the idea of prominence lies in the 1£ r not in *x*. 

70. 8s Fjfir\ [0tt]: see on v. 51 wp4 T(e) h&vr*.i lit. *the things 

that were beforehand ; J the article, expressed with the two preceding ptcs., 
is omitted with the third, All of these ptcs, denote time with reference to 
the secondary tense fSnf, Hence translate, ' that which was, 1 * that which 
was to be/ * that which had been (lit. was beforehand)/ -* /.a the present; 

the future, and the past* The verb *ifit has no aor. or perl ptc» for 

one of which the periphrasis irpd t< fdvra may be regarded as a substi- 

71- Yf\wo-(i) [vautrt] : dat. of advantage, instead of gen. after a word 
of ruling: * acted as guide for the ships/ it* showed them the way, See 

on v. 67, G. 184, 3, 1L 767 "IXtov: if* agtr Trojanus, 'precincts of 

Ilium* tXfrta [*h]t frequently used in Horn, as prep, with verbs of 


72. % 8 iA pivTocruirnv : * by means of his prophetic art; * e$. at Aulrs, 
where Kakhas had directed the sacrifice of Iphigeneia. Divination is 
the special gift of Apollo, as the gift of song is that of the Muse (v. t), 

fjv is poss. adj., for which in Attic the article would be a sufficient 

substitute- G. S3, N- 2, H. a&g a t 690. t^v = 1}r: reh pron. 

73. & <t<{m.v : b is the article (with demonstrative force) which receives 
the accent on account of the enclitic tr$iv. *rtf*t(v} = <t$ial{») \ but as this 
is always reflexive in Attic, the unemphatic avroT? would be the prose 
equivalent of tnpt(it}. Connect the dat. with vyopintaro icol /i*Ws<iri* (see 
on v. 5S) + 

74. kcXhu [*«A#4*4f] : from pres, letkopai Sl^iAc : often written as 

two words, Ait $ike uuflrfjo-cmHJai closes a spondaic verse; see on 

v. If. 

75. uffvw : deep, persistent wrath, as in v, I ; compare with x<$\o* and 

k4tov, vv. Si, 82 iK&rn-fkXtraa [-0eAfiW| ; if the first part of the 

compd. is derived from the root of fyjii, the rough breathing represents 
an orig. initial consonant, and thus the lengthening of the last syllable of 


ILIAD I. 167 

the preceding word is explained. The following caesura would also suffi- 
ciently account for the lengthening. See Essay on Scanning, § 5, 4. 

76. ty&Vt <rvv0to, 6\uo<nrov [iy<&, ovyOov, 6/ioaroy] <rvv6co : ' give 


77. *i |*iv [fl fify] : ' verily.' irptypav : the adj. is best translated as 

adv. * heartily; ' it agrees with the (omitted) subject of the infinitive &pfr 

&w. x°^ CMr 4 &cv — xo^foew- The subj. of &p^€iy t x°^ W( ^A t «' would be 

nom., being the same as the subj. of the verbs on which they depend. 
After verbs of thinking, hoping, threatening, and promising, the fut. inf. is 
usually found, and its subj. is omitted when identical with that of the 
principal verb. Sir«nv: dat. pi. from tiros. 

78. 6tb|uu xoX«Ki^)icv : ' I expect to enrage.' That the seer's antici- 
pation was correct is shown in vv. 101-108 \Uya irdvruv 'Afrycfav 

Kparict : 'rules mightily over all the Argives,' G. 171, 3, H. 741. 

79. kcU ol [«col airr$] : the transition from a rel. to a demonstr. pron., 
in the second of two parallel clauses, is common in both Greek and Latin. 
Perfect correspondence would have required Kal <£ in the second clause. 
G. 156, H. 1005. 

80. 5tc \uxreraK [bray x^V'rcu] : G. 207, 2 xW t: assumed nom. 

xip*lh prob. derived from x^P : ' one wno is in the hand of/ * vassal.' 
From this stem x«p- is formed the comp. xepctW [x^pwv]. In Horn, the 
heroes (&ao , i\rJ€s i $ioyeye7s) fill almost the entire stage ; the common 
people are hardly mentioned. The farmer's hard lot is described by 

81. ffor^p : In Attic we must have had Ijrwep with follg. subj 

X<5Xov y« s 'his anger at least,' as opposed to k6tos, ' spite,' ' abiding 

grudge.' Karairtyfl (from -ireVcrw) : ' digest,' lit. * boil down/ — stronger 

than the English expression, ' swallow one's anger.' 

82. dXXd, « yet/ introduces the apodosis 6<j>pa TcXco-crg [%<rr' hv 

83. <rHjO«nn lofon [toij trrfiOcari] : here the preposition is expressed, 

which was omitted in v. 24 ^p&nu : in active voice, * point out ; ' in 

midd. 'ponder' (point out for one's self) cl: 'whether.' 

84. r6v [ain6v] : compds. of wp6s with <pri/il and clirov govern the ace, 

not the dat &ira|mf&ficvos : lit. ' making an exchange ; ' &rc<n is to be 

understood, and thus comes the common meaning, ' replying.' 

86. 'Take courage, and speak forth whatever divine message thou 

86. «£t€ : dat. governed by ptc. €vx6^vos y ' by prayer to whom ; ' for 
dat, G. 184, 2, H. 764, 2. $ re seems not to differ sensibly in meaning 
from the simple relative ; the enclitic tc is freq. thus added simply to give 
greater weight to a word or for metrical convenience. 

87. Aovaotoi : The three common Horn, designations of the Greeks, 
'Achaians,' 'Argives,' ' Danaans,' occur in w. 79 and 87 in close proxim- 

168 NOTES. 

ity. Gladstone sees in 'Axaiof a constant reference to the ruling class. 
'Apyctoi, he says, is applied only to the Greeks serving before Troy, 
while Acwaol refers to the Greeks as fighting men. It is, however, doubt- 
ful whether these distinctions are observed ; and it is probable that metri- 
cal convenience has much influence in the choice of the appellative. 
88b otirts: referring, of course, to Agamemnon; for accent, G. 28, 

N. 3. H. xi8. ty*to [ifiov] g&vros Kal lirl \Bov\ h*pKo\Jyoio: 'while I 

live and have the gift of sight upon the earth/ M x6or\ $4picc<r6ai is a 
phrase of equivalent meaning to (rjv, so that we have another example of 
the Homeric fulness of expression, noticed in v. 57. Cf., in English, ' live 
and breathe.' 

89. Ko&fls [icol\ais]. fcr-oCtrci: fut. from brt-iptpoo. 

90. o$S* ijv 'Ayaf^i&vova ctirns: 'not even if thou shalt say Aga- 
memnon,' to whom Kalchas had referred in his hint in v. 78. The apodo- 
sis of fa €frj7s is 4rol<r€i, which may be repeated from the preceding 

91. iroXXdv [n-oAtf] : the Horn, dialect shows a nearly complete decl. 
from each of the stems iroAv- and *oWo- ; the Attic dialect has a mixed 

decl. made up from both. See Sketch of Dialect, § 13, 3 ctixtTut : 

'boasts,' 'claims to be (and is).' The Horn, chiefs pretend no false mod- 
esty ; but neither does the word imply arrogance. It simply asserts Aga- 
memnon's conceded position among the Achaians. The orig. meaning 
of c$xofuu f according to a plausible etymology, is ' speak in a loud voice.' 
Hence, — 1. ' pray ' (aloud) ; 2. ' boast.' 

92. 'And then it was that the faultless seer took courage (aor.), and 

was speaking ' (ipf.) &|i4|M»v (& priv. and /i&pos, ' stain ') : the change 

from » to v, seen also in &v<byv/j.os (& priv. and 6vo/jm) and a few other 
words, is characteristic of the Aeolic dialect ; lit. ' faultless,' but only of 
externals, — e.g. of lineage or of personal appearance. 

93 = 65. 

94. With (vck' &pT)T{|pos sc. iirifi^fuptrai : the simple gen. of cause 
might perhaps have been used, as in v. 93. 

95. Notice the transition from a relative, and hence subordinate, to an 
independent sentence. We might have had : ' and whose daughter he 
did not release and whose ransom he did not receive,' or ptcs. might have 
been used, — obit kiroXiffas kclL ovk facofctdficvos. 

97. irpCv in this verse is an adv. ; in the follg. verse it is a conj. We 
find similarly used, in Attic Greek, wp6repoy . . . *piv and irp6a$cr . . . 
Tplv &ir<6<rci : fut. from inr-coOiw. 

98. Airfc . . . S4|icvcu [faroSoGwu] : the subj. of this inf. is suggested 

by Aavao7<riy, in v. 97 4>CX<p : see on v. 20. IXucdSmSa KOt$pi)v [*6prir, 

H. 138 a] : the adj. is diversely explained as ' round-eyed ' and ' bright-' 
or ' gleaming-eyed.' 

99. AirpidTTjv : adverbial : ' without purchase,' i.e. without paying the 


price exacted by Again emnon dvdwuvw: also adverbial: Without 

ransom/ Lc, without banding over the frrtpeiiri ' Etrowa (v* 20) voluntarily 

offered by her father dy«tv ; the appropriate word for * conducting r a 

hecatomb of Jiving creatures. 

100. XpvoT|v : already mentioned, v, 37, (ilv [out^]* — irwrt&Dv 

\utv : potential opt with Kt ; the form is redupl. 2 aor«, of which there 
are many examples in Horn., but only three — tfyayov, flaw, ^vtytcov — 
in Attic. See Sketch of Dialect, § 15, 2. 

101 = 68. 

103. phtos [^tW*] i ♦ , UjirCprXavr(o) : ' his diaphragm, dark on 
both sides, was swelling mightily with fury.* The diaphragm, or mid- 
riff, a large muscle in the center of the body, was regarded by the 
Greeks as the seat of the various feelings, — joy, fear, rage, love. The 
same may be said of the word 'heart * in English. The adj. &ti<fnpL£kaurau f 
1 black on both sides/ seems to be appropriate to $p4vt$ in its literal sense 
as in the center of the body, and charged with venous blood. The <pp<v<s 
can be said to be filled with jtofrfos* ' fury/ only in their derived meaning. 
The phrase may be translated freely : ' his gloomy heart was filling 
mightily with rage.' 

104, 6<rw : defective noun, used only in dual : ( his two eyes/ 

at [aur^] : dat, limiting the verb, instead of gen. limiting the noun, 

G« 18^ 3, N* 4, H, 767. -^-AajiTrrrowvn : see on v. 31* tficnp* : 2 plupf. 

from £oi*fa and really a red up L form = fieflKT^, so that the hiatus before 
it is only apparent 

105* vpuTbOTa [TpwTw] : in form a double superlative : ' first of 

all. 1 k4k* = kok& : the accent, instead of disappearing with the elided 

vowel, as m case of prepositions (v. 101) is retracted to the preceding 
syllable. G- 24, j H H> 107. The ace is cognate. Translate «<f* f o<nrtfy*e- 
vot ; * with ill-boding glance/ 

106. Kuutuv: ntr. ph — -rh Kp^yuov: lit. * that which is sound/ 

diro.* ; 2 aor> with intermediate vowel of 1 aor. Cf> % in Attic, the two 
forms favyttov and faty**. 

107. tA *6lk * [ttaitd] : subj. of i<rr( t the inf. pam 6ftF$at depending 
upon the pre d< adj. tptha, - — <J>p«r£ : see on v. 24* 

108* MXcfTtros [/WAeffaj] ; Midst thou bring to pass/ 

109- Kal yHv ; ' and now/ — a special instance of the habit referred to 

in al§li v. 107. Gceirpoirlw dyopcvcis : * art declaring in thy capacity of 

BtowpAwot,' it, 'art declaring as by divine direction/ 

110. Wj : f in ?ery truth/ or perhaps with ironical force, * forsooth \ 

See on v. 61. toOS* [roOfa]tv*Ka is the antecedent of oZvtKa [ot «Wa] : 

f on this account, because/ a^Cv [ntrroh] : w.«tj'Ax«»« Tfi&xn. 

(from f *vx&) t * devises. 1 Cf- Lafc+ tnactenatur, 

111, Kovptjs : gen, limiting fatm**. — - XpwrrttBciS, nom, Xpuerrjfr, * Chry- 
seis/ feminine patronymic, formed from Xp&njf f 'Chryses/ The patro- 


nymic'ending is -«5, nom. -is. G. 129, 9, H. 559. Chryseis means • daugh- 
ter of Chryses.' 

112. IOcXov [fj$€\ov] abrf\v: in emphatic contrast with Uxoiva in 

previous verse. 

113. koI ^Ap : the ellipsis is ote tOc\ov : 'I well might refuse, for.' 

KXvnu|i.WJOTpT)$ : gen. after *p6 in comp. G. 177, H. 751. Klytaimnes 
tra, the wife of Agamemnon, who afterward proved unfaithful to him, and 
with her paramour Aigisthos accomplished his death, remained at Argos 
during the war. 

114. KOvptSCrp : ' wedded/ — probably derived, like Kovprj, • bride,' 
from iccfpw, ' cut,' from the custom of cutting the bride's hair immediately 

before marriage 4(Mv : not reflexive, else it would have been accented 

cdcv fo5], but unemphatic = avrrjs \q>c£a»v [x*tp*r] : see on v. 80. 

115. ' not in figure nor in stature, neither in mind nor in skill.' 

116. koI cSs : see on v. 33. 

117. povXo|i(cu) : For elision, see Sketch of Dialect, §4 t|tpcvai 

(for fo-fievcu) [ttuvu], <r6ov [ar&v]. 

118. IroipAo-aT* : 'put in readiness,' aor. imv. referring to a single 

119. I« [«&] : we have the subj. in this final clause, because the aor. 
imv. has regularly the force of a primary tense. H. 881. 

120. Xctknrerc [<J/>otc] 8 : the ace. of the rel. pron. has passed into 

a conj. (cf. quodm Latin). In prose we should have had Zri %p\enix 

dXXfl : 'is going elsewhere,' i.e. 'is given to another.' — po{: dat. of 
disadv. G. 184, 3, H. 767. 

121. 1\}LtlfiiT * : the verb has become so established in its derived 
meaning, ' answer,' lit. exchange words (sc. IWcffi), that it takes an ace. of 
the pers. like irpocr^tj. 

122. The verse begins in courtly style ; but, instead of the usual close, 
foot kvtpwv 'Ayafi^fivwv, there follows the contemptuous <pi\0KT€av6raTc 
rc&Tuv. ir&vTo>v : ' of all men.' 

123. irfis y&p ' ' How, pray ? ' 

124. I8|i€v JvWjia [Xfffiev Koivd] : translate the verse : ' Nor at all, me- 
thinks, do we know of common possessions stored up abundantly.' 

125. The first rd is relative; the second, demonstrative iroXXwv 

[ir6\€<w] 8&aornu: pf. from Bcdoficu or &ar4ofwu. Ten years of the 

war had been mostly spent in raids upon the lesser cities of the Troad, of 
which Achilles had destroyed twenty-three. It was in such expeditions 
that Chryseis and Briseis were made captives. 

126. iraACMoYa ra&r' tircryc£p€i.v : ' pile these up (so as to be) col- 
lected together ; ' ira\ih\oya expresses the result of brayelpeiv. See on 

v. 39- 

127. t^vSc : i.e. Chryseis irp6-cs (2 aor. imv. wpo-lrifii) Qvf : ' send 

her forth (out of respect) for the god,' i.e. for Apollo. 0ey is dat. of 


ILIAD I. 171 

128. TpiirVj} TCTpairVjj tc : ' thrice, yea, four times.* Cf. Verg. Aen. 
I. 94, terque quaterque at tt& iroOi [idv wov\. 

129. 8<pen. [&y] : 2 aor. subj. 3 sing. The 1 subscript in the Attic form 
8$ is derived from the orig. ending -01, and should not logically be written 
in 5y<n. It is, perhaps, to be explained as a mistaken correction of the 
copyist, who remembered the 1 subscript in the Attic form, and assumed 

that it should also be written in the Horn. form. irrfXty TpoCijv: 

unlike Tpolrjs irroXUBpov (v. 164), undoubtedly refers to the city Troy. 

131. W| otiros : pronounce 5^ ob as one syllable by synizesis 

For the orig. meaning of 5ifr, which is here apparent, see on verse 61 

&ya04s ircp k&v : ' very brave as thou art. * ircp is a freq. attendant of the 
concessive ptc, but no concessive idea belongs to »ep, which retains its 
orig. meaning, * in high degree ' (from wcpl) j here it qualifies aya06s, ' very 

132. kX&ttc v6y [v$\ : ' cheat by craft,' * craftily cheat ; ' or v6<p may 
be taken as a local dat. in its first meaning : ' cheat in thy thought/ which 
nearly equals ' think to cheat.' 

133. fj KMXcis: 'dost thou really wish? Jtyp* *xTP s use d as the 

equivalent of inf. fx c<|r » and parallel with follg. fjadcu. — afcus : adv. 
from aMs, with changed accent ; lit. ' in this very way,' i.e. ' vainly,' ' idly/ 
* without a gift/ as is explained by tievSficvov. 

134. Scvo'|icvov [Mfievov] : G. 98, N. 1, H. 411. 

136. dfxravTfs : 1 aor. ptc. from theme kp- ( apapifftcu ) ftpoturrcs kotA 

0u|u£v : ' suiting it to my wish/ The sudden breaking off of the sentence 
by suppressing the apodosis, — indicated by the dash, is called aposiopesis 
(&iro(ri6wri<ri$: lit. ' becoming silent'). If expressed, the apodosis would 
have been something like kclK&s €|«. Cf. Vergil's Aen. I, 135. 

137. cl . . . 8«io<riv [4ar tie /iii 5«<nr], £yA & kcv avrbs g\a>|uu: 
Z4 marks the commencement of the apodosis, and is not connective ; it 
may be rendered ' then/ or left untranslated. A similar instance of its use 
occurred in v. 58. tccv cAw/acu: an instance of that use of the subj. in 
Horn, which closely approaches the fut. indie, — being, perhaps, a little 
less positive. G. 255 and n., H. 868. In Attic there are only two grades 
of expression, — fut. indie, and opt. with &v (potential opt). The Horn, 
language has five varieties of expression, — fut. indie, subj., fut. indie, 
with &v, subj. with &v, opt. with &v. 

138. Ttrfv [<r6v] Atavros : Ajax, the son of Telamon (Alas TcXa/xco- 

woj), was the strongest of the Greek heroes, and during Achilles's absence 
the bravest in defence, as Diomede was the boldest in attack. Cf. B 768, 

T 226. '08v<ri|os ['Otvarff4(os] : see on 'Ax*Aj;os, v. 1. Odysseus, the son 

of Laertes, of the island Ithaka, was the shrewdest of the chiefs, and the 
hero of the Odyssey. Agamemnon is made to insult gratuitously, in suc- 
cession, the most distinguished of the Greek warriors. 

139. Uv &«>|uu: 'will go and take/ &£» 4X«v : 'will take and 

172 NOTES. 

bring.' KcxoX&rrrcu : fat. pf . from x<>x4«, ue. ' he shall not only become, 

but remain angry ' {cf /ec/cA^<ry, T 138). *c {&*) is joined with *«xoA4*rroi 
and ticufuu, as described in v. 137. 

140. |MTo4pcurd|if<r6a : ' we will consider hereafter ' (fierd). 

141. In this and the follg. w. occur several instances of aor. subjs. 
with shortened mood-signs (see Sketch of Dialect, § 17) : 4p&r(<r)opcr, 
iytlpofitv (142), Octo/i€v [e&ii€v\ (143), &\<rop.*v (144). These are all hor- 
tative subjs. 

142. Jplras : from nom. sing. ip4rrjs. 

143. icaXXiirdpflov : compound of ko\6s, 'beautiful/ and rap*td> 

143. Join &v (for fo>d by apocope, G. xa, N. 3, H. 84 D) with ftycnoptcr, 
from which it is separated by tmesis. 

144. Translate &p\4$ as predicate : ' Let one man, who can give coun- 
sel, be leader.' 

145. Idomeneus was king of Crete. 

147. Jtyp' tXdcro-cat [ty' i\d<n)]. 'Eicdcpyov: ordinarily explained 

as ' Far-worker ' (IrtCs, tpyov), ue. ' Far-darter/ referring to the force of the 
Sun-god's darts, even at a distance. Autenrieth derives the word from 
Ik<Ls and tfpyw : lit. ' one who shuts far away,' ix. either from evil (' Pro- 
tector ') or in the lower world (' Death-god '). 

148. fartfSpa : perh. for forotpcuc (M, MpKOfuu), lit. ' looking under ' 
(angry eyebrows), ' with scowling glance.' There can hardly be found a 
finer example of indignant invective than the passage w. 148-171. 

149. &vcuSc(i)v 4m€i|Uvc : ' clad in (as with a coat of mail, lit. ' clothed 
upon with ') shamelessness.' Verbs which take, in the active voice, an 
ace. of the person and of the thing retain the ace. of the thing in the 
passive. G. 164, 107, n. 2, H. 724 a. — M does not lose its final letter, 
because tvwfu, Lat. vestio, has initial F. 

150. fireriv : the double dat. is natural, because in obeying a com- 
mand one also obeys the giver of the command {cf in Lat. dicto auditns 
esse alicui; in other words, tictai is the nearer, rot (trot) the remoter (indi- 
rect) object. It comes to the same thing to explain £xe<n as a definitive 

appositive of rot: 'thee,' i.e. thy words. H. 625 c irfflHyrai: dubita- 

tive or deliberative subj. : ' How can one obey ? ' G. 256, H. 866, 3. 

151. 6S4v : cogn. ace. after 4\64fi*rcu [4\0ctv] ; translate : ' either to 
go on a foray or to fight mightily with heroes.' tyi : see on v. 38. 

153. |ia\i]<r4|i.cv6s [/xaxovfi^yos] : final syllable is here used as long 

before the caesura. See Essay on Scanning, § 5, 4. pot: 'in my 

sight' G. 184, 5, H. 771. 

154. o6Si \Uv [/ifr] : cf. v. 77. Wealth in the heroic age consisted 
chiefly in cows and horses. Cf the derivation of Lat pecunia and EngL 

155. Phthia in S. Thessaly was the hereditary kingdom of Achilles. 



The two fine -sounding adjectives which dose the line describe the fertility 
of the Thessalian plain. 

156. lirA <H 1 the diphthong ft may be considered as shortened in the 
arsis before follg* v owe], or the 1 may be pronounced by synizesis with 
the following 17, — **e w- 

157- Notice the flowing sound of the first half of this spondaic verse, 
on account of the number of vowels as compared with consonants. 

158. toI: dat. of association with &ua, G. 186, H. 77* C ; yet the 
verb mtrxAfitQa regularly takes the dat. The accent of trot and its repeti- 
tion — vv> wai — indicate great emphasis. 

159. TLp^y dpv^vot : ' seeking to obtain satisfaction. Apvuiuyot, 
pres. &ppvfmt f comes from a different root from beipv [afpa]. Its primary 

meaning is 'attain to.* icwwira 1 implies nom. it^m?*, lit * with the 

eyes of a dog/ * dog-faced/ [Cf, in r. 225 the equivalent expression tcvvhs 
f^ar' %x<*v ; */■ also Z 344, where Helen reproaches herself.) The noble 
traits of the dog seem scarcely to have been noticed by the Greeks. 
The word is constantly, both in compounds and alone, used to convey the 
extremest reproach. The single exception is the account of *Argos/ 
Odysseus's faithful hound (Odyssey, p 272). 

160- t«y: gen. of cause, esp. freq. with verbs of emotion {see on 

v. 65). |icraTplfr[] : becomes n verb of emotion in its derived meaning; 

lit. 'dost not tum thyself about,' *V. *dost not regard, ' <f. Lat. r* 
s^ktre aXry£]> : ' not to care for,' see v. 1S0. 

161, koI %i\i 'and n&wJ (lot: could be joined with o^eiAe?*, as 

verbs of threatening govern dat. of person in both Greek and Latin ; but 

is better construed as dat of disadv* with a<pcupji<rta$ai (see on v, 67 ) 

afrrd« : ' in person.' 

162. <J liri [i<p" $] t when dissyllabic preps* follow their objects, the 
accent is drawn back to the penult. This retraction of the accent is called 
anastrophe (Aycurrpo^ : ' turning back *), See Sketch of Dialect, § 6. In 
the second half of this verse, an instance occurs of the transition from 
the relative clause to an independent sentence: 'for which I toiled 
much, and the sons of the Achaians gave it to me/ instead of ' and which 
the sons of the Achaians gave to me * (see on v. 79). 

16S. o* pb [oft pi\v\ <n>C: dat. after Taw, lit. 'equal with thee/ 

£#, * equal with thy prize.' This is an instance of what is called c&mpara- 
tw e&mptndiaria, or abridged comparison. Cf. Xen. A nab. II, m, 1 5, ^ Si 
Jtyi* ^Xiicrpov ohSlv Bityeptt where fiA^*Tpou = tjjf ^\4ktpqv ^e«i 

164. wrokUBpov : c a city,' — not Troy, but some one of the numerous 
cities on the Trojan plain {see on v. 125). 

165, rb irX«tev : * the larger {harder} part.' iroXv-dwcos : the latter 

part oi this compound is the stem of &Wu t ' to leap/ lit- g much spring- 
ing/ is, fatiguing/ — iroAi|U>io : generally to be translated ' combat/ — 
not, as in prose, * war. 1 

174 NOTES. 

166. Siimnxr' : 'bring to pass.' The act. forms era, 3i^x« rarely 
occur in Attic ; the midd. forms are extremely common in the sense of 
'follow.' &*rAp = avrdp [&AA<£] : see on v. 51. 

167. Agamemnon, as generalissimo of the forces, has his special por- 
tion {y4pas) of all plunder, set apart in advance of the general distribution. 

Achilles comes in only on a footing equal with the other chiefs 6\Cyov 

Tf 4>£Xov tc f\(av: lit. 'with (a prize) small and sweet,' — 1>. 'precious though 

168. hnH kc [i*dy] k6l\u* TroXcfil£<ov : ' when I have fought myself 

169. ct|u : « I will go,' — pres. with the usual f ut. signif hrt\ fj : 

see on v. 156. 

170. l|ifv [ttycu] <rfcv vtjvo-C [vavaQ : we constantly find ' with the 

ships,' instead of 'on,' i.e. 'on board of the ships;' cf. t among many 
examples, vv. 179, 183 <r* [<roi] : dat. of advantage. 

171. &<|>v£€iv : fut. inf. from pres. i^iWw, lit. ' draw off.' Translate : 
' Nor do I propose to stay here in dishonor, and to draw (like a hewer of 
wood and drawer of water) for thee wealth and riches.' 

173. |idX* : ' by all means,' cf. v. 85. So the modern Greek uses fid\t~ 

<rra : cf. Lat. maxime, as the equivalent for ' yes,' ' certainly.' &ir-6r<rvT<u- 

pf. midd. from creito with pres. signif., 'impels.' Notice how smooth, 
flowing this and the follg. vv. are from the numerous liquids which they- 

174. tfvcic' 4|WlO [iflOV tv€Ka\. 

175. 61 kc n|jdj<rowri : see on v. 137 prrCera \firrricrris] : with 

shortened final vowel and recessive accent. See Sketch of Dialect, 
§ 10, 2. 

176. Ix® lorros: * most hateful;' for form, G. 72, 1,11.253 F 1015 

' in my sight ; ' see on v. 1 53 Au>Tpc^cs fkuriX^es [Aiorp§<pe?s faun* 

\e?s] : 5iOTf>€^s«and Bioyevfjs, * Zeus-fostered ' and ' Zeus-engendered ' are 
common epithets of kings, both implying membership in the heroic line 
and a pedigree running back to Zeus. 

177. As usual with an angry man, Agamemnon charges the quarrel- 
some spirit entirely upon his opponent. 

178. Physical strength is nothing for a man to be very proud of, being 
purely a gift of the gods tcaprcprfs 4<r<n [icparcpos cT\. 

179. fr&poun [Iraipots], 

180. Mvp|u86vc<rtri [Mvpfifootri] : distinguish in translation the dat. 
after the verb: 'play the ruler among (for) the Myrmidons,' from the 
gen. with the same verb : ' be ruler over the Myrmidons.' The Myrmidons 
were the subjects of Achilles o*c*0cv [(rod] : see on v. 160. 

181. 60o|uu (<rov) kotcovtos: 'trouble myself about your spite.' 

182. &$ : adv. of comparison, ' just as.' The important part of the 
apodosis is iyd k ' &y» (subj. with k* nearly equals fut. indie.) ; but the 

ILIAD I. 175 

tV fi.\v . • . ir4fuffia is brought in to save Agamemnon from the appear- 
ance of defiance to Apollo's command. The sense may be thus given : 
' Though (/i«V) I comply with the god and send, etc. ; yet (5e) I will have 
my retaliation upon you, the cause of my loss ; for I will go in person and 
take, etc.* 

183. vnt Ijtfjj : ' with [i.e. ' on ' or ' by ') one of my ships/ 
185. Agamemnon appears in a hateful light in this and the two follg. 
w., when he declares that his motive in the threat which he makes is sim- 
ply to show his greater power. The distinction between tcparcpSs and 
<t>4prcpos — the former referring more to physical strength, the latter to 
resources of various kinds in one's command — is clearly made below 
(vv. 280, 281). 

187. fcrov Ipol <J>d<r0av : ' to speak on a level with me/ ' to assert 

himself my equal ; ' Xcrov is originally a cognate accusative &|&ou»(Hj- 

|icvcu [dfioutOrjyai] &vn)v : ' to liken himself to me before my face ; ' &yrrjy 
is adv. (cf. Awptdrriv, v. 99). 

188. IIi}X«udvi: dat. of possessor; the patronymic ending -mv is 

infrequent in comparison with -faqs, see on v. 7. oi : this is one of the 

common cases where the dat. limiting the verb takes the place of a gen. 
limiting the noun tJtop or <rr4\te<r<ru Translate vv. 188, 189 : ' Woe came 
to Peleus's son, and his heart was perplexed in double-wise in his shaggy 

190. 4>d<ryavov : probably derived from <r0rf$», and so originally mean- 
ing 'slaughter-knife,' but here equals tftpos, Hop, and means 'sword.' 

191. to^s |Uv dvcurrfyreie : 'should make start up the rest of the 
Chiefs.' At the assembly of chiefs (/SovAj) ycp6irroov), the speaker stood 
and the others remained sitting. Cf. vv. 58, 68, 101. The opts, in this 
v. represent subjs. of direct discourse (G. 256, H. 866, 3) changed to 

opt. under the influence of the secondary tense fiep/x-fipi^ev IvopCgoi : 

'strip off armor' {tvapa), presupposes, of course, the 'killing of Aga- 

192. evfitfv: 'fury.' 

193. ctos [fas] : metathesis quantitatis. See Sketch of Dialect, § 1, 4. 

194. fjXOc 8* 'A04jvt| : $4 in apodosi; 'then came Athena.' The change 
of tense marks the commencement of the apodosis. Cf. v. 58. 

195. ofyavtfOcv [££ ovpavov] irph . . . flpce: tmesis. Cf vpotatycv, 

196. dfi^Ki) : governed by (piXtovcra, for icritiofi4vi) takes the gen. Cf. v. 
209; cf. also H 204, "Eic-ropcl irep <f>t\4cis Ktd K^eai avrov. 

197. <rri| 8' JforvOcv : ' she stood behind,' or perh. ' she stepped up from 
behind' (see on v. 6.) — k6jii]? IX.e [cite] : 'plucked by the hair,' gen. of 
part taken hold of. G. 171, 1, H. 738. 

198. &pdro [l<£po) : see on v. 56. 

199. Notice the four aorists in this and the next verse, all describing 



single acts quickly accomplished 0&ppfpw [i8*&pa**v] u*rd . . . 

jTpdir«To 1 2 aor* midd. from tp4vm) x here used in literal sense (contrast 
with v. 160K ' turned hira about' 

200. ol [*ury] * nearly equal to poss, gen, limiting W< (see on v. tSS). 
Translate the last hemistich : ' for her terrible eyes shone brightly/ Or 
&uv6 may be taken as predicate ; * dreadful was the gleam of her two 
eyes.' -^oavGtv [i<p£vQvi<rav]. Cf- Kpvijtfair [jrpiuw], v. 41* 

201. Translate : ■ and having raised his voice (as preliminary to speaks 
ing) he was addressing her with winged words.' Words are called * winged* 
because they *fly * so quickly from the lip to the ear. 

202. T£irr(t) [Tt wort] clSt(*): 'again, 1 as if he had said 'One 

vexation after another, here you are once more I ' afrytdxoto A&s tIko* : 

example of a combination of words (three dactyls) which rits easily into 
the verse* and is used, perhaps, as a half-conventional phrase, without 

very distinct thought of its meaning, *LMjXevflas [^Xuflss] t closes a 

spondaic verse. 

203. tSn [%*1: see on v. 56 *ATpftSoa ['Arpettov]. In B 1S5 we 

find *ATp*f&«*i. See Sketch of Dialect, § 1, 4. 

20t TcXiftrihu : fut. inf. midd, with pass, signif. 

205. jj* farqwirXC'Qin : 'because of bis deeds of arrogance/ fl* : 

dat. pi. fern, of the poss. pron. Sr, which is poetic In Attic Greek, the 
place of the poss, pron. of the 3d sing, is supplied by the gen. of the per- 
sonal pron. abrade avrfjf. The article alone has also frequently the force 

of a possessive t&x* ***** : ' at no distant day, 1 ■ right soon.' &v 

. • . AKlcro-u 1 potential use of subj. (see on v. 137). 

207, t& vhv pivo* i * that wrath of thine. 1 — tf m lrflhjcu [&w r%] : 
see on v. 67. 

208. atywwijflfvi </.v. *95- 

209 — 196 Distinguish 4p£i- : adv. f alike/ and tpus 1 conj. 'yet,* 

210. IptSos: gen. of separation, 'from strife.* CXicco [Zkxau] ; kv, 

prs, 'be drawing.* 

211. twwn. : 'with words/ if only deeds of violence be foregone 

fa ttrwral irap \&mp £<rr*t\ I lit. ' as shall be, 1 an elliptical phrase capable 
of different interpretations. It may mean : * as you will do (in any case), 1 
or it may refer to the future humiliation of Agamemnon, in which case a 
word must be supplied, and we might translate : ' predicting how it shall 
be/ In this and the follg. vv, three different forms of the future of ri>ii 

212. &8< <ydp Igfpfo: another freq. combination of words (penthemi- 

meris), see on v. 203, which fits easily into the verse t6: how decide 

whether relative or demonstrative r" The presence of conj. Bi decides- 

214. Cppios \%&pws] : notice omission of the article, which would be 

expected in Attic tax** l*xH t 'restrain thyself.' 

216. o^wtTqwv 1 poss, pron- (poetic form) formed from dual of the 



pers. pron. of 2d person. See Sketch of Dialect t § 14, 1. Translate : ' the 
word of you both/ *>. of Athena and Hera ttpikrtroo-Gcu (closes spon- 
daic verse) : • respect/ * observe/ It is doubtful whether this form is to be 
derived from the root (fjcpu-, ty6to t ' draw/ or from a root (tfjfpF-, Lat. 
strvare. It is easy to derive, from the idea of 'drawing to one's self (for 
protection)/ the meaning * defend/ * maintain/ ' respect/ 

21 7 • Kai [i£Xa ir*p icexok^pfrov [tat-wep p.£\tt k ex^hv^ifov] : the separa- 
tion of ttttt *ep (tike £s *tp t v. 211) may be compared to tmesis* *fxoAw- 
ptvw agrees with subj, of upfovwrQai, te. ift* or *&&. 

21& i Whoso obeys the gods r they hearken weil to him/ For senti- 
ment, cf, Prov* xv. 29, John ix. 31. In tuXvov we have the first example 
of the gnomic aor,, to express a general truth (so called because this use 
of the aon is freq. in proverbs, yi^ai), G + 205, 2, H« 840. The aor. 
here is equal to a prs. and hence the subj. in conditional reU sentence. 

&S Kf lirLirttBTjTat : general condition referring to present time* If t* 

before fakvov is for tc, it may be compared with the same word in w + Si, 
Sz, There the enclitic is found with no connecting force in both princi- 
pal and subordinate clauses ; here it stands only in the apodosis. Others 
would see in r\ the particle to*, and translate : 'surely/ 

219, fj : ipf. 3 sg. from defective verb foi t Lat - a ' > occurs in Horn, 
only in this form. In Attic Greek, ^i, 1 sing, prs., and fy and $ t 1 and 3 
sing. ipf. t are found, - — ayj&* l^X*! : * held,' ' stayed ; * for formation 
in 8, see G. ng f 11. II. 49S. 

220. Hurt [%totre\ : from w&iu. 06E ' air(Br\<rt : first instance of litotes. 

Litotes (\n&nt$, * simplicity *j is a form of statement which, because of its 
studied simplicity \, and evident in adequacy , is accepted for much more 
than it actually asserts. Here, t,g. Mid not disobey ' = ' did not fail to 
obey * = * obeyed at once/ Examples of litotes are familiar in all litera- 
tures. Compare Milton's *with unblessed feet * = * with feet accursed/ 
Nor is this figure of speech by any means confined to poetry, but it is very 
frequent in prose i eg; a citizen of * no mean city ; ' his last service was 
1 not his least/ Dr, D. W. Holmes remarks that the humor of many per- 
sons consists largely in understatement. That this is very true of Amer- 
ican humorists will be evident to any one who peruses a few pages of 
Mark Twain or Artemus Ward. 

221, ptfHJKti: 'was gone.' As the pf, in Horn. freq. = prs. F so the 
piupf. naturally == \pL 

222. S*£jult' H : * into the palace/ jutA $a(p>va* dXXovs ; liL * into 

the midst of/ i>. ' after other deities/ 

223* dTOpTTjpfHt : * hard/ ' unfeeling/ 

234, X^y* X 1 *^ 010 : see on v - 2 10 - 

225, Kwfc* ifijiOT 1 E^uy (see on v. 159): expressive of utter shame- 
Jessness, as xpt&tw fadtpwo (fxuir) denotes extreme cowardice: 'with the 
eyes of a dog, with the heart of a deer.' It might be more natural to 
say in English : ' with the cycn of a dog, with the \wirat di *\xk1 

178 NOTES. 

226. Is irrfXqiov : ' for combat/ last syllable of r6\€fidv lengthened 
in thesis before caesura. 

227. To * lie in wait in ambush ' is the highest test of the courage of 

the Homeric hero. This duty falls to the * champions/ kpurrries 

&purHji<nri [apurrcvai]. 

228. idjp : lit. ' death-angel/ /.*. death in person, certain death. Dis- 
tinguish ri icfip and r6 Krjp : ' heart.' ctScrcu [Soiee?] : from Horn. pres. 

effio/uai. Notice parataxis in sentence introduced by $e = ydp. 

229. X»u>v [kfov] : * more gainful.' ica-rel trrparbv cvpwv : 'through* 

out the broad (widespread, as lying in camp) army.' 

230. Airo-cupcurdai : the failure to elide shows that aip4cc orig. began 

with a consonant, which, however, is sometimes {cf v. 182) ignored. 

fto-ris [fts &v] ctirfl : for subj. see on v. 218 <r#cv [aov] : gen. depends 

upon the adv. kvriov. G. 182, 2, H. 757- 

231. fkunXcvs : nom. in exclamation, which sometimes takes the place 
of a second voc. (it here follows olvo&aph). G. 157, N., H. 707.5 — o4tu 
Savouri : for dat. see on v. 180, ' among worthless subjects,' lit. ' people 
of no account' (othis). The second half of the verse explains how it is 
possible for him to be dr)fiofi6pos. 

232. fj ^Ap &v . . . XttfWjo-cwo: 'for verily thou wouldest offer insult 
for the last time,' were not thy subjects worthless (« firi ohriddyois iwdar- 
irois) . Instead of supplying the ellipsis, we may use the word ' else ' (=» « if 
this were not so ') : ' else thou wouldest surely/ etc. 

233. tori : adv. ' besides/ ' thereto.' Notice the lengthening of a final 
vowel before follg. liquid (easily and doubtless doubled in pronunciation) ; 
pronounce ivl pplycor. Cf v. 283, and see Essay on Scanning, § 5, 3. 

234. t4Sc <ncfjirrpov : each speaker in the assembly received from the 
herald the scepter, which gave the recipient the right to speak (the floor) 
as long as he held it. Cf T 218 \Uv \yA\v\ 

236. <f>v<r€i: fut. act. from <pv<o irpora: 'first/ *>. 'once for all.' 

TOfi^v (i-l/ow, 'cut'): 'stock/ 'stump.' fipcorot: dat. pi. from 


236. irepl y6p j>& I x^*^ &«+«v : the verb takes two accusatives as a 
verb of depriving : ' for, see (£a) ! the steel hath stripped off from it (4, here 
neuter) on every side (*epl) its leaves and bark.' 

237. |uv[a*r4]. 

238. SuccunrrfXoi : 'warders of justice.' &juo-ras irpfc* Aibs dpv- 

OTai : ' maintain the laws in the name of (lit. before the face of) Zeus.' 
It is uncertain whether elpvarou is a sync. prs. [4pv(o)yrou], or a pf. with 
prs. signif. For root and radical signif. see on v. 216. 

239. 6 84 : ' and this.' 6 instead of r6 from the influence of the pred. 
noun SpKos. H. 617. 

240. 'AxtXXfjos: obj. gen. after xo04' longing for Achilles/ t$rat 

[&0i(frai]. viog : in Attic Greek, a prep, would be required. G. 162, 

H. 722. 

ILIAD I. 179 

241. rote : dat. of advantage after x/>ai<r/ze?i>, ' to help them.' See on 
v. 28. 

242. cftr* dv [Uray] *+' "Eicropos : gen. of agent is natural, because 

t/ttomti is in effect a passive verb and equivalent to, * are thrown down/ 
The gen. might equally well be connected with $rfi<ncorrcs. 

243. &|tv{€is : ' thou shalt rend.' 

244. 6 t : $ = auod, as in v. 120, t« having no appreciable force. 
Thus t re is equal to Uri re. Uri never loses 1 by elision. It is Horn, 
simplicity, and no boasting, for the hero to call himself Apurros 'Axcu&v. 
X«xS|icvos : see on v. 153. 

246. ireiraf jUvov (pf. ptc. from velpoo, ' pierce ') : * studded.' IJcto 


247. 4t^>«0€v: 'on (lit. from) the other side ; ' cf Lat. ex altera parte, 

4p4)Vic (ipf. from firjvioo) : ' was giving vent to his rage.* rotot : see 

on v. 58. 

248. &v6pov<rc: 1 aor. from bpovco [ipvvfit]. Xiyus: 'clear-voiced.' 

&YopT]Tqs : lit 'one who speaks in the iyopd;' synonymous with 

Mrap. J 

249. toO [o5] : poss. gen. limiting y\dxrfn\s. The force of Kai can 
hardly be given in English. Cicero, de Senectute, x. has translated this 

verse: ex ejus lingua melle dulcior fluebat oratio. yXvictov [ykvicvrepa]. 

$kv [typci] : G. 98, N. I, H. 411. 

250. r<p : ' for him/ i.e. ' before his eyes/ ' during his life ; * for dat., 
G. 184, 3, N. 1, H. 771 fwp£ir«v : the derivation of this word is uncer- 
tain ; its probable meaning is, ' mortal/ 

251. ty0Ca0* [fytforo or 4<f>0tfi&oi ^ow] : plupf. pass, from (pQivoo. 

Yet the sync. 2 aor. tydffiiiv coincides in form with plupf. ol [avrq>] : 

see on v. 158 rp6^€v {irpd<\>ri<Tav, 2 aor. pass, from rpc<f>w] 

^8' ty&ovro : the natural order seems reversed. This hysteron-proteron 
may be explained by saying that the order is the natural one to one look- 
ing back, 

252. |i*r& rpiTdroun [iv rpirots] : this use of pcrd with dat. in sense 
of 'among ' is wholly Homeric. Cf. A 61. 

253. 0*^1 [adrois] |*ct-4cmtcv : Unrov is redupl. 2 aor. from stem 

ft *% The full form was e-Fe-Feie-ov. After the digammas fell away, the 
second and third epsilons were contracted into ft. The initial e is the 
syllabic augment. See Sketch of Dialect, § 15, 2. 

254. "ft irdiroi : interjection expressing either dismay, as here ; or de- 
light, as in B 272. Before vocatives & is always written &. Cf Engl. 1 
and oh I 

255. yrfl4\avi : 3 sg. 1 aor. opt. from ynBi». 

256. Kcxapolaro : redupl. 2 aor. opt. from x«fy>«- 

257. 'If they learned all this (tale) of your strife* : the gen. (dual) 
depends upon r&c. 

258, wipt (in the first hemistich) — vtpUvrf. The verb takes after it 
a gen. (as a word of superiority), and ftovkfa as an ace, of specification ; 
the explanatory inf. pdxtrQai is precisely equivalent to an ace, of specifi- 
cation fMxnr- 

259, &p$w &f, ktK : an example of parataxis ; instead of Be, we might 
have had, in prose t ydp* 

260, ^irv [^irt^ or fl fyuv : attracted from nom. (tfuts (j& 4<rr*) 

by the preceding fywWi, 

262, <rf Y^f w ** [tfC*« yet/? ] fSttjuu [ISoipi fir, or tfijajuu): see on 

v- tj7* 

263, omsv II«pC0oov : attracted into the ace* bj Tafoi/i avtpas of v. 262, 
A regular construction would require 0U5 ijy UaptOoos. Peirithoos was 
king of the Lapithai, a powerful tribe in Thessaly. Dryas, Katneus, 
Exadios, and Polyphemos were chiefs of the Lap i thai. To the marriage 
of Peirithoos with Hippodameia, the wild tribe of Centaurs were invited- 
Under the influence of wine, they attempted to carry off the bride and other 
women of the La pi thai, Theseus and Peirithoos led the resistance, and 
the Centaurs were overcome. The fact that Theseus, the national hero 
of Athens, was associated by old Legend with Peirithoos, probably led tor 
the interpolation of v. 265 in the interest of Athens, by some Athenian 

266. Kajmo-™ l metathesis. See Sketch of Dialect, § 7, 2. 34 em- 
phasizes the superlative : * the very strongest. 1 KfEpot [tocrai]. 

267* \U» [a^H ■ so also in vv, 269, 273. 

268* + T tf> " t v (probably an Aeolic form for fl^ptrf) : * wild people,' lit. 
1 wild beasts ; ' the Centaurs were represented, in later times, as half man 
and half beast. Ain&Xfinrav : transitive, st. gfl r p fa 

270. ^ qtt(t|* "YaC-ffs : defines TTjhiBey, * from far away, [namely] from 
a remote land.' — afa-oC : the fact that the heroes l themselves * sent for 
htm shows what was his reputation even in his youth. 

271, KO.T E|i* *vt6v; 'by myself/ cither as single combatant or at* the 
head of Ms followers. The meaning is that he was not a subordinate* 
but fought independently. This no one of his present contemporaries 
could imitate (otirts kv paxtatTo). 

273, u*u povtetav fwuv [tw favK&v pov trvvUrav] : ' listened to my 
counsels, 1 G. 171, 2, H* 74a. 

2T4 Compare the repetition of the verb **t6apat in this and follg, v, 
with the repetition of tciprurrQi in v, 266. 

275. ay*^* ir *P *^ v : sce 0TL v * 1 3 l iirottfpte [Lpttpnv] : see on r. 

230, — * Kotipnv : see on v* 98. 

276- la : prs. imv, from idw. 

277. II*)Xt £Stj WfV : pronounce 87j~#0e K\ by synizests ^ijftjkcpu 

[ipt&tv]. — pwnX-n>: for dat. G. 186, N. I, H, 772. 

278. othroO" opotns : * never a like, 1 <>, ' always a greater/ an example 
of litotes ippQpt 1 2 pf, from u^lpojim, set SWetth v>i Dialect, § aa, r. 



279, ^n \f] : enclitic re without appreciable meaning. See on v. 86. 

280* &ro*s Y^**™ : both in protasis \ the apodosis begins with &AA*. 

For loss of accent of »AA S with elided vowel, see G. 24, 3, H. 107 1 

vXf^v«cnrii [ttX^oo-*] ; for dat- see on v. 179 For distinction between 

KOprcfrff and <JMpr^os \ see on vv. 178, tS6. 

282, ov & l *and do thou/ turning to Achilles. rtAv [Vtfj'J, 

283, Xio-oTi^fat) : this elision could not occur in prose *Ax^XXn> : 

dat, of advantage with }i*B*ptv [pctfcfrgu, 2 aor. inf. from p«0bfyu], trans- 
late : ' to abate thy wrath for Achillea/ *.*., since he is the reliance of the 

284, iroMpaie ! objective genitive after cpico*, ' bulwark of (in) combat/ 
287. £S' d.VT|p [S3e <5 or^p] irqjl , , . I^ukql jVcpieTwu] : see on v, 

258. Agamemnon has no substantial charges to make against Achilles, 
but can only reiterate what he has already (vv, 175 follg.) said. 

289, TvWtt) : 'one (at least) j* he means, of course, himself. Ttvd is 
subj, of ircftrtrfot, after which £ is cogn. ace. 

291, irpotfoiMn: often taken from rpa&fa, in which case the form 
requires no comment. One would translate : * On this account do words 
of insult rush forth for him (at) to utter ? ' But one may consider rpadtouvi 
= wpoTi&iairt, as if there were a pres. Bdw formed from the root 0f- of WPthh, 
and translate ; * On this account do they {U. the gods) permit (lit, 'set 
before *) him to utter words of insult. 1 

293, $ y&p kcv koXco(jili|v : see on v. 232. 

294, mv tpye¥ : * in every matter/ not necessary to sense but antici- 
pates Srri mv tfirps. 

295, y&p i calls attention to the fact that the prohibition jt^ trijpauw 
is the reason for the command ArtTeAAca, Translate : ' Lay these com- 
mands on others if you choose {&%); you certainly (7^} shall not be 
giving directions to me,* 

296, ov ^Ap . . , , , &t*> : repeated sarcastically from Agamemnon's 
threat, v. 289. 

097, Common verse to introduce a transition. 

298. X*^ (scarcely differs in meaning from £f?) : f by force/ 

ofaoi. ! * by no means/ Distinguish otirat, and otrot : * these/ ttvtwx 

«oift|S [ttSp^s eve ka j : ' on account of a maid/ 

299, t« \rivi] ltrc£ pT 6$4Xh-& -y* Z6vrts t 'since you but took 

away what you gave/ 

300* T»v &AXw: part. gen. depending upon rt ray in follg, v. 

takes up again tSv &\kwv f but is not necessary to complete sense. 

302. ft &' ftv* * with ci, it is generally supposed that 0ouAe. is to be 
supplied: ' but T if thou dost wish, come on/ yvAomti [^jwi]. 

30S, Jptt^a-fi : ipwf'u, in this and in one other place, w 441, means 
'flow; 1 elsewhere always, ' hang back from/ ' recoil from/ 

305, iwHprjv : for apocope, sec on v. 144. The assembly was dis- 
solved by rising, hvffr^rtjv At?0w [A^afrrdvTfS f\u<ro,v\. 

182 NOTES. 

306. Itoos [teas] : an e was frequently prefixed, for greater ease in 
pronunciation, to several words which orig. began with F. It was easier 
to say iFiffos than Fiaos. Another example is icUovi, ' twenty,' cf. Lat. 

307. McvoiTuiSfl : for formation of patronymic, see G. 129, 9 b., H. 
559 a. Considerable familiarity with the events of the Trojan war is taken 
for granted. Here it is assumed that Patroklos will be known by his pat- 
ronymic alone. ot$ frdpourtv = rois kralpois. 

308. (Mjv : one of Homer's habitual epithets. &Xa8c [els &\a]. 

309. tpiras : from nom. sing, ipirqs &r-6cpivcv : the verb is used 

in a pregnant signif. ' chose (for and sent) into. 1 tcfccooi, : see on 

ittras, v. 306. 

310. pf|<rc [tplficurc] : 1 aor. with causative signif. 

311. 4v 8* : ' and among them,' adverbial. 

312. K&cvOa : species of cognate ace. after Mirteov, cf. such phrases 
as Uvai 6Uv, G. 159, n. 5, H. 715 b. 

313. The people had not washed during the continuance of the plague. 
Now they are to bathe themselves and cast off {t&aKXov) the offscourings 
(\lfiara) into the sea. This rite was symbolical of their desire to remove 
whatever in their persons had occasioned displeasure in the god. 

315. TcXti&nras: 'bringing fulfilment/ 'effective.' 

316. 8iv'(o) : see on v. 34; if the noun were in dat., the accent of the 

elided form would be Oiv\ drpvy^roio : ' restless/ a habitual epithet 

(see on v. 308). 

317. ovpavdv: ace. of limit of motion, used very freq. in Horn., without 

preposition, of both persons and places. 4Xut<to|a4vt) ircpl kcmtvw: 

' whirling around in smoke/ /'. e. the fragrant smoke of burning flesh 
rose within (distinguished by its color) the smoke which ascended from 
the burning wood, kvkv^ is local dat., and wept is adv. 

318. t& [touto] : i.e. * their duties/ 4irnireCX^<rc : for the threat, 

see v. 181 follg. 

320. TaXOvfhov : Herod, (vii. 134) tells us of those who still claimed 

to be descendants of the Horn. Talthybios Efyvfidrny : in B 184 a 

like-named herald of Odysseus is mentioned. 

321. t<& ol 8<rav [A ai>T$ foav] icfjpvKc : word of wider signif. than 

our ' herald ; ' it involves the idea of personal service rendered, some- 
thing like ' body-servants/ ' henchmen.' Bcpdww, on the other hand, 
implies a relation more near equality even than that of esquire to his 

323. IXrfvTfc) : nom. agreeing with subj. of tycfxtv, here used as imv., 
' take by the hand and lead ' (see on v. 21). 

324. cl 84 kc |W| 8&n<ri [ifa Be pAi 5y] iyb U : example of 94 in apodosi 
(see on v. 137), ' then I will come and take/ 

325. r6 : ' it/ U. his coming and taking xal £tyiov : « even more 

ILIAD I. 183 

dreadful.' This comparative, like ictptiov from tc4p9os t tctvrepov from 

ictW, is formed from the stem of a noun and has no positive ^1709 

(Lat./ngus) : 'cold/ 'chill,' so that frlyiov lit. means 'more chilling.' 

326. KpaTcp&v . . . crcXXcv : parataxis, emphasizing the successive 
acts. We might have expressed it as a dependent clause : ' while he 
was laying a stern charge upon them.' 

328. tirf Ti kXmt&w : the preposition is here expressed which was 
omitted v. 322. 

330. dpa : ' I ween.' 7^(hf|<rcv : aor. denotes the inception of a 

feeling, 'feel delight.' 

331. TapfHjo-avrc : also of sudden feeling, 'struck with dread.' ai- 

Sop&w : 'reverencing' (his rank), of habitual mental attitude. 

332. {plovro : 'were they asking.' ipeopcu = ttpofuu = tpofiai [ipwrda.] 

333. & /yv» : a real hiatus, whereas tyvw Fgtri is only apparent hiatus. 

334. The heralds, in Homer, are under the especial protection of 
Zeus ; later, Hermes was their patron. 

335. pot : see on v. 153. 

336. 6 [Us] : article used as relative oxJxSi: 'you both.' 

337. narp6icXfis : contracted 3 decl. voc. for TlaTp6K\ccs, G. 5a, 2, N. 
3, H. 729 c. Below, v. 345, occurs the 2 decl. form. 

338. <r<jxoiv: the dual forms of the pron. of 3d pers.are enclitic. Con- 
trast this form with <r<pm, v. 336 t& *frr& [ro6ra> aind>\ : ' both of 

these men themselves,' not, as in Attic, ' the same.' 

339. irp&: 'before the face of.' 

340. toO : with strong demons, force, ' that king, ruthless as he is.' 

cl ybnrpw. [tiur y^rou] 84| afrc : synizesis (see on v. 277). 

341. l\uio [ifiov] : obj. gen. after x/>eic£. 

342. rots dXXois : dat. of adv., common constr. in Horn, after this 
verb instead of gen. of separation (see on v. 67). 

343. To ' think at the same time of the past and the future ' is the 
mark of wisdom, for we judge of the future only by the past A similar 
expression occurs r 109. 

344. |utx^° lvT0 [Mx otirro ] : ^ tne tense of oJBe is primary, the mood 
should strictly be subjunctive ; the opt. represents the purpose as remoter. 

345. 4>&<p : see on v. 20. 

347. d^ftv : inf. of purpose (see on v. 5) trip [rjclrriv]. 

348. Afcovo-' : because she loved Achilles. 

349. irdp«)v : connect with v6cr<pi \tcur0cls. 

350. OCv 1$ &M« : ffiv(a) depends upon M t a dependence not indi- 
cated, in this case, by anastrophe, Sketch of Dialect, § 6, 1 &X« : the 

sea near the shore : *6vtos : the deep sea. 

351. 4|p4j<raro: from prs. bpdopcu iroXXd: used as in v. 35 with 

verb of praying. Apeyvvs : ' stretching out ' his hands, i>. toward the 

sea, the home of Thetis. 

184 NOTES. 

362. wtp : 'very/ heightens the meaning of mwvBdZiov, see on v. 131. 

5+cXXcv [&<p€i\€] : ipf . 3 sg. Be careful not to connect it with 6<p4lO*> t 

' increase.' 

366. ^Ti|M|<rcv: see on v. 11 dirovpas [faaupduras] : anomalous 

aor. ptc, referred to &Tavpdu>. 

358. p^vOcoro-i * from nom. sing. &4v0os [fiddos]. 

369. iW8v : lit. * went up to the top of.' Hence the idea of departure 
or flight, and the meaning * left ' with follg. gen. of separation, &x6s. 

^vr* [&<nr*p] : any one who has seen a mist disappear from the surface 

of the sea will appreciate the propriety and beauty of the comparison, 

361. KaWpcfi: 'stroked,' uncertain from what prs. The form sug- 
gests the pres. icara-pcfe but the meaning would more readily be derived 

from Kar-optyu firos t* tyar', Ik t' 6v6\LaX t cv : « spoke (lit. ' spoke a 

word ') and called him by name.* The name of the person usually follows 
immediately. Here t4kvov is equivalent to such a name. 

362. <rc <}>p^vas: 'you/ i.e. 'your heart, 'your breast.' <pp4vas is in 
partitive apposition with <r« (see on v. 150). 

363. iC8o|tcv [c/S«/Aey] : pf. subj. See Sketch of Dialect, § 24, 4, d. 
366. ra&TairdvTa: obj. of kyoptwa clSvtj): implies in a general 

way the omniscience of the gods, even of those, like Thetis, of secondary 

366. (pxoficO* : i.e. in one of the marauding expeditions in the Troad 
(see on v. 125). Achilles speaks with perfect naivete*, unconscious that 

participation in such warfare might be considered cause for censure 

64jpr|v : Thebe, under Mt. Plakos in Mysia, was the home of Hector's 

wife Andromache. Cf Z 371-425. icp^v : orig. meaning « strong,' 

though the later common signif . ' sacred ' is also frequent in Horn. 

367. This verse is a brief description of ancient warfare : the sacking 
of the city includes the slaughter of most of the men, and the sale into 
slavery of the women and children. 

368. toL \Uv: like irdrra in v. 367, refers chiefly to women. — rf: 
•fairly,' 'justly,' 'duly.' 

369. Ik 8' IXov : as yipas of the generalissimo, see on v. 167. 

370. 8' crfO* : ' and thereafter.' 
' 372-379 = 12-16, 22-25. 

380. irdXiv : as in v. 59, of place, ' back again.' 

381. The simplicity of the language and thought guards sufficiently 
against obscurity, and we easily perceive that the subj. of <pi\os $«> is 
6 ytpav or a word referring to it. 

382. f&os : sing, used in collective sense. Cf v. 51 ; cf. also fcbtpv 
X^»p> v. 357. In ol 8c w Xaoi and rd 8* 4ir4x ero *V** Btciio, we have good 
examples of the demonstrative use of the article, the substantives being 
appended as appositives : ' and so (w) they, the people ; ' ' and they were 


speeding, shafts of a god. 1 ^ir-acrxrvrtpoi, : in form, a double compara- 
tive. The reg. comp. from &yxt is Ztraov, and to a<r<rv- (Aeolic for ktrao-) 
-rtpoi is affixed. 

384. %u ; see Sketch of Dialect, S 14, i. 

385. 8«oirpfwr{a5 i see 011 v, 109 'Ek^tolo : nom.^EicaTM is regarded 

as a short form (* pet- T or ■ nick-name *} for *EicaT7j0<$AGj, v. 370. 

386. irpwrof KcXjfjrnv : * was the first to urge*' 

388* IprtCkvirw pv&ov : ' uttered a threatening word/ the verse begin- 
ning with spondees befits the portentous announcement ; for aec. jriffw, 
see G. 150, r,, II. 716 a 8 [fo], 

390. ir^wovoa ; 'are escorting/ dvaicrt : Apollo {cf t vv. 36, 75). 

391. Translate : ' But heralds have just gone forth from my tent lead' 
hrg the other (tV B*h the maiden, Briseus's daughter/ 

392. t4\v [W* 

393. tnpt-axto [irtpiffxav]-; lit l hold (thine arms) about/ * protect. 1 

ifjo? J an anomalous form j commonly explained as gen. of Horn, adj. 

j}vf [tyaBis] with changed breathing, and translated * brave.' If we ac- 
cept this rendering, we have here another instance of Homeric naivete' 
(see on v. 244). But it is quite probable that the orig. form was ww [o5], 
gen. of possessive prom, and that this could orig. be used of all persons. 
Here it would mean *thy/ 

394. A£a Xfcrax : final vowel lengthened before liquid, as in v. 233. 

395. fi"i : ' by word * flvrjtros : t aor. from fotwipt f l didst please/ 

396. irarpfc 1 i-f. Peleus. Connect via with tixovaa ; irnrpfa with pey&- 

397* #t'(*) JtynflHto: * when thou wast saying ; ' not strictly necessary, 
as &.fi.Zvai could depend upon the idea of saying implied in rix*pfrv*- 
399- oirWf« : * when once upon a time/ 

400. As the three deities here mentioned are the very ones who are 
most active in behalf of the Greeks, Zeus will be likely to aid the Trojans, 
were it only to thwart their wish. 

401. ^ntkvtrao : &w6 t ' from under the weight of/ for the deities are 
thought of as having already laid hands on Zeus. 

402. 4x [iica] : ef. Lat. *wr, wws juuepov ? 'long* in reference 

to height and depth, * lofty/ 

403. When two names for the same object existed side by side, one 
was frequently referred to the speech of the gods ; the other to the speech 
of men {cf. B 813). The divine name is usually of clearer significance 
Ikiareus means ' Crusher ' ($piap&s). kiytd&v may be traced back, through 
myi, to aiyls, atVo-w, and probably means ' Rusher.* 

404. q% iretrp^s : patris sit*\ Poseidon; *J is gen. of possessive pion. 
406. wed t compare in meaning with teed in v, 249, * he it was whom/ 

Notice the paronomasia in inr-t&tiirav and f&yjtrtut. 
4£Tt* Xa£i -yovvMv: gen. of part taken hold of {?/. vv. 192, pft\+ The 


form yv^fmp fa a simpler one than Artie yoffowv* It consists of the stem 
of the word, yo^t- t and the gen. pL ending -wv. Out of yovFw has come 
yotrvuw. The FU heard before, instead of after, r, 

406. at Kh? itm* iOtX-Qa-i tori Tp*S«rcrt api^ai : ' on the chance thai he 
may perhaps choose to give aid to the Trojans ; * we have here an exam- 
ple of the posterior condition (sec on v. 67). 

409* iXirm (from present fiXAt, stem F*A*) : depends upon ttikprt. 
Though a liquid stem, it takes the tense-sign <r in I aor. The original 
initial F accounts for the apparent hiatus fiAo IX<rai, as also (or the 
syllabic augment in 2 aor. pass. OKtjv (iFdknr). 

410. diroKTdv^fiff ous j here used as passive, though usually the pass* 
of viratrrtii/w fa represented by the proper tense of An-offj^irjcv. 

412, & r [iri Tf] 1 see on r- 244 ott|v : 'folly/ * infatuation.' 

413, kot& , 1 * \i owra - : tmesis, 

414, atvd x adv. with re *awro, ' having brought thee forth to my woe.* 

415, atiT 6c|>tA<5 [eft? ti^cAtr j ; 2 aor. from &fi*Um. aSdiepv-ro? *al 

4mfjuwv : perh. a kind of litotes = * full of joy and happiness," 

416, pivuvfla ■ adv* limiting iim understood j fort may be trans' 

1 continues.' irqp : as in v. 131* — 6rf|v (orig. iF-qv) lengthens a prece 


418- iwXfo {2 aor. from WXo^uu) : f thou hast become/ -nf; 

'therefore.* kukij o,to-rj t*kov \ equivalent to *IA r«Jc«vira, ¥,414. 

419. Tofrr* §wo« [tout* rh twos]. 

420* "OXvjiirov : the mountain in Thessaly {cf, v. 44), not vaguely 
f heaven/- — at kc : 'on the chance that ' (see on r* 67). 

421* irof rjp-wof : * sitting near/ with idea of inaction, as in v. 48S j tf t 
also B 688, 694, 

423, |«T AUunrifcat ; as in v. 222. The Homeric Okeanos is a great 
stream flowing around the earth. The Aethiopians are represented as a 
pious folk who dwell in two tribes on the edge of the earth's disk, to the 
S. E. and S* W. duvpavag; see on v. 92. 

424, %$il&t ■ adj., though more conveniently translated as adv, {*/ 
V, 407) Kiri Solra : 'on ground of a feast. 1 lirovro [efworro]. 

42& x aXKO P QT ^ $& [BSjia]: 'palace with bronze threshold/ The 
palace of Zeus, as well as those of the other gods, was the work of 
Hephaistos Uf. v, 607). 

427. yew&ra|uu : has acquired the secondary meaning and transitive 
signification, * beseech/ 

428* 6.irtfM[v*rQ [dWjSq, ef. E 133] : 1 aor. with inflection of 2 aor 

atari : * there.* 

429. yuvaiicds : for case, see on v. 65. 

430. &6covw: gen. dependent upon 0fp, *in despite of him (though) 
loth. 1 Do not join the gem with fong^pw, which takes a double ace. 

4SL dyw : appropriate word, because si hecatomb consisted of cattle* 



432. !roXv{JcK0fee : from nam. sing, *o\v&*r94i** - — tor** : constantly 
used in Horn, as a prep, (see on v. 71 )♦ 

433. ttrrfa vrtCkam : ' they took in their (force of midd.) sails/ For 
pictorial representation of Horn, ship, see Horn, Diet., Plate IV. 

434. TrpoTOFQio-iY IhJ^vtis [2 aor. ptc. b$-lfiy,i\ : 'letting it down by 
(slacking off) the fore-stays. 1 

435. t^v : *>. vnuv. irpo^p«rcrav : from rpo-t pi atrw. 

436. €uv4s : * mooring-stones/ large stones serving the purpose of an- 
chors, to which ropes were attached. ■ KaTlS-qo-av : ' bound fast/ The 

vessel was anchored, bow toward the sea, by the *vmf. The wpuftv4\tna t 
1 stern-cables,' kept the stern close to shore. 

437* iirl £rpf|i£vL ; the effect of the orig, initial F of faypivi [F^ywpLt, 
frangv) is seen in the lengthening of the preceding vowel by position.^^ 
flaXvov : l were disembarking, j'_f. one after another. This is the descrip- 
tive ipf. Notice 1 in vv. 437-9, three examples of tmesis. 

439. The large number of spondees in this verse (it contains only one 
dactyl) is noticeable. The slow movement of the line suggests that it 
describes the debarkation of the most important person. La Roche says 
that the spondees are appropriate to her stow motion along the plank, 
and the dactyl to her spring from its end I 

440. eirl fSwpMfr : for her restoration was out of fear of the god, not 
from any love for her father. 

441. t»« [irtBct]. 

442. irptf ji firep-ipcv : ' sent me forth/ 

443. ayiptv [&ytiv] : inf. primarily of purpose [cf. v. 8), incidentally 
of result* 

444* {Xacn5]«<r0a : aor, subj. from bufar*i»pa» t with shortened mood- 
sign. See Sketch of Dialect, § 17. 

446* 4S££aTO x^pwv : ' he received with joy/ 
447* ^fXnv : see on v. 20 kXil-Hjv : ' famous: 

448. ifctxfi - l in order (of size)/ 

449, gqivtyayro: xspylVra^u is a denominative f rom xfy vl $ * 'water 
used for washing hands/ owKo-x^ra* (aAtw, x*»J : ' scattered barley/ 

450. ptf&ka. ; * aloud ' (*yC v v. 35, 351) \ttpws avaay&v : the Greek, 

in praying, stretched forward and upward the hands with upturned palms. 

451, 2 - 37, 3 S. 

453. VjfOv ♦ . . 1fi{i) ! correlative, ' as . . . so/ V. 454 is added as 
explanatory of ftcAuer. Very likely in prose we should have had two par- 
ticiples, e.g. Tttditrcu, tycMifvor, instead of the indicatives (^t/^ctos, fyao, 
without conjunctions. We often have such explanatory sentences in 
English, shown to be subordinate, not by a conjunction, but, as here, by 
being uttered in a lower tone of voice* 

456. ffir\ vvv : * now forthwith/ 

458. f^ftrro : of sDent prayer, contrasted with vyd\* <*x* T ^ v - 4*P* 

irpopdXovro : each one of those who participated in the sacrifice threw 

some of the ovkat upon the victim's head. The order of sacrifice was 
follows j The hands were washed and the sacrificial barley was raised 
from the earth (v. 449), Then, after silent prayer, the head of the 
-victim was sprinkled and the forelock cut off and burned (Odyssey, 
7 446). These were preliminary rites : the victim's bead was now drawn 
back and the chief person present, king or father of family, slew and 
flayed it. Then the thigh-bones were cut out and covered up with two 
layers of fat, Slices of meat from other parts of the carcass were laid 
upon them, and the whole was burned with libations of wine as the por- 
tion of the gods, who were supposed to be cheered by the savor (jcvfrnr, 
w- 66, 317) which rose toward heaven. 

459, tLvipwr&v [brttpwrav] : aor, from 4rrp£», The following may 
have been the succession of forms by which we arrive at that in the text ; 
the unaugmented, apocopated form would be iLvFtpvamf) — assimilation 
gives aFFspverav, — the loss of one F leaves £F(=a&)fpv*rcur, 

460, iswrd . . , tKaXu^a-v : * covered up close/ 
461* Efrrruxa J ace. sing. fern, agreeing with Hvia-nn understood, 

462. crx^ns [<rxK™A * from nom. sing, vxK*' 

463. iri*in&j3oXa : large ' five-tined forks * (Wire, o$t\4s) on which the 
vitals (trrK^yxifa, 'heart, liver, lungs T ) were placed for roasting. 

464. iwdo-airro: 'tasted ofj* this merely symbolical partaking was 
followed by the actual feasting, BoIwvto (v. 46S). 

465. ToXXa ; * the remainder ' of the victims &p$ opcXouri bnir 

pav : lit, ' spitted (so that it was) about spits,' i.e. * transfixed with spits/ 

466\ ^pvcmHrro 1 'drew off (from the spits).' 

467, TtrvKOVTo : redupl. 2 aor. from rtA$* 

468, Sonrta tftnys ISevrro [^8»to] x * fail of the equal {fa fairly divided) 

469, *£ Ipov Kvt« [rhv fywra (r%v £pe£iv) JfcTm] : 'dispelled the desire 
for food and drink/ 

470, iirtOT^avro : orig, meaning of ArurrV^opM is * fill f till ; ' hence 
construed with gen. of material, A later derived meaning is ■ crown,' 
From the word in this sense comes ffr^iarB, v. 14, 

471, v£utjo-civ : from ytaprfu, 'distribute/ A Shrat, * dHnking-ciip,' was 
held by each guest, The teovpot went about, pouring as they went a few 
drops into each cup, iirdpxtv&ai BFirdtff&t, which the receiver immediately 
poured out as a libation to the gods. Then the cups were filled for drink- 
ing, the wine being dipped out with the trpdxoos- A fuller description of 
the whole ceremony is given in Odyssey, 7 340. — firap£dfi«voi : #rf, 
* successively * for all the guests ; Apgdptirot, ' having made the hallowed 
beginning/ But the * hallowed beginning * was to poor a little wine, as 
above described, into each cup. The dat. 8rfr£*<rvi may accordingly be 

taken as local, 'in the cups * or a& d&t. of advantage, for the action was 
performed 'for the cups/ 


potarfi; includes song and dance. 

473. fcaXdv [koAcDj]. — ^Trat^ova [iramva]. 

474. uAiravrfs 'EiccLfpvov : ' hymning Hekaergos (Apollo) ; * for epi- 
thet, here a proper name, see on v. 147 *fP^' Q : aC ^- of specification. 

475* hr\ ♦ * . <7jX0e* : i came on,* ' came over them ; ' there fa scarcely 
any twilight in Greece, so that icviipas, * darkne^/ comes on rapidly. 

476* They slept, not on board the ship, but on the shore, near which 
(see on v. 436) the ship was moored, 

477. lypvybw* : ' early-born,' The first part of the word contains the 
root of Engl, 'early;' cf* Grk, fyurrw, Germ, Fruh-stikk: l early meal. 1 
P H»f [*£»*] l ' Morning-red/ ■ Aurora,' 

475. avdyoVTo : ' put to sea.' prd : see on v. 222, 

479* tKjifvov [fs^ewi'l : 2 aor, ptc without connecting vowel and with 
change of breathing. Tr*e meaning is : a * coming ' wind, ij. a * following/ 
'favorable 1 wind (ef. La;, ventum secundum). 

480. (TTTJo-arro Lffrtfv : 'set up their mast (see on arcfAAiTd, v. 433). 

481* kv . . . lrpflflrt : *blew into/ The root rpa- means to * spurt forth,' 
and is used of air, water, fire. The common form of the prs. in Attic 

prose is v-fpn-pipci, with the meaning ■ spurt forth fire/ * burn/ L^i : 

adv. ' round about/ 

482* flrffpn : local dat. * at the stem.* The thought is of the boiling 
of the water seen at the stem, rather than caused by the item. Of course 
the two ideas are closely connected iropijwpfov : used with no dis- 
tinct notion of any particular color ; the meaning is, * boiling/ ' swelling/ 
vH$s : gen. with <rretp$ r yet naturally translated as if gen. absol, 

483* StairpTicrxrova-a : orig. meaning of TptLrtrw is * pass over/ (Wpar, 
wtpfo). This passage illustrates the transition to the later common 
meaning ' accomplish ; ' see also r 14 kut4 Kvpa : per undam. 

484. Kftrd trrptvrtSv : ' opposite the encampment/ 

485. tpva-0-o.v [cfpiftrop]. 

486. frmi: adv. * underneath/ IpjiaTa paicpd: 'long shores/ *r. 

1 props/ 

487. loicCBvavTO [fotc*Mwwra] i ' began to disperse/ 

488. (i^vu : see on v. 247. 

489. vtts : vf- is to be scanned short ; TG3 is often found, in inscrip- 
tions, for ittts. 

490. irwXi-(TK»ero* ^i-vu-&-f-<rKf, iroOe-c-cricf [^7r«AetTo, i£0c fpcro, 1*6* 

In] : for these iteratives see Sketch of Dialect, § 45 *vSi.dv*Lpav 1 

' heTo*ennobling, J elsewhere always epithet of fidxv- 

491 irrtffct|*ov : last vowel lengthened by the ictus +£W fcfy i 

ace, of specification, The use of iptkox, referred to in v. 20, is especially 
frequent when the adj. is joined with parts of the body. 

493. *k tow: 'thenceforth/ s.e. since the interview with Thetis. 

494. frrav [i$feflW[, 

igo NOTES. 

495. \{fl*r [brcXavBdrero] tycrpltfv: gen. pi. from tyerp^. 

496. dXX* % 7(e) : like 6 U 9 v. 191 dvfS&rtro : for form, see on ▼. 

428 ; it is here followed by ace, whereas dr&v in v. 359 is followed by 
gen. of separation. 

497. oipav6v : ace. of limit of motion, cf v. 240. G. 162, H. 722. 

498. cipfoira: * far-thundering/ compounded of ebpfo and ity (F<fy=x 

Lat. vox). This form is ace. sing. 3 deel &rq> &\Xav [x»pl? r&r 


600. afrroto : gen. with adv. of place xrfpoi0(€), G. 182, 3, H. 757. 
501. Scgirfpjj [$€|t$] inr dvfltfHwvos : ' underneath the chin,' a prim- 
itive suppliant gesture. 

603. ivrjo-a : * I helped.' Cf v. 395. 

604. The last hemistich of this verse and of v. 41 are identical. 

505. &Kv|iop6TaTos AXAwv : * swiftest of fate as compared with others,' 
gen. after superlative on the same principle as that by which comparatives 
govern gen. Regular would have been &icvfiop&r€pos &\\ay or &Kvpop4- 
raros wdvrmv. 

606. IitXcto* &r&p vQv 7c : 'he was already; but now' in addition. 

507 = 356. 

508. <rv ir^p |tiv rfcrov : ' do thou at least (if Agamemnon has heaped 
disgrace upon him) honor him;' yet see on v. 131. 

509. fcivrCOei Kpdros Tp<&«nn : ' bestow might upon the Trojans.' 

«+p' &v [?«s *r]. 

510. tCo-wo-w, d^&XcHriv : subjunctives after temporal conj. where the 

designation of time is indefinite. G. 239, 2, H. 921 6$&\cktIv 4 

ri|ij : ' magnify him with honor.' 

511. Zeus is silent, because to give his promise would excite Hera's 

wrath vf+eXtrycp^Ta [-ttjs] : many Latin masc. substs. of 1 decl. eg. 

poeta, pirata, form the nom. sing, without final s. Cf. the Greek vot^n?*, 

512. <te . . . &s : ' as . . . so.' 

513. ^x* 1 "' ^pwre+wta : ' held on clinging fast.' 4fjnr€<f>vuia (2 pf. ptc. 

from ipQfa) : lit. * having grown into.' Scvrcpov afris: * again a second 

time,' an example of Homeric fulness of expression like trd\iy afrro, B 

514. Kardvcvo-ov : ' assent,' lit. * nod down.' The word of opposite 
signification is kvavevw ' refuse by a nod ', lit. * nod up,' *>. toss back 
the head. This motion is still the ordinary sign of negation in Greece 
and in southern Italy (Magna Graecia). 

515. dirdciirfc) : orig. form was wr6 Fetire ; hence the final vowel of 

prep, is not elided. Cf it eftS <rtf rot liri 86>s (ftrt SFeos, see on v. 

33) : 'thou hast naught to fear,' lit. 'there is no fear upon thee.' Zeus 
need not fear to refuse, for there is no power higher than himself which 
can punish him for neglecting Thetis's prayer. 


51ft &nrov [Scrov] : the dat. of measure of difference, fl<ry, would have 

given the same sense as the ace. of extent jierd iraotv : nearly equal 

to h -ra<ri (cf. v. 575), or to part. gen. wdmov. 

517. *xWi<ros: 'vexed.' 

518. Xotyia Ipya (sc. larot) : ' there will be sad doings.' \olyia has 

the same root as Lat. lugeo. 8 tc = $ri tc : 'in that ' (see on w. 120, 

244, 412). ty4)<rci$ : fut. from 4(plrjfxi. 

519. Ip&Qtn.: from 4p4$a> [ipedtfa]. 

520. teal atircos: 'even as it is,' 'even now' (see on v. 133). aUv 


522. dm5<rnx€ : ' depart,' 2 aor. imv. from farotrrclxv* 

523. pcMjofTai [/tcA^f**] : */*. ^/xoi /xeK-fjairai with Lat. #?/£* *r# f«r#. 

524. 4 8' &yc : see on v. 302. 

526. 0$ ?Ap ty&v iroXivA«yp€Tov, ktA. : 'for not anything of mine can 
be recalled or can deceive or can fail of fulfilment ; ' or rfapaop might be 
supplied with ifidv, 'not any pledge of mine,' etc. 

528. Translate : ' Kronion spoke and nodded assent to her with his 

dark eyebrows.' Kpovtuv [KpovlBris] : patronymic from Kp6vos, which 

probably means the 'fulfiller' (icpalvw). 

529. &|tf3p4<ruu: whatever belongs to the gods — utensils, clothes, 

dwellings — is ' immortal.' Cf. ambrosiae comae, Vergil, Aen. I, 403 . 

tircpp&ravro (from -p&ofiai, 2. derivative from pivi) : 'fell waving forward.' 
M adds the idea that the motion of the hair corresponded with the nod ; 
we might translate : ' to his nod.' 

530. Kparrfs (gen. from nom. icdpri) : 'from his head.' Distinguish 

from xp&ros, 'strength.' £\&.i£cv : 'shook,' 'made tremble.' The three 

verses 528-530 are said by Strabo to have suggested to Phidias the con- 
ception of his greatest work, the statue of Zeus in the temple of Olympia. 

531. povXefo-avre SUriuLycv [Povtevrdpevoi] : dual subj. with pi. verb, 
translate: 'took counsel and separated.' The form is 2 aor. pass, from 
"fjJryw {rfiriy- 17*07- being a strengthened form of the root ryuar rap, cf 
i-l/ow). See Sketch of Dialect, § 23, 1. 

532. 4Xto : 2 aor. from fiAAo/mt, Lat. salio, with smooth breathing. 
The lost consonant <r accounts for the apparent hiatus, and would natu- 
rally have been represented by the rough breathing. 

533. Zrfs : sc. tfay suggested by the motion implied in Sato. Zeus's 
dwelling is thought of as near the summit of Olympus. His interview 
with Thetis has taken place at a lower level, or on another peak of the 

534. irarptfs : not to be taken literally, — for Zeus was not the father 
of all the Olympian deities, — but rather as a title of honor {cf. irar^p 

avtpwvr* 6e&y tc) <r+oi) [tr^ripov] : cf in meaning with o5 in v. 404, 

which it closely resembles in form {cf ov = a-Fov and irfov) ItXt| : « had 

the hardihood.' 


635. dvrfak f<rrav : *rose up and went to meet.* The signs of defer- 
ence are the same among gods as among men. 

536. o£64 |*iv f|YVoit|^«v; * nor did she fail to recognize him/ £*. 'and 
she recognized him right well, 1 We have here an example of litotes and 
prolepsis. For litotes, see on v. 220* Prolepsis, lit, ' anticipation * (irp<$- 
A j #»* i wpo-\a/i0int) t is the introduction of a word earlier in the sentence 
than would naturally be expected. It is esp. freq, after verbs o( * know- 
ing.' Here fiat is introduced as obj. of jtyvatqa-tv, instead of the clause 
$ti fupppdtnrvr a standing as object. Cf* the example in the Gospels : * I 
knew thee that thou wert a hard man,* instead of, * I knew that thou wert/ 
Cf. also, from the Merchant of Venice (Act iv., Sc. I) : ' You hear the 
learned Bella rio, how he writes.* It is easy to see that prolepsis adds 
vividness to narrative, 

538. aXtow ypovros: the 'old man of the sea' was Nereus, 

539. iwpTojifouri : ntr, pi. as substantive, yet, in v. 582, IWccot is 

640. t£i $" a.1 {84f t %l) 1 'who now again V 

541. Idvra (and tfrpoviorra^ v. 542) : join with jt^, suggested by dat. t*i 
(iroi), the subj. of inf. £uca£</iep. This $iK*(fp*v means * decide/ * rule,' 
as we use the word of a judge or referee, 

542. Kpviprd&,n. : ntr. pi. of adj. used as cogn. ace. after $poidoyra. 

543. irp<S<J>petv : always used as pred. adj. in Horn., and hence best 
translated as adv. (see on v. 39). Translate with t4tK^kos : ' hast kindly 
deigned' frrt% vo^cr^s [* &r voi<rps]- 

544. im-Hip ivfipdj* Ti tomv 1 1 1 Cf* divum fater atque kominum rtx, 
Verg. Aen, I, v, 65. 

640. tUWjimv f ffcrtcrflai] : fut inf. classed with otta ; see Sketch of Dia- 
lect, § 34, 4, J t x^* 1 ^ TDL (*toiit[«(] : ' they (jiitfoij shall be hard for 

thee (to know}.' 

547. iiruucfe : sc. f. — Iirft-m : 'then,' * in that case.' 
549. HAw|u: this old form of subj. 1 sg. occurs eleven times in the 
Horn, poems. 

650, |dj Tt , . « ptrdXXa : ( do not be inquiring at all about each one 
of these things, nor seek to know them.' Instead of Totrro*, which should 
properly be the antecedent of tv (v. 549), the ntr, pL rnirni is used, 
because fo is a general relative. 

651, Pomttls s * large-eyed, 1 " Hera's eyes are likened to those of an 
ox or heifer in respect to size, fulness, and majestic calm " (Ameis). 

662. irotov t predicate ; lit. ' thou hast spoken this (t&v) word as what 
sort of a saying ? * «■ iroios A fiit&ot oSrft i&riv %v *frr*i ; 

653. Notice the Greek idiom (also usual m French and German) by 
which the present is used with an adv. of time, where the English uses 
Translate : ' and certainly heretofore, at least, I have not 


asked ( 1H, ' do not ask f ) nor sought to know.* G. 200, n. 4. 


554. a<nr* 4ftXi)<r6a [A hy 49fr V t]. 

556, Sfffiouca : the first syllable lengthened in compensation for a di- 
gamma, no longer written = 949Fouc* (see on v, 33). 

658. Tjj ir oUa Karavtva-^ : ' I think that thou didst confirm to her by 
m nod/ 

659 v n^irns : for subj,, G. 2i6, H, 88t iroWa* [iroAAofa] : notice 


561. fcuiiovli), aU* jjiiv AW : * Perverse, 'tis always • I think/ 1 ' fcu- 
fiariTi [adj, from faf/ia»0 : lit. 'under influence of a god 1 ; generally, though 

not always, in bad sense, * infatuated/ * miserable.* Notice variation in 

quantity between £f«, v. 558, and qUw. Notice also the musical, flowing 
sound of this verse, made so by its many vowels, 

562* Aire fapaO 1 prepositional phrase used in the predicate as equivar 
lent to adj. bmetifuos. 

564. tovt : * this,* i.e. my present course of conduct. 4j*o\ p&Xci 

<j?CXov *tvai : £*, it will be because I choose to have it so. In this passage 
we have a striking example of anthropomorphism ; the gods are depicted 
simply as stronger men, Zeus is an angry husband vexed at his wife's 
inquisitiveness and provoked thereby to arbitrariness. 

566, xpattrfumrw ; construed with ace. tirra (m. ip4) and dat. of ad- 
vantage rot (vot) j translate : * keep me off from (lit. for) you/ Lt. ' avail 
against my assault/ 

567. 4+fCw [J^fi] : 2 aor, snbj, from tyfifyii. Aawrovt : lit, ■ not to be 

touched/ ' resistless/ 

569* Kft&flCTTO [rfjcJftjTo], 

57G, ^x* T F av !*X^*«] : 'were indignant* {cf. v* 517). O^pavCwvcv: 

orig. a possessive adj< from Ovpurf*. Translate : * inhabitants of heaven/ 

572. M $pa fyipav : ' offer pleasing service ; ■ M belongs with $4p*tv t 
from which it is separated by tmesis. 

573. dvecrd : * endurable/ properly verbal adj. from h/ixof^ai {cf> v. 


574. tvsx* $vtjt#v : * in behalf of mortals, 1 with a certain contempt as 
contrasted with iv Qtottri (v. 575). 

575. KoXwbv iXavvfrov : ■ raise (tit. ' drive ') a din/ 

576. ^Se« : (root FbB- of arid**, §Ws) shows the same loss of rough 
breathing as 3ato (v. 532)*— ~tA xtpiiow [rk xt/pors, T * X'faH ; eu P^ e " 
mis tic expression for ' discord among the gods/ The article {rd) appears 
here to be used exactly as is usual in Attic Greek. 

677* iropd+nju : 'talk over (to one's views),' ' advise ' (cf. ruptirv, v. 


579. v*Lict£ncn [reiin)] ~ trh? , . , rapdffl ; * confound/ 

580, cfrrtp ydf k' iStX^o-i : ' for suppose he choose ! ' The apodosis, 
1 he can do it/ or some equivalent expression, is suppressed (aposio* 
pesis, see on v. 135). — &ar*powirfr(\* 1 noun formed directly from dirrf- 

: adj- ■imiTIj i inl iii d as describing a cop 
of tanr-gxass shape. Ac base of widen any be used as bowL No such 
farm* are found, nowerer. iwuig jmimt caps which bare come down to 
as, and Sdhbemaaa bas fcagg e sted that aa#i may refer to tbe two han- 
ca one on each side. He would translate ' two-handled,' or perb. 'two- 

566. ihlaJb: 2 pf. huT.fronitaesneTft*-, G. 124, H. 49s D, 10. This 
iarr. with &»a*xc» ™*7 be translated, - Patience ! and bear up, lest,' etc 

587. iritislfMTii: 'inmysigftt,' 'before my eyes.' 

56ft. For force of «f in this Terse, as in w. 577 and $86, see on t. 

589. %pm»0jp£9T\'. 'to ward off anything' (from you, jr. <rw). This 
is tbe same construction as that in t. 28, but different from that in ▼. 566. 

4m+ip«rtai: 'to cope with,' tit. 'to bear one's self against;' the 

bmn. depends upon the adj. ifyuXct. 

591. ma y^r: rednpl. 2 aor. ptc of a defective verb, the theme of 
which, ray-, is probably the same as of Lat ta{n)go, Eng. touch!*) 

592. 4 c P*t L1 1 r : ' * Ac w / lit. * was carried along.' 

593. K&wwaror : by apocope and assimilation from Kor£rc<ror. tytycr 

Ur^r]. Lemnos was the dearest of all lands to Hephaistos (Odyssey, 
284). The extinct volcano, Mosychlos, explains the association of He- 
phaistos with this island. 

594. limn {<rirofuu, ' injure ') : name of marauding tribe, early inhab- 
itants of Lemnos. 

596. wcuftfct tiMEoro x*pl : maybe translated: 'took from her son in 
her hand ; ' but a better rendering is : ' received at the hand of her son,' 
cf. B 186. Thus %*ipl xcuUt is simply a fuller expression for wot*/: 'at 
the hand of her son/ instead of 'from her son.' 

597. MMgia: adv. ace, passing ' towards the right.' 

596. «£vo\6«t : the orig. meaning of the verb has been so far extended 
that it means * was pouring nectar,' instead of ' was pouring wine ; ' cf. 
the Engl, expression * brass andirons.* 

599. ivApro : syncop. 2 aor. with intrans. signif . from tpw^ii. 

600. irourv4ovra : intensive form from theme xw (pres. vv4w) with a 
•trong reduplication-syllable, troi-. 

602. BatTof Ko-rjt: see on v. 468. 

604. &|Mip4|uvai : * answering one another,' ' responsively.* 

ILIAD I. 195 

605. afadp : correlative to /i4v, v. 601. Kar&u Xajiirp&v <|>do« 4jc\C- 

ou> : 'the sun's bright light sank/ 

606. kokkcCovtcs : by apocope and assimilation from KaraKelovrts, ptc. 
of KaraKtiwy a parallel form to Kardxttfiou, but which has taken on a future 
sense. Translate : ' to lie down to rest.' 

607. Ap^fyirfjcts {bp<t>l and yv?or) : ' strong alike in either arm,' — ap- 
propriate epithet of Hephaistos, as indicating that he was ambidextrous, 
i.e. able to use one hand as well as the other. 

608. I8vtg<rv irpatr(8co-o*i [flSviais <pp«riv] : 'with wise mind.' 

610. Kot|ia0': 'was wont to rest.' Sri licdvot: opt. in temporal 

clause implying a general condition referring to past time. 

611. xpvrMpavo9 : articles of use or ornament of the Olympian deities 
are ordinarily represented as of gold. 


Brjra 8* ovetpov iypi, aryoprjv, /ecu vfja? ipcOfieu 
Beta the Dream and Synod cites; and catalogues the Naval Knights. 

1. Translate $*ot and &v€p€j as appositives of ftAAoi: 'others, both 

gods and heroes.' fanro-KOfnwraC : lit. ' equipped with horses/ *>., as 

horses were used in war only to draw chariots, ' fighting from chariots.' 

2. wawvxioi : adj. translated as adv., see on A 424. o4k Ixc: 'did 

not hold fast/ i.e. his sleep did not continue unbroken throughout the 
entire night (cf. A 611). 

4. tv|i^o-j] : deliberative subjunctive, not changed to opt. as it might 
naturally have been after the secondary tense, |l]/t€/>p4/"fe» Zeus's ques- 
tion in the direct form would have been : x&s ti/*^<t»; ' How can I hon- 
or ? ' G. 256, H. 866, 3 iroAias [voWovs] : synizesis. 

5. 4|Sc : subject of <paiv*To anticipating the inf. hrnciy^aiy but attracted 
from ntr. to fern, by the pred. noun fiovKrf. 

6. otkov (SWv/ii) : 'baleful/ 
7 a= A 201. 

8. p&nc tOi : ' Up I go I ' &d*K< refers more to the start, f0i to the goal. 

10. |id\' Axpocfos : ' very exactly.' rpcic-, the radical syllable of 
&'Tpcic-4ws, is identical with toro-, the radical syllable of torqueo. Thus 

the adv. means, 'not twisted (from the truth),' 'unswervingly.' kf* 

pcvlficv : inf. for imv. 

11. \ [aMv]. KApt| KO|«5«VTf«: 'letting the hair grow long/ a 

mark of free-born Greeks, in distinction from Orientals, who shaved their 
heads, rcdoy is ace. of specification. 

12. mwvNv (<r€<J«) : ' with all haste.' wrfXiv dpAfwair : i*. Troy. 

13. o* ^ap In [otetri yip] Afiflt Wlovrax: 'are diversely 


14. Wvvaii+tv Xur<ro|dvt|: 'hath bent them by her prayers (Aiw 
fi«Vi|) to her wish (tVf)/ e/- laX. precibus inflexit. 

15. tyfjirnu (3 sg. pf. pass, from *irr«) : lit. 'are fastened to/ £* 
'bang orer,' 'impend upon.* 



19* d.u.flp&rio$ : compounded of 4 priv. and the stem of $por6s f which 
is fiop- t jipo-, identical with that of Lat. mor-ior, being a strengthening 
letter, before which p, disappears if initial. Hence $porh f not p^por^t, 
but &fi&pQTQ*> G. 14, fit. 1. See also Sketch of Dialect, § 7, 3- — 
irfxvm : pfupf. from x***- 

20. N^t^ [NifAtipl: the adj. is here the precise equivalent of a 
poss. gen. Nj/XeW, 

2L ytpdvraw : What is the partitive word upon which this gen. of the 
whole depends ? It might seem natural to answer tuLkMrra, but a little 
thought will suggest that the word denoting the part must be of the same 
gender, and usually the same part of speech, as the gen, of the whole. 
Here the partitive word Is t6v [$p\. 

22. J connect with vpotrfQi}. kurd^** * ■ ' Having likened him- 
self to/ The form is aor. ptc. midd. from dfto/iai, and the dat. t£ de- 
pends upon it. For e prefixed, see on A 306. 

23* Verses 23-2$ will be found easy to turn into English hexameters; 
see Essay on Scanning, § 8. For a Lat. version, if. Verg. Aen. IV, 560, 
Nate d£d r potts hot sub casu dutere somnes f Cf* also Silvius Italicus, iii. 
172, Tu rpe dncT t svmno t&tam consumer* noetem. 

24, iTOW«xwv : see on v. 2. 

25* &n,Terp£4*aTeu [iTriT*Tp*fA]*4voi tiVf| 1 3 pi. pf. pass, from rph-u* 

26- I^fliy [£po£] £um (2 aor. imv. from cruviypt): lit. * put to- 
gether/ hence * apply the mind to any object,' * perceive/ ' hearken. 1 Here 
it takes the gen. ^i&tv as a word of mental action, see on A 273. G. 
171 h 2 r H. 742 64 [ydEp] : for parataxis, see on A 5. 


34. jifXU(ipwv : ' honey-hearted/ i.e. < whose heart's core {$$?) is ton* 
ey. 1 dWjn [4*tJ] : 2 aor. subj. from avlijpt. 

35. forip^o-rro [&W0if] : see on A 42S. 

36. *d : cognate ace. with $pwiovra : ' pondering those thoughts, * — . 
ffluXXav : notice ntr. pi. subj. with pi. verb. This is not uncommon in 
Horn., but a special reason for the pi, may here be found, in that there 
would have been a certain ambiguity had the sing. fytAAt been employed. 
It would then have been possible to read, * which he was not destined to 
accomplish \ ' whereas the translation is, * which were not destined to be 

37. +H : lit. ' he said/ fa. * he hoped/ ' be expected.* All long mono- 
syllabic verbal forms in Horn, have the circumflex accent (cf. Sketch of 
Dialect,§ 15, 1). 

$8. fjSu [jrSfi], f pya : to both these words belongs initial f, hence 

the hiatus before each is only apparent The inferential particle pa 

{&pa} hints at the knowledge which the reader (hearer) possesses of the 
subsequent course of the war. It may be translated with 1 . ' which, 
alas \ * Cf.$y pa'mv. 21 : ' whom, of course/ 

198 NOTES. 

39. Notice not only that M and (tfiaw are written separately in this 
verse, but also that the prep, follows its verb. The verb is the same 

which was employed in Thetis's prayer, A 509 ^op : a lengthened in 

the thesis by the ictus. 

40. 8ta fcrpCvos : ' throughout the conflicts ; ' Hid is local, not causal. 

41. #7ptTo (sync. 2 aor. from iycipa, ' arouse') : * he awoke.' 9c£i| 

6|fc$4j : ' a divine voice.' &|jl^^vto (x«») : ' shed itself about him/ Li. 

* rang in his ears.' 

42. Verses 42-46 are interesting as describing how the Homeric hero 
dresses himself. He sleeps, it appears, without clothing upon his body. 

4p6tt0c£$ : reflexive, ' having raised himself upright/ paXaxdv (cf. 

Lat. mollis) : ' soft ; ' the tunic was of wool. 

43. Notice the force of midd. voice in &d\X*ro, 'put on his ; ' also in 
itfoaro, fidKcro, efXero in follg. w. Notice the lengthening of a final 
short vowel in 94, v. 43, and fa6, v. 44, before follg. liquid, which was, 
doubtless, doubled in pronunciation. These vowels both stand in the 
accented part of the foot, which fact, alone, would account for their 

45. &fryvp4i)\oy : ' with silver-studded hilt/ 

46. tyOtTov Act : ' ever-abiding/ both as the work of Hephaistos, and 
as conferred for a perpetual possession on the house of Pelops (cf. v. 

48. *H<6s ["Eco s] irpo<rcfWi<rtTO : ' came to.' 

49. Ztjvl 4mSo)s tplowra [Ail <f>&s ipov<ra] : * to tell the light to Zeus,' i*. 
' to announce the day.' 

60. KryrfKco-o-t k&ciktc b : kc\c6<m> in Attic Greek always takes the ace. 

62. oi |iiv, sc. icfipviccs. roi (= ol) 84, sc. 'Axatol. 

63. t£c [ica04(cTo] : ' was holding its sitting.' 

54. Nctrrop^n : adj. is equivalent to N«Wo/»j, the gen. sing, of noun, 
i.e. % 'the Nestorian ship* equals 'the ship of Nestor.' fruriKyjos is ap- 
positive of the N4<rropos thus implied (see on v. 20). For Nestor, the 

wise king of Pylos, see A 247 follg nvXotycvfo : compound of IIvAot, 

locative case of Tlv\os, and stem ycv-. 

65. irvKtvfjv ^prvvero f3ovX4jv : callidum strutbat consilium. The essen- 
tial idea of itvkv6s is ' firm ; ' hence ' sound/ ' wise.' 

56. kXOtc : 2 aor. imv !vvirvu>v : best taken as adv. ace limiting 

1i\6ov, ' in my sleep.' — Std vvkto, : ' through the night/ not necessarily 
all night, but implying a protracted vision (see on v. 40). 

57. pdXurra dyxwrra : lit. ' most nearest/ a double superlative. 

58. ctSds tc ijiyeOrfs tc tyvfyr tc : ' appearance, size, and form/ cftos 
refers more to the exterior semblance ; <f>vfi means lit. 'growth/ ' build/ 

59. |U irpoo&tircv : compounds of <prifxi and clxov with xp6s always take 
the ace, not the dat, of the person addressed (cf. A 84). 

60-70 = 22-33* Notice that messages are repeated in Horn, in exact- 
ly the form in which they were first g^vetv. 


71. diro-rrAficvos : 2 aor. ptc. of tIto/mi, the theme of which appears in 
three forms : it«t-, irre, irra-. 

72. foptf)(opcv : aor. subj. For form, see on A 141 ; for mood, see on 
A 67. 

73. H tt|u$ Icrriv : 'as is right.' The antecedent of the rel. pron. is 
the idea contained in iret/>4<rofuu, but the rel. is fern, instead of ntr. on 
account of the influence of the pred. noun Bi^is (see on v. 5). 

74. <rfcv vrpHrC : ' with the ships,' which are thought of as being taken 

along like companions.. iroXvicVfj un : ' with many rowlocks.' The 

icKrfts [k\c(s], Lat. clavis, was a hook used in pushing open the bolt of a 
door. Then, from the resemblance of this rude 'key ' to a rowlock, it 
comes to mean ' rowlock.' 

75. 4pi)Tf6civ: inf. for imv. &Wo9cv AXXos: 'one from one point, 

another from another,' i.e. ' from many different points.' 

76. roto-i 8' Mxrn\ : see on A 56. 

77. 4j|&a06cvTos : gen. from 1i[&]na06cis. 

78. This and the follg. verse are conventional formulae, always fol- 
lowed by a speech. 

80. Ivunrcv: unaugm. 2 aor. from 4v{v)4ttco = tv-<reirta from theme 
<r«r-, ' tell ' (see on v. 484). Observe the lack of correspondence between 
the protasis and apodosis, — the one of the 2d, the other of the 4th, form. 

81. voo+ttoC|«0a : ' hold ourselves aloof,' ' turn away.' 

82. Cf. A 91. 

84. Nestor, usually prolix in his speeches, is here a model of brevity. 
He closes his speech with the exhortation already used by Agamemnon, 
iw* &ycr€, and hastens from the council of chiefs to the popular as- 

86. Notice the force of the prep, in hr'4ffrntrav : ' rose up at his word.' 
861 lirenrcwovTO : 'were hurrying to the spot.' 

87. *jvrc [&<nrcp]. — lOvca: 'swarms/ ctox: lit. 'go,' ue. 'fly.' 

e?/u has freq. the pres. signif . in Horn. esp. in comparisons. The thrice- 
recurring termination -mov in this and in the follg. verse has been thought 
to suggest the hum of bees. 

89. porpvWv ($orpis, 'bunch of grapes'): 'like clusters," in clus- 
ters.' The adv. suffix -5of (or -Byy) denotes the manner of an action. 

tir* dvO«rt: 'over the flowers;' the thought is of locality, not of 


90. irtiro'HjaTat [ireir6Tiirrat] : pf. pass, from vordopcu. 

91. rfiv [rotruv] : the article has not only demonstrative force, but is 

emphatic, ' of these.' &iro : follows its case, and hence suffers anastro- 

phe. G. 191, 3, n. 5, H. 109 a ; Sketch of Dialect, § 6. 

92. ^Wvos (nom. l\X&v or -$&v) paOcfrp : lit.,' deep ' shore, *>. ' deep ' 

as extending far into the land, 'concave,' 'hollow.' Others translate 
« low-lying.' brntfavro (<rnx«fo/iox) : ' were advancing.' For assimila- 
tion, see Sketch of Dialect, § 18, 1. 

200 NOTES. 

93. IXoSdv (IXif, 'troop ') : see on v. 90 ; the special point of compari- 
son lies in the word 8c84" (2 plupf. from tiedu) : 'was ablaze/ 'spread 

like wild-fire/ fova : * Rumor ' is called At&* ftyycAo* (v. 94) because 

so mysterious in its origin : it cannot be traced to any man ; hence must 
have come from Zeus. 

94. &<y4povro : 2 aor. midd. from byclp*. 

95. TfTpifxct (unaugm. plupf. from 0p4xra» = rapda<r» f theme rapax; 
shortened to rpax-) : ' had been confused,' ' was in an uproar/ 

97. Po6»VTtg ip-fyrvov : ' by their shouts were trying to restrain.' 

98. cfvoTf (r\oiar > [trxotyro] : ' on the chance that they would restrain 
themselves from.' See on A 67. 

99. JpVjrvOtv (cf. jyepOfv, A 57) : 'were held back,' *>. kept in order. 
ko0' ISpat: 'along the benches.' 

101. tcdpc Ttvx«v: 'wrought with art/ lit 'grew weary in making.' 
Vv. 101-108 represent figuratively how Agamemnon received his commis- 
sion and prerogatives from Zeus. The scepter was prepared, by the 
special direction of Zeus, by Hephaistos ; it was sent by Zeus's envoy 
Hermes to Pelops, the founder of Agamemnon's house, and regularly 
descended to the hero himself. 

103. 8tOKT6fxp Apyftylvrg: 'the guide Argeiphontes/ Hermes is 
called Hidxropos {$t-dya>) as 'guide' of the souls of the departed to the 
lower world. It seems better to transfer into English as a proper name 
the word kpyet$6vn)s (supposed to be a compound of HpycZ- — probably a 
locative case from the root tyy-, which appears in kpy6s, &pyvpos — and 
<palva>) : lit. ' he who appears in brightness/ which may refer to the swift- 
ness of his motion (light being associated with swiftness), or to the succor 
(light) which he brings. The story of how Hermes slew the hundred-eyed 
Argos, whom Hera had set to watch Io, is a later myth, and there seems 
to be no warrant for the translation, 'slayer of Argos/ which is given in 
some dictionaries. 

106. iroXfapvt : heteroclite dat. ; the only nom. is xo\6apros. 

107. &v&rr'(&) : for 0v4<rrns (see Sketch of Dialect, § 10, 2) ^o- 

frijvcu [<pop*lv\ : this anomalous form is a pres. inf. : ; a longer form, <popi\- 
fAcvcu, also occurs. Like kv<Lcr<rtiv in follg. verse, the inf. denotes purpose, 
with a mingled idea of result. G. 265, H. 951. 

108. "Apyct m&vr£ : be king ' for all Argos/ Argos is here used for 
all that territory over which Agamemnon bore sway, i.e. most of the Pelo- 

109. t«? (aicbrrptp) : 'upon this/ lit. 'with this/ dat. of means. The 
possession of the scepter, it will be remembered (<cf. A 245), gave him 
who held it the right to speak. 

111. piya: adv. ace tvffit)<rc: ' involved/ ' entangled/ Agamem- 
non, like men in all times, blames the gods for his mistakes &td 

Papc£n : 'grievous infatuation/ 


112. oyjtrXu* (*x») : lit. 'holding fast to his purpose; ' here, 'relent- 
less.' KaTfrfwcv : see on A 514, 527. 

113. 4iar4p<ravT ' : what vowel has been elided ? AiroWco-Ocu : the a 

of the first syllable is used as long. Cf. 'AiroAAwa, A 14, 21. 

115. Svo-icXia [8v<rjcAca] : the full form is ftwncAeca, and one € is al- 
lowed to drop out instead of being contracted with follg. a krcl 

flXion : 4r*i is both temporal and causal. &\caa = LaL pcrdidi. 

116. pAXii <f>£Xov ctvot : see on A 564. 

117. iroXXdwv iroX&ov [toAXwv h-^Xcw]. 

118. to© -ydf icpdros : ' for his might.' See on A 509. 

119. Kal fcnrofilvoun irv8&r6cu : * even for posterity to learn of.' For 
dat, G. 184, s, H. 771. 

120. fwL+ otfrw : ' thus vainly.' 

121* &irpt)icrov [&rpa/rrov] : ' fruitlessly/ 

122. &vSpd<rt : dat. after vo\*fAl(uv, as after iro\cfi4w and /m£x°/4«u, G. 
X86, N. r, H. 77a. irtyavnu : 3 sg. pf. pass, from <paivw. 

124. 6pKta *wrA ra^vrfs : lit. ' having slain oath-sacrifices to be de- 
pended upon,' »>. ' having concluded a firm alliance by sacrifice.' 

125. 8<r<rot leurt [foot clarC]. 

126. 8iOKo«r|iT|0€t|4Cv : 'should arrange ourselves.' The verb might 
have stood in the inf. dependent upon 4$4\oititv as in w. 124, 125. 

127. Ikcuttov : v. /. cjcatrroi, which makes equally good sense. 

128. ScvoCaTO [5«'omto] : a primitive way of saying that the Greeks 
more than tenfold outnumbered the Trojans. It is a mistake to suppose 
that brevity of speech comes early and naturally ; it comes rather late, and 
often only as the result of study. 

129. vyJajs=irK4ovas [ir\4ovs] : perhaps, after the loss of v from x\4- 
ovas t the was lost instead of being irregularly contracted with follg. a 
into ov, as in Attic. 

130. irrdXiv : t has been called a parasitic letter ; it is supposed to 
have been developed, in vulgar pronunciation, in v4\ts and T6\epos and 
it was found convenient in poetry to retain it. 

131. dv8p€$ stands as appositive to ixUovpoi : ' allies, spear-brandishing 

132. irX£{ov<rt : lit. ' cause to wander,' i.e. baffle in the purpose of cap- 
turing Troy. clfijr' [iuari] : 3 pi. pres. indie, of idoo. 

134. pcfkuun (3 pi. 2 pf. from $alv<») [jScSooY) : 'are gone.' Aita 

hnavrol : 'years of Zeus ; ' for he determines their number and with what 
they shall be filled. 

135. SoOpa : ' timbers.' For the form Boupa for Zopv-a> see on A 407. 
XiXwTcu : the Attic usage of ntr. pi. with sing, verb is here not ob- 
served (cf v. 36). 

136. m>v : ' methinks,' as in A 178. 

137. tfar' [? vreu] : cf A 239 ircmSly|Mvai [xpoar^dfiwai] : 'ex- 

202 NOTES. 

pecting.' The form is syncop. 2 aor. ptc. (cf. Mx etu > A 23) &|i|u : see 

on A 384. 

138. afot*: see on A 133; cf. also v. 342 fccpdavrov [fSucparrop] 

(4 priv. and KpcUvw). 

141. o* 7^p In alp^rofMv : lit. ' we shall no longer take,' ia ' there is 
no longer hope of our taking.' 

142. roto-i : dat. of interest loosely connected with the whole sentence. 
G. 184, 3, N. 4, H. 767. 

143. |utA itXtjOvv: usually fitrd with ace. means l to the midst of/ 
' after.' Here fierd means ' throughout.' 

145. Wvtov is the specific word ; $*\4.<r<n\s y the generic. Instead of 
taking x6vrov as appositive of BaXdcaris, each word may be joined sepa- 
rately with Kvfxara. Thus daXda-tnjs would have the same force as BaXdtr- 
viva: 'sea-waves of the Ikarian deep.' The Ikarian sea was near the 
island Ikaria, west of Samos. Daidalos was said to have escaped from 
Crete, with his son Ikaros, by means of wings made of feathers united 
by wax ; but Ikaros flew too near the sun, the wax was melted, and he 
was drowned in the sea to which he gave his name. 

146. Apop ' [fyxrc] : 2 aor. of 6pwpt with act. signif. 

147. 8rt KtWjtrg [$r<w Ktrfioy] Ztyvpos: a boisterous (not gentle) 

wind to those living on the east side of the Aegean, as all can testify who 
have felt at Smyrna the afternoon sea-breeze, there called Bates (modern . 

Greek MPdnjs = 'EpPdrri s : * In-comer ') fkUft X^jlov : * high-standing 

(lit. 'deep') grain.' 

148. Xapfxfc : adj. with adv. force. krt r ' 4\\i.v€i (sc. as subj. \4\lov) : 

'and it (the standing crop) bows before the blast (M sc. Zc<f>6p<p) with its 
ears.' Acrraxfonnv (nom. aaraxvs) : dat. of means. 

149. dXaXtrrf : « with a cheer.' 

150. vfjos fcr' [M vaus] (ace. pi.) : no anastrophe because vowel is 
elided (Sketch of Dialect, § 6). 

151. Xvraro 6&po\Uvr\ : ' rose and stood in the air.' 

152. dXa Svav : Sios is one of Hom.'s habitual epithets. Other words 
to which Kb* is freq. applied are : the earth, rivers, and certain ancient 

153. otyofe : ' trenches ' in which the ships were drawn to the sea. 

154. U\Uvwv (pres. midd. ptc. from tutu) : lit. 'sending themselves 
along,' *>. 'hurrying.' The hiatus between oUatit and Ufxirwv is only 
apparent, since Tiy/ui began with a consonant (represented by rough breath- 

155. farippopa : ace. pi. of adj. used as adv., lit. ' beyond fate,' *>. 

' contrary to fate.' Ma ictv My$r\ (t€^x«) : ' then would have been 

brought to pass.' 

156. irpw-foirfv : separation of irpbs from tuxtp not common. See 
also on v. 59. 


157. iTpvr&vn: either 'the impeller T (orptW, as if QTpurdnn<i) or 'in- 
domitable ! (a priv. and Tpitw * wear ')« 

159. Mi here used of extension over, * over the sea's broad back,* 

160. k6B [Hard] i apocope, and assimilation* §vx«Xt|v: pred ace 

after Kara-^hottv f 'as a boast/ conveniently translated ' to glory over/ 

162* *v Tpo£fl ' ' in the plain of Troy.* 4mS : • remote from/" 

164. a-^ftwris; conventional epithet (see on A 202), is not particularly 
appropriate to Athena j it is much more appropriate to Odysseus, and 
may have been interpolated from v- iSo. Notice two cases of apparent 
hiatus ; tp&ra tna<TTQif t fnjdi (a, where an initial consonant has been lost 
Notice, too T in vrjas &KaB€ f v, 165, that the final syllable of fijai is long 
by position, because aKoBt orig. began with <r (cf Lat, saf) t 

165* Sc, 'Axmous as subj. of Ihtctftcv* 

1G& otfB' dir£$ij<r€: *did not fail to obey, 1 'obeyed at once,' For 
explanation of litotes, see on A 220. 

167. Cf A 44. 

169. &TdAxnrrov (compound of & copulative == &pa and rdXawrov) ; *of 
like weight with ; * hence takes dat. as a word of likeness, 

170. IflTatfr' [forur*], 

171. KpaS(7]v iced (hifuiv : accusatives of the part, in apposition with 
ftiv {cf A 150). The coupling of the two nouns is also an example of 
Homeric fulness of expression. 

175. h . . . irw^vTts: l having tumbled on board of, J with idea of 
confusion and fear. 

176. KiS S* : see on v. 1 60, 

182* Construe &ra as obj. of ^vv4tjk^ yet cf A 273, B 26. 

183. Pi Sfc U&v : *and he started to run/ 

184. "IGaicV** ■ the herald, like his master, was from Ithaka. For 
position and duties of herald, see on A 321. The o in &i is long because 
oi has an orig. F* For dat. 01, see G. 18G, H. 772 ♦ 

186, ell dat. of advantage, for he was going to use the scepter in Aga- 
memnon's behalf. Translate r 'received at the hands of/ and cf A 596. 

188* icix^ : pres. opt. as if from ntxw* I^X^"]* See 0n A 2 & The 
opt. is indefinite, a general condition being implied. G. 331, 225, H. 

139. Ip7p™-*ra-flnt-i (iterative aor* from ipv}T&to} impacrrdf 1 * would 
step up to and detain/ 

190. AaijwSvw ! here used in a good sense, * Good sir 1 ' Below, v. 200, 

it has the bad sense, 'wretch ' (see on A 561 J Kaxbv &$ (kai&jrj&$} : 

&$, as adv. of comparison, takes the accent when it follows the word 
which it would regularly precede. G, 29, N,, H T .m b. Sketch of Dia- 
lect, § 6, Rem. 

104. Odysseus uses the same word which Agamemnon (v. 75) had used 
in announcing his intention ; yet immediately after he puts himself in tb 

204 NOTES. 

number of those who were not present in the council of chiefs to hear 
what Agamemnon said (oh xdvrts iucowrofxty). 

195. rt ti jMgfl : for this use of subj., ordinarily explained by ellipsis 
of a verb of fearing, see G. 218, n. 2, H. 887. 

196, 197. 'For mighty is the wrath (or 'lofty is the thought') of a 
king fostered by Zeus, and his honor comes from Zeus, and Zeus the 
councillor loves him.' In v. 196 occurs an example of parataxis (see on 
A 5) |H|T<fTa: see A 508. 

198. 18c*, tycvpot : indef . opt. in a relative clause implying condition, 
the iterative aorists Jxrfowicc, o>o*A^<rcunc€ implying a number of single 

200. 4j<ro: 2 sg. imv. from ?/uu koI . . Aicovc: 'hear (now and 

henceforth, pres. imv.) others' words.' 

201. oio : does not lose its accent, i.e. is orthotone, not enclitic, because 
contrasted with of. 

202. tvap£0|uos : precisely as we say ' of account.' 

203. o4 irws : ntUlo modo. \Uv Jjiiiv]. 

204. oftc fryoftov iro\vicoipav<T| : 'a multitude of rulers is no good 
thing.' Notice the litotes ; notice also in the gender of bya$6r an example 
of the frequent use of a ntr. pred. adj. where the subj. is masc. or fem. 
Cf in Lat. sentences like triste lupus stabulis: 'the wolf a grievous thing 
to the folds.' This verse expresses the demand often so strongly fek, 
and especially in times of violence, for one strong controlling hand. 
In the next verse, too, we have the idea of the Divine Prerogative which 
has been such a support of royalty. Cf. A 279. 

205. &yicv\o|M]Tca> : always pronounce the gen. ending -«« with synizesis. 

206. This verse is weak and obscure in this connection, and was 
probably interpolated from I 99. A varia lectio for jSovAetfp is /3cur<Ae4p : 
' rule ' for them, instead of ' plan ' for them. No word is expressed to 
which <r<pt(ri refers, but the word 0atri\*4s implies ' subjects,' and for this 

word vtyitri stands. <nd|irrpov: the 'scepter,' the king's badge of 

power ; 64fiurras (nom. sing. 64/xts) : the ' ordinances ' which he lays down. 
The prose word for 64fiurr€s would be 0e<r/xof, Lat. institute*. 

207. KoipaWwv 8£circ : ' as ruler was arranging.' Koipayfov is ptc nom. 
sing. For fir«, see on A 166. 

208. For breaarttovro and &ro, cf. w. 86, 91. 

209. woXv^XoCo-poio : example of an onomatopoetic word, &*. of a 
word which imitates, when spoken, the sound which it describes (cf, arfict- 
pay€? f v. 210). 

210. olytoXf : local dat. ' on a broad strand.' 

211. {frijrvOcv : see on v. 99. 

212. 4ico\<pa (jcoApda) : 'was screaming,' 'was brawling,' cf. A 575. 

213. &KO0fid n iroXXd re : in Engl, we join both adjs. to the subst 
al&*hout any intervening conj., 'many unbecoming words.' 


214. p,di|r : * vainly,* and 06 K<mi KbVpov : ' not fitly/ seem to a certain 
extent simitar ideas, so that it rather surprises us that they should be 

joined by an adversative conjunction, fad? (see on A 50) - iptglftfvcu 

[{pfffu'] : for inf. depending upon IWca jjftoj, see G. ^65, n., H, 951. 

215. One of the commonest ways of quarrel is with words ; hence 

ipi(tfifvat easily suggests \4y*tv t on which on tfo-atra depends flomiTo 

from fl^Djuai [Sokcw]. 

216. ofcrxwrTQs : his ugliness of soul is left to be inferred from his 
ugliness of body. To the Greeks, that the first should be found in con- 
nection with the second would seem almost obvious. It has been re- 
marked that Thersites impersonates all the qualities most opposed to 
the ideal of a hero* It should also be noticed that he is almost the only 
character taken from the common people who is portrayed with any detail 
in the Iliad. The heroes of the poem are the nobles (the SmytviTs Bam 
\ms). The audience was chiefly composed of nobles: the poet was in 
sympathy with his audience, and when he does introduce a man of the 
common people like Thcrsites t be makes him as hideous as he can (see 
on A So) -frird : 'under the walls of.' 

217- inv [&]* ~~ irtpov ird&a : * in one foot J {cf. Lat. daudus altera 

218. <tuvpx«*kAt€ (tfwe'x w ) : ^x WKa r peculiar pf. with Attic redupl. (and 
variation of vowel) for Stc&xa- G< to Verb List, fit. 5°B & l $- 

219. Iirev^voit; an obscure form f probably a pf.} from uncertain pres- 
ent. Autenrieth connects it with the root of foQas, 'flower/ and thus 
readily derives the meaning ' bloomed upon,* 'grew upon.' 

220. paXurra Ix^ 10 " 1 ' * : was ' mC>st Hateful to/ For another example 
of the double superlative, see on v. 57. 

321. tA yhp vtiKtUrKi [ivctxti] : the clause with ydp is a reason for 
the bitter hate (fxflnrroj) which was felt for Thersites. 

222. leacXTryjis : 2 pf- ptc, from Khd(u (stem Kkayy-). 

223. hm&ykut ; probably derived from iiwKfaffw (*/. iE&rKdyy, Xen. 
Anab* IL in. r.). 

224* paKpd : of cries that penetrate *far,' i>. * piercingly/ l loudly.' 

225. Tio [rim] ! for case, see on A 65 S^ u3t' : syndesis X ar ^ m 

fctis ! derived from the root #ar« seen in x A ^> ' S a P e ^ X^* J r ' void ; ■ it 
takes the gen. as a word of want- 

226. irXtfeu : in ordinary prose an adj. of Attic 2d decL The inter- 
change of forms iftetor and *\4wf illustrates tndatkesfc quantitatis* 

22S. SCSojuv t Thersites is as great a braggart as he is coward. No- 
tice that the use of the subj* *$r* £p [Stcw] tKtofitv in the temporal 
clause containing a general condition marks SfBoper as prs. and not ipf. 

229. IwiStvuu, [ftrtftcp] »!**• atari : for use of Kt [&v] with fuL 

indie-, see on A 137. 

231* Beanos 6V^4vw : * shall have bound and led captive. 1 


206 NOTES. 

283b tcar{ox«u. : for form, ef.h 141 ; the use of the mood suggests the 
subj. of purpose common in relative clauses in Latin, but not a prose- 
Greek construction. It is exactly parallel, in connection, to fdaymai, and 
may be translated as if we had fra xarlaxfcu- 0$ \Uv [oft fi'hr]. 

234. kokAv : gen. after brtfkuTKffxcr in the sense of ' bring into contact 
with.' G. 170, 2, H. 751. 

235. iMyx** : H** ' reproaches,' ix. objects of reproach. 

236. «fp : * by all means.' topcv (Hot) : « let us leave.' 

237. 7<pa irwrtHjMv : ' digest his gifts of honor/ i.e. see how much 
good they will do him without our support. 

238. x^pcfe [*"* ♦/*«**] : ' we als o/ ^ well as Achilles. 

239. As ical 'Ax^a 4|t£|M|otv: 'for he also insulted Achilles;' a 

causal idea here underlies the relative clause lo [o5 = abrou] : notice 

the lengthening of the vowel (lo) before a liquid (see on A 394). 

240 = A 356. 

241. Thersites has not a whit more affection for Achilles than for 
Agamemnon. He finds in the indignities heaped upon Achilles conven- 
ient additional charges against Agamemnon, but he cannot leave Achilles 

without a thrust at him. 06 \6kos <fa>ccr£v : ' he has no wrath in his heart.' 

\ufr()\uav: adj. instead of a subst. fxeBTjfxoa^yTj : 'remissness/ which 

would have been in exact contrast with x^Aos 

242. X«»fHjoraio : Thersites uses the very words uttered by Achilles, A 

244. irapUrraro : ' was standing by his side. 

246. Jjvforairc: contrast the tense with that of xaptoraro: 'broke out 
in reproof.' The form is one of two (only) instances of a very peculiar 
reduplication in 2 aor. The theme of Ivlirrw is iviir-; the redupl. is the 
syllable -air affixed to the theme. The other instance is ipvKOKov, 2 aor 
from ipvKdvco (stem ipvic-). See Sketch of Dalect, § 15, 2. 

246. &Kptr6|M>6c : cf ajirrooer^j, v. 212. 

247. |wj8* ICkV : ' and undertake not/ ' and venture not.' 

248. x € f >€W * T€ f >0V [x € lp° va ] : comp. of kouc6s. 

249. 5o-o-ot : in order to connect naturally with what precedes, a gen. 
of the whole, e.g. x&mav, must be supplied, dependent upon &Wov. 

250. The potential opt. in this and follg. v. is equivalent to a mild 

251. vo'otov ^vXdrrois : lit. ' watch the return/ *>. watch that one fail 
not of it. Cf in French, garder le retour. 

253. f$ 1\k kok&s vooT^o-ojicv : freely, ' whether our return shall be to 

our advantage, or to our hurt ; ' it should be entered upon, accordingly, 

with deliberation. The weakness and repetition of w. 254-256 suggest 

that they are justly bracketed as interpolation. 

255. 4jo~<u : in colloquial sense, not of actual sitting posture, for he 

t ljtg not sit down until v. 268 (cf also vv. 211, 212), but of his avoid- 

ILIAD II. 207 

ance of any laborious occupation which would leave him less free to scat- 
ter his abuse on every side. 

257. rb Si Kal : ' and this also.' rerfktayJvov ftrnu [reAeirtf^rercu]. 

258. a^pafrovra (i priv. and <ppi\v) : ' talking folly.' iax^ <ro f wu : 

see on A 141. — &$ v^» vcp SSc : £8c is antecedent of &<nrcp : ' in this way 
just as now.' 

259. *08wf|i, Apoun : apposition of part to whole. '08v<riji is simply 
a more emphatic */*of tircCi) : opt. of desire. 

260. |it|8i kckXtj^vos cttjv : * and may I not be called/ *>. ' may I no 
longer be/ 

261. Take <rc and etjuaTa as double ace. after foro-8rf<r». G. 164, H. 


262. *rd t : see on A 86 ; see also Sketch of Dialect, § 14 ad finem. 
alS&: ace. sing, from ai86s. G. 55, n. 1, H. xg& 

264. Connect &yopf)6cv [Q ityopas] with d^cw (a^/i^u) : 'shall smite 
and drive you with unseemly blows from the assembly to the ships.' If 
xXrryrpiv belonged with TetrXvyds, it would probably stand as cogn. ace. 

266. The stroke took effect on both shoulders and on the portion of 
the back lying between (and below) them, ue. ficrdtypcrov. 

268. oidprrpov thro \pwriov : exactly as we say * under the stroke ; ' 
br6 being both local and causal. 

269. AxP <tov ^ v : nt * ' looking uselessly/ i.e. casting silly looks about. 

270. axvv|uvot: * grieved,' probably because of their desire to return. 
tj&v: 'merrily.' 

271. ns fCirao-Kcv : for iterative aor. see on A 490. rts : ' many a one.' 
The indefinite pron. as here used is said by Gladstone to represent public 
opinion in Homer (cf. A 81). 

272. *Cl irrfiroi : for accent of & and meaning of *-<foroi, see on A 254. 
tcStoi is used only here of pleasant surprise Wj [ffSij]: see on A 61. 

274. rtfSf is ace. of the object ; apurrov, of the predicate. Translate : 
' this is by far the best thing which he has wrought.' 

275. tirco--f!M\ov : lit. 'one who throws about words.' ta\ A70- 

pda»v: 'restrained from his speeches' (see on v. 239). 

276. 8rfjv : gives ironical turn to the sentence irdXiv aftrts : ' back 

again.' For similar doubling of words of nearly similar sense, cf. Setfre- 
povaZris. aWjcrct: fut of hv-i-qixi. 

278. <|>d<rav 4\ tr\rfiv%: collective noun with pi. verb. ava . . . Icrrn : 

Odysseus, it seems, had taken his seat after chastising Thersites. The 
epithet wrokixopBos (for xroXt- see on v. 133) is appropriate to Odysseus 
from the special share which he had, through the device of the wooden 
horse, in the reduction of Troy, a story not related, however, in the Iliad. 

279. irapd : adv. ' by his side.' 

280. av&ytt : plupf . with signif . of ipf . 

281. irpftrol re Kal flora/rot : ' those in the first and the last ranks/ 
'nearest and remotest.' 

208 NOTES. 

284. vOr 84| : ' now as it appears.' 

285. iMyxiorov : superlative in -i*tos formed from noun IXryx** (see 

on A 325) ttpcvcu |0€t*cu] ppOTofcn : dat. of the person in whose 

view anything has a certain character. G. 184, 3, n. 2, H. 771. |upl- 

vfvtrt : see on A 25a 

286. Hwnp tirfe-rav [-Amyow] : ' which they assumed.' * Standing 
under ' a promise is really as natural a metaphor for pledging one's self 
to it as ' assuming,' lit. ' taking to one's self.' ^vircp is a kind of cognate 
ace, for (nrivrw is equivalent to Mtrxorro. 

287. MdS* In vr^\ovrt% : * while still on the way hither.' "Apytot : 

used as in A 30 for the whole region about Argolis, whence most of the 
Achaians came. 


289. AoTt : regularly in Horn, equals fttnrcp or As, re having no appre- 
ciable force. See on A 86. 

290. 68vpevTai vtafai : it is only by an extension of the orig. meaning 
of Mporrcu that it can take the inf. of the purport of the lament. The 
verb comes to mean : ' express by tears their desire.' 

291. The course of thought w. 291-300 may be thus outlined : The 
case of the Achaians is hard ; 't is hard enough (*6vos) to make one return 
wearied out. For even a month's absence from wife in stormy seas is 
painful ; how much more a nine years' absence. There is then no occa- 
sion to blame the Achaians ; but still it must be remembered that, hard 
as is the case where so much has been borne and the object not gained, 
yet honor forbids a return empty-handed ; hence the closing exhortation : 
• Bear up yet a while, friends 1 ' 

292. Airtf : ' away from ' (see on v. 178). There is no elision because 
of the orig. F in f ollg. word. 

293. <rvv : s>. ' on board of ' (see on v. 74). 

294. (Jv mp ctXfocrt [tr hv ttx&ai] : subj. in conditional relative clause 
after a primary tense: 'whomsoever the wintry gusts and rising sea 
confine in harbor.' 

295. %Iv |U|tv4vTf<r<ri \ji4vov<ri] : dat. in designation of time, ' as we 
remain here.' G. 184, 3, N. 1, H. 77 z *» 

298. WfcrOeu. : sc. riva as subject. kcvcov [k€v6v\ : cf. &fc\<p6s and 

299. 8o6|mv: 2 aor. pass. subj. from theme 80-, 'learn,' of which 
9*8tHnt* 9 ' teach/ is a pres. with causative signif . 

900. ewdv: 'really.' 

801. Irri 84 : parataxis ; we might have had l<rrl ydp. 

802. ofa p^ • • • +dpowoi: 'as many as the death-fates have not 
■wept away.' p4 is used instead of oh because the antecedent of the rela- 
tive is indefinite, which is the same as saying that a condition is implied- 
Ck 231, H. zoaz. 



303. %BiZ& n ital wpuiV : ' ft was but) the other day/ Notice that 
the Greek says ' yesterday and the day before/ instead of ' yesterday or 
the day before ' {tf. eya ko.1 Si™, v. 346). Aulis was the Boeotian town on 
the Euboean Gulf where the Greek fleet assembled and was delayed by 
adverse winds, while on the point of sailing for Troy. 

304, fft€p$Wro : from Horn. pres. 4ft*p49Qtu* f formed from theme 
ftpps G. ng, u, H. 494. Cf v. 44S. 

306. dp^l inpL t kptpt is adv. and vtpl prep. {cf Engl, * round about '). 

306. TdLtjta-ros ; probably best translated, ' bringing fulfilment * (see 
on A 3T5) ; old rendering, ' unblemished/ 

307, lrXciTaviffTu [*AaT<fry] : the * plane-tree/ not unlike our maple to 
appearance, grows especially by springs and along watercourses #0*v 

306. Ma % * then/ carries back the thoughts to x^i* ™ *■* *p***f ' 

hrt : with ace. denotes * extension over* {cf. vv. 159* 299) So+otv^: 

* blood-red/ It is compounded of So- also fa- [M] * thoroughly ' {cf per 
wtlh strengthening force as Lat. prefix, e.g. perm agnus), and <p6vo* t 'gore/ 

310. pa»|urij : gen. of separation after the idea of motion implied in 
vwat(m {><x 1 see on A 56. 

311 . Wpta T&tva : ' tender (lit l infant ') brood/ 

312. £mmfirrr|MTfs {2 pf. ptc from -wrfairu) : ' crouching beneath/ 
For dat, irfrdkois, G. 187, H> 775. 

313. Translate t l eight, but the mother-bird was the ninth, which 
hatched her brood/ 

314. &«iyd TtrpiywTtK {2 pf. from rpffr) : 'twittering piteousiy/ 

315. Connect ritwa with oajptwotaTQ as its object. 

316. 4\<Xi££ji€vos : 'having coiled himself/ i.e. so as to launch himself 

upon the mother-bird. — irripvyos 1 * by the wing/ &|i$ Latvia v (pf- 

ptc. from stem lax-) l * screaming/ 

317. Join kgt4 . . , tyayc and translate : ■ swallowed/ 

318. Aptyjtav (prefix Apt-, 'very, 1 and Bijtoi, 'plain*) : 'conspicuous.' 
Translate the whole verse : J the Deity, who also sent it, made of it a con- 
spicuous sign/ te, a miracle. 

319. For double ace after ffrjice , G. 166, H. 726. The latter half of 
this verse is identical with v. 205. 

330, oW *nJ^0n \ * at what a thing was brought to pass/ 

321 . it<rP|X0t : here used, as the connection shows, of a sudden, disturb- 
ing entrance. Translate : * when therefore dreadful monsters (pi. for sing.) 
intruded among the hecatombs of the gods/ 

323. avtw ; adv. ■ in silence.' For a similar use of adv. in pred. where 
an adj. seems to us more natural, cf A 416, T 95. The varia lectio is &irtq> f 
nom. pi. from adj. &vms: 'speechless/ 

325. tyLjiov, 4+vr&*ew : * late, late of fulfilment/ This repetition of 


the same idea in words of similar sound is called paronomasia. &ov 

[oJ] : a conjectural varia lectio is So (see Sketch of Dialect, § ix, i). 

328. «roXq&({o|uv : see on v. 130. As the pres. of the verb is in -fm 

the fut. would in Attic be in -cm (or -m»). criOt [afrntet] : ' on this very 

spot.' If the elision had not taken place before frca (ffrca) we might 
have had roctradra $rt a, ca as one syllable by synizcsis. 

390. t*s [fijj : */C rot, rat for o/, a/. 

332. els 6 ict* [l»s tfr]. 

334. o^pSaXiov : ' terribly/ ntr. adj. used as cognate ace. &w6»- 

twv far* 'AxcuAv : ' under (because of) the shouts of the Achaiana/ G. 
191, VI. 7 (1 ) b and c, H. 808, b and c. 

335. hreuWj<rarr«s [IxaiWowrf s] : agrees with 'Apyetoi, v. 335. 

336. Tofcrt : G. 184, 3, N. 2, H. 767 Tcpijvios : « Gerenian/ Gere> 

nia is said to have been a town or district in Messenia whither Nestor 
fled while Herakles was sacking Pylos. Another explanation makes 
r«p^Ktoj = yepvv. 

337. d-yopdocrOi (a in thesis, as in A 14, 21, etc) : for assimilated form, 
see Sketch of Dialect, § 18, 1. 

338. ol« : for case, G. 184, 2, N. 1, H. 763. 

339. irfj 8i| fHjorenu : ' whither pray will go ? ' ue. * what in the world 
will become of ? ' The ' covenants and oaths ' referred to are those at 
Aulis before sailing for Troy (v. 286). 

340. to irupC : ' into the fire/ 84j : here joined with opt. of desire, as 

it is freq. joined with imv., to strengthen the expression of wish. One 
might paraphrase : ' Perish, then, our resolves and shrewd counsels.' 

341. <nrov8at, 8«£uU : in their literal sense, ' libations and right hands,' 
standing in conjunction for the league of friendship of which they were 

the sign dxptrroi [bjcparoi] : compound of a privative and Kcpdrvvfu. 

* Unmixed ' wine was employed in solemn libations ; wine was not drunk 
unmixed. Mm6|MV [Irciroffff ipcr]. 

342. atfras : see on v. 138. 

343. t*p<|icv<u [ctyciv]. 

344. tt' (fa ) 6s wpCv : « still as heretofore/ 

346. 46kv46civ : G. 119, 11, H. 494. fra ical Svo : see on v. 303. 

Connect 'Axaiwv as part. gen. with rol [ot\. 

347. crfrAv : subjective gen., ' no accomplishment shall be theirs,' ue. 
they shall accomplish nothing. 

348. Uvcu depends upon 0ov\€voo<ti wpCv . . . wpfv : see on A 97. 

Which wpiv is a conjunction, which an adverb ? 

349. yv«|A€v<u [yv&vcu] : cf. Ufkwtu* A 98, 1 16 i|*GSo$ : pred. noun 

where we should expect a pred. adj. ^cvftls. 

350. ydp o$v : ' for in any case/ 

351. tirl Ktpwlv Ifkuvov : M with dat. differs little from tv or <riw with 
dat. or from the simple dat. ; translate : * were going away in their ships/ 


352> +(Jvov Kftl icfjpo.; 'slaughter and death/ Homeric fulness of ex- 
pression. Cf* in Engl. * death and destruction/ 

353, i<rTpd?TTfi*v : an anacoluthon ; strictly this and the follg. ptc. 
should be in ace case, but tpitpl Kstravivtrat Kpavtwa becomes for the mo- 
ment, to the speaker. Karivwaz Kpovtmv. . — - forvS!£i-a : lit ' on the right/ 
As the augurs in observing the flight of birds looked toward the north 
(perhaps because Mt. Olympus lay in that direction), the east, the favor- 
able quarter of the sky, was on the rigftt 4>tiWv : ' revealing.' 

354- -np : ' therefore/ dat. of cause tacL-y^iHta : from iTtlyu* 

355. tlvo,; 'many a one' {*/♦, for a similar wish, Job xxxi. ro). 

Tfniwv d\dx^ : J a Trojan wife.* 

356. *EXIvt|s, kt\> i * Helen's pangs and groans ; J the gen. is subjective. 

358. ^ nj£s : nm>is mat. 

359. 6<f»po lrpfo^T AXXwv IrrCcrirg \Xva irp&Tepatr iAA*c iwlawtfrat] : ' in 
order that in advance of others he may overtake death and fate/ i.t. that 
death and fate may overtake him. 6^ this cumbrous form of denunciation 
with w. 123-128, and see note on that passage* 

360. air<$« ¥ W pfi&to, wttttd t IXXy t f do you not only consider for 
yourself, but comply with the advice of another.' 

361. amipXTfrov : 'to be lightly esteemed.' trot: lit- 'word/ i>. 

1 counsel/ 

363. Nestor insists on the importance of arrangement. The soldiers 

will fight better under the eyes and with the support of friends +uXa: 

' tribes,' includes a number of the smaller pp4jrpa$ 1 * clans/ 

363, ^pijrpff^i I'Pp^Pf] '■ dat. s ™g. w i tn suffix -0i. G. 61 r n. 3, H. 
221 D. Sketch of Dialect, § 9, r + 

365, Us ri yv: ' and who perhaps,' implying that there might prove to 
be no cowards among the host and thus nerving the people to greater 

366. fno" 1 [?] ■ KaT * "^os : ' t>y themselves ' (see on A 271), 

367- fj ieoj£ [«i Kttf] : * whether owing even to divine power,* cf. k 8$. 
368* fy tcrh. : ■ or simply because of,* etc. 

370. fj v&v [fl fiitf] ; 4 verily/ ^fopT) : *in the agora/ local dak 

371. a£ y&p [ei J&p] ■ * would that/ One can see from this passage 
how f 1 ydp comes to be a particle of wishing. * For if I had, etc., then 
should the city bow,* is equivalent to * would that I had, then should/ etc. 

373. t£ : 'then ' (see on v. 354) Vitrei.* (aor. opt. from ^ii», "bow 

down 1 } : see on v + 148. 

374 AXowo-a : 2 *aor. ptc, from «AtVjropcu. irqsforilvT) : * being 

sacked/ describes what follows upon aAoOtra : * having been taken/ 

376* u*t* Jfptfias : l into the midst of strifes/ 

378. fjpx ^ X ^** ^ 1 ^ ! * began it by my anger/ 

379* h [itav : ftofanv is easily supplied from jSov&c&tojhi'. 

380. &v&flAi]ri« {fonftdAXu, 'postpone 1 ) i verbal noun governing ob- 
jective gen. (</ v. 436). 

381. {wd^ttjuv'Apija i ' we may join battle,' tf* Lat. ptignam commit- 

382, th : ■ each one,' Give force of tnidd. voice to the verbs $n£d- 

*&* (Hyw), &4trdw t by translating! ' his spear,' * his shield.* 

381 op pare* ap^it LSiiv i * having looked on both sides of his chariot/ 
£#, having seen well to it, 

386, Kpw»p*a : * decide between one another/ ■ contend.' 

386* (AfWoNSitTa* s ■ shall intervene/ 

387* uivo* ivBpuv : lit. * the fury of men/ fo * the furious combatants/ 

388. m : ' of many a one ; ' the gen. probably limits rcAcyrfr, although 
that cannot easily be translated except in connection with a<rrtt#i- i>upt- 
0p6nti, * the strap of the man*protecting shield of many a one/ 

389. KapftroL : as subj. ft- rtf. X 1 ¥ a: acc * of specification. 

390. rvnUvuv: 'tugging/ 

392, |itfiF&t<Lv : an intensive form from /i/juK« [cf. v* 296)* which is a 
reduplicated form from prVw. 

393, ofl ol firtwa Apxtov too-fCrai ^uytav ; * there shall be no safety to 
him to flee/ ;'. r. 'he shall find no safety from/ 

394* &t 8ti [jraif] icu|ia: J& WxP- 

395, kh^o^) £ *r-» as object, ti£ [oW| referring to irvjuo. 

396* qTcoirA^i (f/1 Lat. scopulus) : apposttive of im-jj. 

397. iramo(«v &W|miv ! waves ■ of all kinds of winds/ Le. raised by all 
kinds of winds ; the gen- is subjective and denotes the cause. - — . yhftav- 
rat : subj. is ftytpai. Translate S * whenever they rise on this side or on 

398* &p4wro [6p*vrro] ! ipf. implying a pres, ipfafuu Kt&urSfrret 

400. &XXos A\X*p *p«£t : * olte was performing sacrifice to one, another 
to another/ i.s, the different tribes made offering, each to its patron deity, 
according to its own national rites. 

401. p£Xov : l toil/ ' moil/ 

402. 4 : * he/ i>. Agamemnon* 

403 . w^vTa^nipoc : ' five-year old/ and so full-grown. 

404* KhcXntrKcv : < wa s inviting ' to the banquet which always made 
part of the sacrifice. ^^^ yipovra^ s not used here with distinct reference 

to age, but equals ' counsellors. 1 apiffrfja? IlavaxaLuv : in definitive 

apposition with ytpovTa*. Translate : * he was inviting from among the 
counsellors the following champions of the collected Achaians/ 

406, Tv&o* vidv: *Diomede/ For further account of this hero sec 
E and Z 1 19-236- 

407- Nearly identical with this verse is v. 1691 

406. Menelaos stands on a higher footing than the other chief s> and 
his presence is expected at the banquet without special invitation. . — P^V 
a-ytiOoc; 'good at the battle-cry/ No trumpets are mentioned in the Ho- 
mcric poems * hence the voice was important. 



409. dSfX4«oK [AfttA^fo] : example of prolepsis, natural in animated 
style. See on A 537. 

410* inpimfrav : how distinguish the utiaugm. aor. (used here) from 
ipf, f . oiXo^vros ; see on A 449, 

412* Magnificent form of address : ' Zeus most glorious; most great, 
wrapt in black clouds, dwelling in aether/ The abiding-place of Zeus was 
axpordrt} KQpwpji woXvStipatia? GuKufivmo, A 499. The summit of Olympus 
towered out of the khp into the afttyp. With the substance of the prayer 
(vv. 414, 415) may be compared several Old Testament invocations of 
Jehovah ; rj. Josh, x* 12, 13. 

413. iir(i) Statu and trreXGttv: infs. depending on a verb of praying, 
*#. Bfa, which can easily be supplied, kwi with both verbs adds the idea 
' upon the earth/ for sunset and darkness are thought of as falling from 
heaven upon the earth. 

414. irptjWs : pred, adj, with fitKaffpov denoting the result of Kara0n- 
*<**. Kara wpiivts &ahhn' : May low.* 

415. irpf|(nu irvpJs : ' bum with fire. 1 For gen. wvp6r t H. 760 ; for 

ong. signif. of irp4\Qw 7 see on A 48 1 ftupcrpa: the pi. suggests folding 

or double doors Snjloio : pronounce as if writren JSjjoio. 

417. ftayaX4ov : denotes the result of fiaffai [cf. wpififfs, v, 414). 

418* iSd| : adv. equivalent to dat. pi. of &8*6s> The English equiva- 
lent of the whole expression fy Kotrtjjvir oft&£ hafaLttTo [kafL&dmttp] ycuv is : 
1 bite the dust. 1 

419, dpa implies the knowledge of the hearer that it was not in ac- 
cordance with Zeus's plan to grant Agamemnon's prayer (see on w* 35, 


420. SIkto: syncop, 2 aor, from $4xopat, see on A 23 A^YOfrr&v- 

lit. * unenviable/ t\e. r unhappy/ 

421-424 = A 458-461. 

425. <ntCET]<nv : local dat., g on splinters J (cf. in A 462, hrl 07c f for). 

426. 4prtlpavT« [kmwtipay** s] : apocope and assimilation. fariCp- 

fXmf [vrtptlxQv] : vTT*ip is perhaps for frrcpi, a locative form for uw4p [cf 
raped, wporif &wat). _ — 4 H«fr<uVroui : metonymy, — the name of the god for 

the element over which he presides. 
427-432 = A 464-469- 

434. Cf A 122, where the courtly beginning of the verse was in sharp 
contrast with the abusive ending. 

435. Xtytt|M0a : La Roche would translate, as the verb has no object, 
' let us lie idle/ which involves confounding the roots \fy~ and kex~* It 
seems better to translate, Met us be talking with one another,' although 
in the few passages where \(yftr&<u has that sense an ace. raura is added. 
A varia lectio is tfty vvit juipcfrt ravra K*y&nt0a t *tA* But it is not easy to 
see to what the * these things J refer. 

436. &|ipaAA&|U0a : see on v. 3S0 4fY v * lW t* , ' : see on A 353- 

214 NOTES. 

438. * r\p6wo¥ m Ayapavrwy : 'let them collect by proclamation/ 

439. &0p<fei £8c : ' assembled just as we are.' £8c seems never to mean 
• as follows ' in Homer. 

440. 0dc-<rov : ' more quickly ' than could otherwise be the case, Le. 
4 very quickly.' This is an example of the absolute comparative. 

442-444 = (very nearly) vv. 50-52. 

445. ol &|&4>* *ATp4t»va fkunXfys : 'the son of Atreus and the (other) 

446. Kp(vovns : i.e. according to Nestor's advice, v. 362 perd %k : 

' and in the midst.' What verb is to be supplied with 'AeJivrj ? 

447. aiyCB 9 (nom. aiyls) : the ' aegis/ or shield of Zeus, often lent by 
him to Athena. The aegis is * precious,' tyiripov, because not subject 
to age or decay,' kyfipaow Mardrriv re. Of these last two epithets it may 
be said that they always occur together, and except in this phrase are 
always applied to persons. 

448. rf)s : may be explained as possessive gen., * whose hundred tassels/ 
but is probably better considered as gen. of separation: 'from which 
dangle.' Cf.fop46ovrat (from theme kep-) with iiycp40ovro (theme byep-), 
and see on v. 304. The Homeric conception of the aegis seems to be a 
kind of apron or flap hanging from the shield, and ornamented with 
precious tassels, finely twisted, of golden thread. For a fuller description 
of the aegis, cf. E 738 follg. 

449. fcaT<$|ij3oios : a frequent primitive method of estimating value is 
in oxen (see on A 154). 

450. ircu^do-o-ouo-a : ' resplendent.' 

451. 4v : join with &pacv. 

452. KopStn. • apposition of the part with the whole, ' in each one *>. 
his heart/ i.e. * in the heart of each one.' • Perhaps this passage should 
lead us to explain Ovp$ in A 24 as an appositive of 'Ayctfi4fivori t rather 
than as a local dative. 

453. ykvKltav [y\vic6rcpos] : cf A 249. 

455. Here follow five similes: (1) the forest fire, suggested by the 
gleam of the armored host ; (2) the flocks of birds, referring to its num- 
bers and tread ; (3) the swarms of flies, to its persistence ; (4) the goat- 
herd and his flocks, to its systematic ordering according to tribes ; (5) the 
bull and herd, to Agamemnon's pre-eminence. ^iirf [&s Utc]. 

456. f KaOcv : ' from far away ; ' the point of view chosen is in the dis- 
tance, instead of in the vicinity of the light. This illustrates a (uniformly 
noticeable) diversity of Greek from Engl, idiom. 

457. r&v : connect with x**x°v* and translate (vv. 457 and 458) : ' the 
resplendent gleam from the vast expanse of bronze of these as they 
marched along came through the upper air to heaven.' — Oco-irvoioio 
(0c<fcand theme ow-, cf v. 483) : lit. ' divinely spoken/ then 'marvellous/ 
' vast ; ' here epithet of x^koS : the ' broad expanse of bronze armor/ 


: is taken up again by tw in v. 464, and must be left untrans- 
Xf\*»v, ytp&vw t kvkvwv : ap positives of opvl&vp. 

la ted. 


461 1 The river Kayster is In Lydia, flowing south of Mt, Tmolos into 
the Aegean just north of Ephesus. The vale through which it flows is 
the *Atno$ kttf*A» : ' Asian mead,' whence perhaps the name Asia may 
have spread, as the designation of one of the grand divisions of the globe. 

462L i^oXXoiMva in-tpvyumv [«r^uf i] : ' sporting exultingly on their 
pinions,' dat* of means, 

463. nXaYYl^ v irpo«a0U;dvTd»v : * alighting one before another with a 
din/ The ptc. (agreeing with the gens, in v. 460) describes most vividly 
the manner in which a flock of birds alight, those settling later dropping 
in front of those which have already touched the ground. Notice a flock 
of doves, as they alight « in this verse, as in v. 456, has no translat- 
able meaning. 

465 * irpoxfrvra : ' were pouring forth/ 

466, iro&uv : if uir6 had purely local signif, the dat. ttaa-ffi would be re- 
quired. It is simplest to recognize here a transition to the causal signif* 
Translate 1 " under {/.*. because of the tread of J the feet of themselves 
and the horses. 1 

467, Mtrmvi 'they halted/ This and the two follg. verses are remark* 
ably flowing, on account of the numerous liquids and vowels which they 

468, «Sptj : may refer to any season, here (as in v. 47 1 } to ' springtime/ 

469, |LvuLuiv [pviwjr] : from nom. sing. puna. Sc. with £Qif*ct t %\AtrKQWui 
or similar verb, 

471, yk&yos (nom. sing.) : heterocUte form of >iA«, * milk/ 

472, «rt Tpntcnn j of hostile aim, * against the Trojans.' 

474* toiji simply anticipates rofa in v. 476, and is best omitted in trans- 
lation &&Tt [Stanrcp]: see on v. 2S9 aivrfXui. irXaW al^wv: *wide- 

grazing (goat-) herds of goats ; ' the epithet irXarca is true to life, as any 
one who has ever seen goats grazing will recognize; alywv is gen, of mate- 
rial, pleonastic if T as generally considered, the first part of alirdkia is t££, 
— - nltrdXot JLvSpcs : &v$pei seems superfluous, but there are many similar 
instances of its use \ eg. T 170, /3n<riX^i avtyt Uf+ A 216, 275, 4S5J, 

475, pila. [fotiius] SuuGpCvu^i t we should have indie, in prose, 

vapqi: local dat [uytWiv : 2 aor. pass. subj. 'when they have become 

fntermingled in the pasture/ The subj. in the temporal clause implies a 
repeated act. G. sag, 225, H. 914 B. 

477. Uvm : Inf, of purpose (see on A 8) h*tA Si : adv. ' and among 


478, In giving to Agamemnon the majestic head of Zeus, the broad 
breast of Poseidon, and the slender waist of Ares, the poet shows that 
established types of representation of the different deities already existed 
in sculpture. 

2l6 NOTES. 

480. A«y*XT|+i [fry&p] : Mn the herd.' Sketch of Dialect, § 9,1 

pofe is comm. gender and the appositive ravpos designates the sex. 
trXrro : ' is ; ' gnomic aor., see on A 218. 

481. ftfcoOT. [fiovai] fcypopirnci. : sync. 2 aor. midd. ptc. from hytipce. 

483. ifpAwaw [fjp^aw] : ' among the heroes, 1 dat. of interest loosely 

connected with Qoxow. G. 184, 5, H. 771. 

484 loTTtTf : ' relate/ The form is 2 aor. imv. from theme «w-, ' say/ 
whence *-a"»€-roj, 'untold* (v. 455), and 0c-<nr£<rtos, ' divinely spoken' 
(v. 457)» are both derived. There is a pres. iv-4xw (for eWcro), and Had- 
ley considers tWcre 2 aor. imv. for tW(e)*--crff. Curtius, on the other ' 
hand, makes it simply a redupl. 2 aor. imv. for <r*-<nre-r*. What the 
relation of the root cat- to the root Fcr- is, is not clear, but the two ap- 
pear to have been confounded by the Greeks. The appeal to the Muses, 
the daughters of Mnemosyne ('Memory') and of Zeus (v. 491), is appro- 
priate before commencing the catalogue (w. 494-759) so severe a test of 
the Minstrel's memory. See Introduction, p. xix. 

485. vdpcOTC : sc . xa<n, suggested by vdvra. 

486. kXIos otov: 'only rumor.' Distinguish: oTos, 'alone; 9 otos, 
' such as ; ' ol6s f ' of a sheep.' 

488. |ivMj<ro|uu, ivop^jvw : aor. subjunctives. It is uncertain whether 
the tv is to be repeated with the 6roji4iv» t cf. A 137, 262. 
49a ^rop : lit. ' heart,' i.e. ' lungs.' 

492. iLvvpralaO* 6<rot {jtyrfffcuvTo ain&v Z<roi\ : ' should bring them to 
mind as many as.' 

493. irpoirdras : the force of *p6 in this compound may be thus given : 
' all, as one proceeds forward in an enumeration.' 

494. At this point begins the catalogue of ships which ends with v. 
785. It was known among the ancients by the name Bourrta, because the 
Boeotians (Bourr&v 9 v. 494) stand first in the enumeration. Their prior- 
ity may be due to the fact that the expedition set sail from Aulis (cf. B 
303) in Boeotia. To the ancients this catalogue was a document of the 
greatest importance, and was regarded as authoritative upon the question 
as to what towns in ancient times belonged to the various districts of 
Greece. Its interest at the present time is chiefly geographical, and the 
student will most easily become familiar with the location of the places 
named by referring to the three maps (from Kiepert's Atlas of Hellas and 
the Hellenic Colonies: Berlin, 1872) which follow. For most other details, 
historical, mythological, etc., he must refer to the Classical Dictionary. 
It should be remarked that many of the Homeric localities ceased in 
after times to be inhabited, or can no longer be identified by their names, 
so that the maps are to a certain degree conjectural. The catalogue pre- 
sents few grammatical difficulties. 

496. ot 0* : 0% (in this verse and in vv. 499, 500, 503, 504, 505, 507) re- 
fers to Boicrr&v as its antecedent, re is without connecting force (see on A 
86) Mpovro : ' possessed,' \\t. ' teA upon.' 




498. SIottcuik; like nkdrauav fr. 504), appears later in pb form; *-,£, 

Bttririat, n\aT*iat Tpciia : the place whence the later appellatives, 

Vpaucot and the Lat, Graect\ were derived. 

605. a Yiratti|la$ : Thebes itself is not mentioned because that had 
already been destroyed by the ^Eirtyovoi, lit* ' After-bom/ ta sons of those 
who made the first attack upon Thebes, — but only its successor, w Tno&§* 
j9oi, the ' lesser ' or c later Thebes.' 

506. fiXo-o* : it seems rather strange that fiAiroi, 'grove,' should be an 
appositive of a city. There may have been no proper city aside from 
Poseidon's grove and temple, as there was no town at Olympia except 
in connection with the sacred Altis* 

509, t«v : resumptive of Bqi&t&v (v. 494), somewhat like t«c in v. 464, 

tW* in v. 476. Jv : join with 0&IW, ' were embarking,' i.e, from Aulis, 

whence the expedition set sail (see on v. 303). 

510. Kovfiot : ' fighting youths ' of the nobility. 

511* tS ! {f} = ^** [jtffli] Mvvuuov: adj. ' Minyeian.' The famous 

tribe of the Minyai took the principal part in the Argonautic expedition. 
Their capital was Orchomenos. 

514, far^i«*io*» tUruvo.0a.o-a t ' after she had gone up into the Upper 
chamber, 1 added instead of a partitive appositive to I6}iy* 

515, "Afnjii J dat. * to Ares. 1 Thus it was that Ares was the progenitor 
of the Minyai iraptAifaTo : from stem X*x~. 

516, T*ff : clat. limiting verb (ferixiWro), instead of gen. (of posses- 
sion) limiting noun {vht^vrifs). G, 184, 3, s> 4, H« 767. 

519. Uv&wvn 1 the later Delphi* The epithet TfTp^eo-tfa is most ap- 
propriate from the mighty cliffs, which rise more than 1000 feet on each 
side of the chasm in which was the oracle, 

523. of t' dpa : for force o£ &pa(pa} t cf> B 36, 

526. l(AirXt|v s * hard by,' contains the root of *ihas t irAqo-fo^, and gov- 
erns the gen. 

2l8 NOTES. 

529. This verse was generally regarded by the ancient critics as inter- 
polated. The frequent repetition of the fact of his inferiority of stature 
seems uncalled for. 

630. fetaurro : plupf. from itairvfuu with signif. of ipf., 'excelled.' It 

is followed by ace, not by the gen. as a word of superiority. Hav&- 

Xipaft : ' the united Hellenes* This expression designates the collective 
inhabitants of Northern Greece, as Tlavaxaiol (v. 404) signifies the col- 
lective inhabitants of Peloponnesus and islands. 

535. wtfpn" l ir 4 M, 'l : ' opposite* '— ^pfr '• designation of certain islands, 
see on A 366. 

536. |Uvta nWovm : * breathing (breath which is) fury.' The ace. is 
cognate "Aftams : the name of one of the aboriginal tribes of Greece. 

53a tyaW= M rift aXtfc : ' on the sea.' 

542. 6m9cv KO|&4«>VTfs : *>. with the front part of the head shorn and 
with a long queue, like the Tartars or Chinese. Contrast with jdpij 
icop6*rr*s 9 and see on v. 11. The Abantes were a wild barbarous race, 
hardly Hellenes. 

544. A dodecasyllabic verse, t>. consisting of six spondees. For 
&r)ta>y, see on v. 415 6#4>\ <rr4fltro%: 'about their breasts.' 

549. KdS . . ctofv [itafaurcv] : prep, shows apocope and assimilation. 

i<$ vtjcp [ry avrrji v*(f]. The reference is to the Erechtheum at Athens, 

not of course the sumptuous Ionic temple of which the ruins still stand 
there, but a far earlier, ruder shrine. The site of the Erechtheum was 
the most sacred in the Acropolis, for here it was that Poseidon had left 
the mark of his trident in the rock whence issued the salt spring, and 
here it was that Athena had called forth from the rock the sacred olive-tree. 
Here, too, was worshipped the rude image of Athena, which, like that of 
Ephesian Artemis, was believed to be Aioxerfc, 'fallen from Zeus.' 

550. juv IXdovTcu : ' propitiate him,' *>. the deified Erechtheus whose 
worship was founded and sanctioned by Athena. 

552. Hereto : very peculiar form of gen. for UvrtA from nom. Hereof. 

553. T<p : 'to him/ i.e. Menestheus. 

555. There is great similarity between the last hemistich of this verse 
and that of r 215. 

557. SvoKcUScxa [8<£8e«a]. 

558. tv'(o): local, 'where.' 

559. The Cyclopean walls of Tiryns are in parts quite perfect still. 
They are built of enormous stones, and have this peculiarity of construc- 
tion : a tunnel runs lengthwise through the wall, from which, by openings 
above, the defenders could appear at any point on the top of the wall to 
repel an attack. 

561. Troezen was the home of Aithra, daughter of king Pittheus 
(r 144). Here she brought forth Theseus, the national hero of Attika, 
and here he passed his boyhood before going to seek adventures and his 


throne at Athens, Epidauros was the seat of the most famous shrine of 
Asklepios {Aesculapius). Here were great curative establishments, famous 
physicians, and one of the largest theatres in Greece! the latter now 
existing in good preservation. 

662, AK^wov i Aigina was ruled by Aiakos, the progenitor of Achil- 
les. The towns from which the contingent of Diomede came were 
among the most famous and powerful in Greece. 

568, aybdiKOYTQ, \oy$oliK<Hrr&]. 

569. As Argos heads the list of towns represented in Diomede's con- 
Mngent, so does Mykenae that of those in Agamemnon's, 

220 NOTES. 

672. Wi [ol\ : 'where.* 

575. olyiaXov *** w&vra : ' throughout the whole coast-line/ 

576. tmv iicaTov vrtfhr : * of the ioo ships of these.' t»f (masc) =3 
robruv is possessive gen. limiting n?»v, and is the antecedent of oT in v. 
569 and of ot in v. 573. 

578. tv 8' : adv., ' and among them.' iSvraro : * clad himself '.n.' 

580. This verse is probably spurious ; if translated, it should be con- 
nected with kvZi6wv dfwrros: here, as in A 91, used of pre-eminence 

in wealth and dignity. 

586. tAv: limits vefiv, as in v. 576, 'their sixty ships.' of: 'brother 
commanded for him,' instead of ' his brother commanded.' 

587. dir-A-npte {&r*p) [&vev] : ' apart,' ' by themselves,' a sign of the 
different footing on which Menelaos stood from the other chiefs. 

590. See on v. 356. Little censure of Helen is Implied in this verse. 

595. &rrtf|&cvai {irropau) [ford*] : ' meeting with. 1 Bdfivpiv tov 

6p4juca : ' Thamyris, that Thracian.' Not the historical Thrace is here 
referred to, but Pieria, a region in southern Macedonia at the foot of 
Olympus, where the worship of the Olympian deities and the Muses was 
first developed by such singers as Orpheus, Thamyris, Musaios, and 
thence extended to Greece generally. These singers were considered the 
fathers of Greek poetry. Here Thamyris is represented, like a rhapsodist, 
as wandering about and visiting the courts of different kings. 

597. orrctiro ydp rfx^H^vos vudjow : 'for he declared with boasts that 
he would conquer ; ' join inf. directly with trrevro (cf, T 83). — cfrnp &v 
&f CSouv : ' even should the Muses in person sing ; ' for el &r w. opt see on 
A 60. 

604. Alir^rvov : adj. equivalent to AMrov, the gen. sing, of noun. 
With avtpcs sc. *l<rl. See on B 20, 54. 

609. 'AyaiH|va>p: it has been remarked that this single Arcadian 
leader is not again mentioned in the Iliad. 

614. hn\ . . . |M|i4jXct. : for phrase, cf. v. 338. Living in the interior, 
they had no experience or Knowledge of the sea. 

616. ftro-ov ty* : ' as far as,' ix. ' over as large a space as.' 

617. 4vtos ttpyci: 'shuts in,' 'includes.' Upy*i agrees with 'AAc&rtor, 
but is understood with the other subjects ; its object is'HAifa understood. 
Translate freely : ' as much of Elis as they include/ lit. ' as far as they in- 
clude Elis.' 

619. iro\&$ 8* fpPaivov 'Eirctot: 'for the Epeioi embarked in large 

625. ot 8* Ik AovXtypw) : sc. fount. 

626. vatown: 'lie,' lit. 'dwell.' "HXiSot Avto; 'opposite Elis. 

The poet has placed these islands too far to the southward. 

629. dtrcvdo-oraro (vaioo) : ' withdrew.' 

631. Odysseus was king of a large island-kingdom. The collective 

ILIAD II. 221 

name for his subjects was Kc^XXfjvcs. Ithaka, the island with which 
he is specially associated, was only a very small part of his domain. 

632, 633. 'IOdiajv: the town Ithaka; the other three places in these 
two vv. are all thought of as situate in the island Ithaka. 

635. 1)ircipov : ' main-land/ probably Akarnania and Leukas, then a 

promontory. Avrtirtpaia : * land lying opposite,' probably that part of 

Elis situated over against the island Zakynthos. 

638. This and the follg. verse give the reason why Thoas came to be 
leader of the Aetolians. The most famous of the sons of Oineus were 
Tydeus and Meleager. Tydeus perished before the walls of Thebes; 
Meleager, by the act of his own mother. Meleager alone is mentioned 
(v. 642) as the most famous of the sons of Oineus. 

643. Translate ; ' and it had been charged upon him to act as king 
for the Aetolians in every matter.' 

Verses 645-670 describe Crete and Rhodes. In the center of Crete 
lies Mt. Ida, over 6000 feet high. North of this, on the coast, was Knosos 
(written also Knossos and Gnossos) ; south, Gortys or Gortyn (later Gor- 
tyna). In the eastern part of the island lay Lyktos, Miletos, Lykastos. 
Phaistos and Rhytion lay near Gortyna. In Rhodes only three towns are 
named, Lindos on the east, Ialysos on the north, Kameiros on the west. 
The disproportionate length of the story of Tlepolemos (vv. 658-667), 
grafted in upon the account of the Rhodians, has suggested that it may 
have been composed by a Rhodian rhapsodist. 

655. 8ta : construe with Koa-\irfi4vrts. 

658. P6q 'HpcucXTjcCfl : i.e. ' to the mighty Herakles,' cf.v.666 and r 105. 

659. &yero : subj. is 'HpaKKrjs suggested by adj. 'HpoicAijefy in v. 658. 

660. Storpc^&v alfty&y: 'noble warriors;' titorp*<t>4wv here signifies 
simply that those whom he slew belonged to the heroic stock. 

661. 8* lircl ofiv : ' and so when.' 

662. irarpta loto $Ckov lujrpwa: 'his father's own (<f>l\ov) uncle 
(mother's brother).' 

667. AX-yca ird<rx»v : a common phrase apparently half conventional, 
and often used because it conveniently closes a verse. 

668. tynflw [yKJOriffav] : 'they dwelt,' te. the Rhodians KaTO^vXa- 

8(Jv : ' according to tribes,' equivalent to icotA <f>v\a, v. 362. 

670. There were later legends of a golden shower which Zeus had 
shed upon the island Rhodes. Another story about the island was that 
the sun shone there every day in the year. On the face of the coins of 
Rhodes is the face of the sun-god Apollo ; on the reverse side, a rosebud 

671. The small islands mentioned, w. 671-680, are : Syme, Nisyros 
Karpathos, Kasos, Kos, Kalydnai. They constitute the group known 
as Sporades. They are situated, reckoning from Rhodes as a centre: 
Syme and Nisyros to the northwest ; Karpathos and Kasos to the south- 



west i Kos to the north ; Kalyduai probably designates a number of small 

islands near Kos Nfcpcus : the repetition of the name in this and in 

the follg* vv., common in poetry of all languages, is called epanalepsis. It 
serves to keep alive the attention of the reader or hearer* The significant 
names of the parents of Nireus — Aglaia, * splendor/ Charopos, 'bright- 
faced' — suggest that his beauty was hereditary, 

674 * t«v dXXuv Aavctflv t as gen. of the whole, &Xkarv would be super* 
fluous, because the gen. of the whole should include the word denoting 
the part, and &AAmy would exclude Htpt6s* Explain as in A 505, 

675. ttmraMt: 'feeble/ 

676* KodiralJof l metathesis for KdpTra&os t cf. epdimf, Kapr*p6s for $4p- 
croj, Kp*T€p6s. Sidgwtck mentions, as illustrations of the same thing in 
English, f Brummagem * for Birmingham, and, in local dialectSj ' cruds ' for 

677. Kwv : acc + sing, contracted for K<W. The nom* sing- is Ktfof, 
contracted K£i. 

680* tow : for dat see on v. 602, 

681. to4$ : stands Jiere without a verb ; perhaps ipiu (gtf v. 493) is to 
be supplied. 


684. MupuCSoto/EXXtito, 'Ax*"**- names arranged in order, begin- 
ning with the more specific, Mupp(&ov*s is the special name for Achilles's 
subjects, "EWyvts refers particularly to the inhabitants of UfAatrymbv 
"Apyas, 'Ajjaiof designates in general the Acbaiart host under the com- 
mand of Agamemnon. 

685* Translate : i of their [rmv) fifty ships again Achilles was com- 
mander. 1 

686. ^viicpVTQ : ' were mindful of;' assimilated ipf, from stem ^o- 
(prs. tutdapat or p^u4<tKto\, The meaning seems to be nearly that of 

687. Translate ; 'for there was no one who would lead them into line 
of battle,* 

688. In this and the three follg. verses the circumstances of the cap- 
ture of Eriseis are described, see on A 392, 

692. koS . . . fpoXtf I i.t, aHxTtifty. 

694. Tfj« : for gen. of cause with ix&uf, cf. v. 689 ; see also on A 6$. 
This verse is very weak and unpoetical, and Zenodotus rejected the en- 
tire passage, w* 686-694. 

699. Ix«v kAtci : cf. xiT*x*r* F 243. 

700. dp-^nfipiKJi^s : ' with both cheeks torn/ in sign of deepest grief* 
The wife of Frotesilaos was Lagdamia. Cf Wordsworth's Laodamia. 

703. oftfe ykv [= phv\ aW ; negation strengthened by double nega- 
tive i * but by no means I assure you {pi?).* yk ydv [fi4}tf\ : ' and yet 

certainly.* Translate the last hemistich ; f though lougmg for their com- 

707- Trp6rtpos [Trpoytv4<TTepot\ z l older.* 

708. This and the follg. verse, as repetitious, were rejected by some 
ancient critics. 

714 vV *ASu4t¥ i M occurs several times in connection with rbrro, 
with the dative of person (cf vv. 725, 742, S20}. 

715*. "AAi«|ct*s: famous for the beautiful story, as told by Euripides, 
of her death in her husband's stead. Robert Brownings translation of 
the tragedy in Baiauslimis Adventure should be read. 

723. Etai* |*&x, fl q;wT'* KaKijj dW^povoB fiSpov : 'tormented by the 
dreadful sore (from the bite) of the deadly water-snake. 1 The story of 
how the recall of Philoktetes, necessary in order that Troy might be 
taken, because in his possession were the bow and arrows of Herakles, 
was accomplished by Odysseus, is not found in the Iliad. It is alluded to 
in w. 724, 725. 

731. ' ArcfaprLGv : here is a case where the original reading seems to 
have been 'AcrtfAjrpr^Q. 

741. riKtro j used indifferently of either parent : - begat' or * brought 
forth/ cf. follg. verse. 

743. fJn*Ti Tiji [#rt ] 1 * on the day when/ as in v. 351 ♦ — <f>f|pas XaxM* 
tmi : * shaggy monsters,' ta centaurs, see on & ?£&* 

224 NOTES. 

750. AmSAnp : generally located by geographers in Thessaly, not far 
from modern Jannina, although a scholion in Codex Venetus places it in 
Molossis in Epirus. Here was the most venerable oracle of the Hellenic 
race. Zeus disclosed his will in the rustling of the holy oak and the 

murmur of the waters of a cold sacred stream at its foot. SwrxcC- 

mpov: 'wintry.' 

751. Translate : 'and who cropped their fields (tpya) about the lovely 

752. trpotn [vpolrj<ri] : accent inconsistent with its formation as if from 
a pres. wpo-U*. 

754. KoMhrqpfcv : 'down from above.' This verse describes, in a 
poetical way, how the clear waters of the mountain stream (Titaresios) 
refuse to mix with the muddy river of the plain (Peneios). 

755. This verse assigns the reason for the refusal of the waters of the 
Titaresios to unite with those of the Peneios. The former is a ' branch ' 
(bwopp<I>l) of the Styx, connected in some mysterious subterranean way 
with it, and the water of this dreadful river, it is taken for granted, unites 
with no other water. Notice the slow movement of the first hemistich, 
suited to the solemn words tpKov ykp Sciyov. 

758. IlptfOoos 0o6s : observe the paronomasia. 

759. This verse marks the conclusion of the catalogue of the Greeks. 
Now, before enumerating the Trojans, a moment is taken to answer the 
questions : ' who was the bravest chief ? ' ' which were the fleetest horses ?' 

761. t(« r 9 &f» : see on A 8 *x* Apwros : see on A 69 fwtirc : 

see on v. 484 jvovo-a : for sense in which the word is used, see on 

A 1. 

762. a&rdv ^8' tinrwv : ' of the men themselves and of their horses,' 
both words in apposition with r&v, v. 762. 

763. Itnroi ply pbf Apurrcu : the best way to manage the fern, gender 
in this passage is to translate : ' the mares of Admetos were by far the 
best.' Admetos was the son of Pheres, 4>i)prjTid$Tis. Mares were pre- 
ferred in ancient warfare. 

764. 6pvt0a8 &% : for accent of &s and short final syllable made long 
before it, see on v. 190. The mares are compared with birds not as swift- 
footed, but as swift. In other words, there is no emphasis laid on the first 
part of the compound vot-wiccas (see on $Jvox<ki, A 598). 

765. ol4rcas : ' of one age.' <rro^vX'Q tirl v&tov ftros : ' equal as 

measured by the plumb-line over their backs.' Perhaps we are to think 
of the use of the plumb-line in connection with the square in the way 
often practised at the present day to determine whether two points are of 
equal height. A simpler translation is : ' like a plumb-line over their 
backs,' i.e. ' straight-backed,' not hollow-backed. vrwi>{t\i\ : lit ' a bunch 
of grapes ; ' then, from similarity of shape, a ' plummet.' 

766. Opty* [%c^e] : from rp4<f>u. Apollo served as herdsman to Ad- 
metos in Pereia. in Thessaly, and inexe ieaxe& tae&& la.moM& mares. 

lD II. 


767* +^{tov *Apn©s +of«ou<ro.f ; 'carrying (where they went) flight 
caused by Ares* 1 

769, tf +p* r ' as long as. 1 

770. A|AV|M>va : J faultless/ in sense of A 92. No chief and no steeds 
could compare with Achilles and his divine horses so long as they were 
present in the camp. 

773. Xaal: ue. the Myrmidons* 

774. a-lva^o-i tfvrts : ( hurling hunting-spears. 1 For dat*, see G. 188, 
1, H. 776. It seems rather strange that, so far away from home and on a 
warlike expedition, they should have had with them * hunting-spears.* 

776. XfflTOV : a species of * clover. 1 

777. fcrrewav (plopi with signif. of ipf.) ; * were standing,* We are 
to think of the parts of the chariots as taken asunder, and laid separately 

away. To fit them together for service was ivrfostv Upper*. avdrrav: 

i,e. of Achilles and the under-chief tains of the Myrmidons. 

780. ot Zl : with these words the poet leaves Achilles and the Myrmi- 
dons, and turns back to describe the advance of the other chiefs of the 

Achaians Wu*hto, ttrk : * as if the earth were to be devoured.* The 

opt. is one of simple conception, and an opt. with &v may be supplied as 
the conclusion of the condition. Thus {&s and el being separated) : us &v 
rfifr tl x & & v vtfiotro: l as would be the case, if the earth were devoured 
(by fire).* The meaning is (probably) that the splendor of their armor as 
they marched was as if all the earth were aflame. 

781, tf* 1 for accent, cf. v. 764 Ait (final syllable used long before 

Jfo) : supply &WQ<rr*vaxti*t, and translate : ■ as it groans under the might 
of Zeus, 1 or more freely : ■ as Zeus makes the earth groan beneath his 
power ; ! for dat., G- 184, 3, H. 775. 

782* l|fc&dirxi : Jf. sub}. Zeus, The myth was that the giant Typhoeus 
was buried in Kilikla in the country of the Arimoi. The monster thus 
buried is the personification of a vdcam ; now and then he moves himself 
slightly, which makes an eariliquakc ; and Zeus occasionally 'lashes* the 
region where he is buried with his thunder-bolts, i.e* with lightning* 

784. t&v . . , fpxojUvwy : connect as limiting gen. with TotnrL 

785. ireStoui ; best taken as local gen. * on the plain.' Cf. V 14, 

The account of the host of the Greeks is now complete, and, before 
passing on to the muster of the Trojans, it will be well to enumerate in 
their order the Greek chieftains. The list is as follows : Penelcos 1 Leitos, 
Arkesilaos, Prothoenor, Klonios (w. 494, 495), Askalaphos, lalmenos 
(v. 512), Schedios, Epistrophei (v. 517), Ajax (v. 527}, Elephenor (v. 540), 
Menestheus (v. 552), Ajax Telamdnios (v. 557), Diomedes, Sthenelos, 
Euryalos (v. 563 ) t Agamemnon (v. 576), Menelaos (v. 586) , Nestor (v.6oi) f 
Agapenor (v. 609), Amphimachos, Thalpios (v. 620), Ditires (v. 622), 
PoU-xeinos (v. 623), Meges (v. 627), Odysseas (v. 631;, Thoas (v. 6j3)» 
ldomeneus (v* 645), Meriones (v. 651 ), Tlepotertioa ^ ^^J^'^** 13 * 

224 NOTES. 

750. AmSAnpr : generally located by geographers in Thessaly, not far 
from modern Jannina, although a scholion in Codex Venetus places it in 
Molossis in Epirus. Here was the most venerable oracle of the Hellenic 
race. Zeus disclosed his will in the rustling of the holy oak and the 

murmur of the waters of a cold sacred stream at its foot SwrxcC- 

mpov: 'wintry.' 

751. Translate : 'and who cropped their fields (tpya) about the lovely 

752. irpotci [wpotrici] : accent inconsistent with its formation as if from 
a pres. wpo-U*. 

754. icaOforcpOcv : 'down from above.' This verse describes, in a 
poetical way, how the clear waters of the mountain stream (Titaresios) 
refuse to mix with the muddy river of the plain (Peneios). 

755. This verse assigns the reason for the refusal of the waters of the 
Titaresios to unite with those of the Peneios. The former is a ' branch ' 
{ivoppwt) of the Styx, connected in some mysterious subterranean way 
with it, and the water of this dreadful river, it is taken for granted, unites 
with no other water. Notice the slow movement of the first hemistich, 
suited to the solemn words ftpicov yb,p faivov. 

758. IlprfOoos Ools : observe the paronomasia. 

759. This verse marks the conclusion of the catalogue of the Greeks. 
Now, before enumerating the Trojans, a moment is taken to answer the 
questions : ' who was the bravest chief ? ' ' which were the fleetest horses ?• 

761. t£s t' &f» : see on A 8 &x Apw-ros : see on A 69. fwtirc : 

see on v. 484. povo-a : for sense in which the word is used, see on 

A 1. 

762. a&rdv ^8' tinrwv : ' of the men themselves and of their horses,' 
both words in apposition with r&y, v. 762. 

763. frnroi ply |i*y Apurrcu : the best way to manage the fern, gender 
in this passage is to translate : ' the mares of Admetos were by far the 
best.' Admetos was the son of Pheres, *7jprrrid^rjs. Mares were pre- 
ferred in ancient warfare. 

764. ftpviOas &s : for accent of &s and short final syllable made long 
before it, see on v. 190. The mares are compared with birds not as swift- 
footed^ but as sivift. In other words, there is no emphasis laid on the first 
part of the compound wot-wiccas (see on $vox&*h A 598). 

765. ol4rcas : ' of one age.' <rra<f>vXfl tirl v&tov Items : ' equal as 

measured by the plumb-line over their backs.' Perhaps we are to think 
of the use of the plumb-line in connection with the square in the way 
often practised at the present day to determine whether two points are of 
equal height. A simpler translation is : ' like a plumb-line over their 
backs/ i.e. * straight-backed/ not hollow-backed. <rrcuf>4\ri : lit • a bunch 
of grapes ; ' then, from similarity of shape, a ' plummet.' 

766. 6pty [tdpvtyc] : from rp«<£«. Apollo served as herdsman to Ad- 
metos in Pereia in Thessaly, and lYiete ieaxtd^ftafci'wfta>a& mares. 



767* ^jtov 'Apipt <frofnouo-a.s : 'carrying (where they went) flight 
caused by Ares* 1 

769. *+pn : * as long as.' 

770. tyvpafv* 1 ■ faultless/ in sense of A 92. No chief and no steeds 
could compare with Achilles and his divine horses so long as they wctc 
present in the camp, 

773. Xoot; Lt, the Myrmidons* 

774, aXytLvi'nvi* tfvrn : 4 hurling bunting-spears/ For dat + , see G. 1 88, 
I, £L 776* It seems rather strange that, so far away from home and on a 
warlike expedition, they should have had with them * hunting-spears.* 

776. Xatrov : a species of ■ clover.' 

777. krewTiv fplupf. with slgnif. of ipf.) : 'were standing, 1 We are 
to think of the parts of the chariots as taken asunder, and laid separately 

away. To fit them together for service was irrfoetv Spectra* dvdKTuv: 

i.e. of Achilles and the under-chief tains of the Myrmidons. 

780. ot U : with these words the poet leaves Achilles and the Myrmi- 
dons r and turns back to describe the advance of the other chiefs of the 

Achaians WjwtTO, kt\ : * as if the earth were to be devoured/ The 

opt. is one of simple conception, and an opt, with &v may be supplied as 
the conclusion of the condition. Thus (&s and ti being separated) : as by 
tfy, tl X&&V vtpviTQ ; * as would be the case, if the earth were devoured 
(by fire).' The meaning is (probably) that the splendor of their armor as 
they marched was as if all the earth were aflame* 

781. As : for accent, c/I v. 764 Ait (final syllable used long before 

J&t) ; supply faa<rr*v*xt(* 1 * ana " translate : * as it groans under the might 
of Zeus/ or more freely : * as Zeus makes the earth groan beneath his 
power \ * for dat, G- 184, 3, H. 775- 

780. liidco-n. : jr. subj. Zeur. The myth was that the giant Typhoeus 
was buried in Kilikia in the country of the Arimoi. The monster thus 
buned is the personification of a volcano; now and then he moves himself 
slightly, which makes an earthquake ; and Zeus occasionally ■ lashes * the 
region where he is buried with his thunderbolts, i.e. with lightning* 
784, t&v , . . ipxp^thmv : connect as limiting gen. with irv<roL 
786. wtffow 1 best taken as local gen. ' on the plain. 1 Cf. V 14. 

The account of the host of the Greeks is now complete, and, before 
passing on to the muster of the Trojans, it will be well to enumerate in 
their order the Greek chieftains. The list is as follows : Peneleos, Leitos, 
Arkesilaos, Prothoenor, Klonios (vv. 494, 495), A&kalaphos, lalmenos 
(v. 512), Schedios, Epistrophos (v. 517), Ajax (v. 527 ) T Elephenor (v, 540), 
Menestheus (v. 552), Ajax Telamonios [v. 557), Diomedes, Sthenelos, 
Euryalos (v. 563), Agamemnon (v. 576), Menelaos {v + 586), Nestor (v.6bx) t 
Agapcnor (v. 609), Amphimachos, Thalpios (v. 620), Diores (v. 622), 
Polyjceinos (v. 623), Meges (v, 62;), Odysseus (v. 6ji), Thoaa fv. 6$\ t 
Idomeneus (v. 645), Meriones (v. 651), TOpokmaa ^v, ^i 

226 NOTES. 

(v. 671), Pheidippos, Antiphos (v. 678), Achilles (v. 685), Protesilaos 
(v. 698), Podarkes (v. 704), Eumelos (v. 714), Philoktetes (v. 718), Mcdon 
(v. 727), Podaleirios, Machaon (v. 732), Eurypylos (v. 736), Polypoites 
(v. 740), Leonteus (v. 745)* Gouneus (v. 748), Prothoos (v. 75°)>— forty- 
six heroes in all. 
786. fata [wKttd] : nom. fern, from &k6s, see Sketch of Dialect, § 13, 3. 

788. dyopds d-ycpcvov : ' were holding assembly/ i.€. were gathered for 

789. 4j|i*v . . . Ifii: 'both . . . and.' 
791. cto-wro (dBopcu) : ' likened herself.' 

794. 8ey|uros (2 aor. ptc. midd. from Uxo/uu) : 'expecting,' see on v. 

137 vatytv [vt&v] : see on v. 363 A4*f>|W|tafcv : 'should start' on 

their return. The opt. may be explained on the general principle of ora- 
Ho obliqua, after a secondary tense. 

795. tcuroplvTi : see on A 306. 

796. |ittoi ^Xov AcptTOi : 'endless talk is dear/ U. you are all too 
fond of words when deeds are needed. 

797. &% ircr* iir* clfW)vtp : ' as once in time of peace.' 

802. U : * now,' as in A 282. Translate the verse : * Now I enjoin 
upon you especially to do precisely (7c) so ' {ue. as is described in w. 

803. woXXoC : pred. adj. * many ' are, etc. 

804. Translate : ' Diverse from one another are the languages of 
widely scattered men.' 

805. Tofcnv oWi vq> <ffpx* • ' to those for whom he is commander/ 
*>. ' his soldiers.' 

807. 0$ «n ^yvoCt]0'€v : litotes, see on A 220. 

808. Owe* &y°P^ v : ' dissolved the assembly,' performed, that is, what 

was properly the duty of Priam. ini rctyfa 6? Wt forru \ 'and they 

were hurrying to arms.' 

809. wooui iriXat: 'the whole gate,' i.e. both doors of the Scaean 

811. wdXios : synizesis of last two syllables. koX£vi) : 'mound/ 

813. Here again we have an allusion to two languages, — that of men 

and that of gods, see on A 403 Barteav (fidros, 'bramble'): lit. 


815. SUicpiOcv [SieKptthto-av] : * was arranged ' according to Iris's exhor- 
tation (w. 805, 806), and after the manner of the Achaians (w. 362 ff. f 
446, 476. 

Before taking up the list of the Trojans in detail, a few words as to the 
composition of the host will be in place. The entire force consists of 
sixteen detachments. Five of these came from Troy and its more imme- 
diate vicinity (vv. 816-839), while the remaining eleven (w. 840-877) are 

ILIAD II. 227 

from the allies (Muovpoi), Of these last, three divisions came from 
Europe, and nine from Asia. It will be noticed that Trojan reinforcements 
came from many cities (eg. Sestos, Abydos, Miletos) which were subse- 
quently important Greek colonies and became thoroughly Hellenic We 
are not to assume any important difference in race between the Greeks 
and Trojans. They worship the same gods, have essentially the same 
customs, and confer together without interpreters, using the same lan- 
guage. Yet the Trojans stand upon a lower moral level than the Greeks, 
as is shown by their practice of polygamy, and their forces are less homo- 
geneous, — the allies in particular speaking many different languages 
(v. 804). On the general topic of race, language, and character of the 
Trojans, see Curtius's Greek History, vol. i. pp. 88, 89. 

816. Tp«Mr£ : the Trojans proper, i*. the inhabitants of Troy. ko- 

pv0-a£oXo$: 'with tossing helmet.' 

818. |uparfT«$ tyxcCflo-i : ' pressing forward with their spears,' dat. of 

819. AapSavUw : ' Dardanians,' inhabitants of Dardania, a district on 
the N. side of Mt. Ida. The modern name of the Hellespont, ' Darda- 
nelles,' preserves the memory of this word. The Dardanians are next in 
valor to the Trojans. 

821. Ppmp: appositive of 'Ayxitrr/ (v. 820), as is also Bed of 'A<fy>o5fn|. 
The contrast between the words 0ed, fipory is made the more prominent 
by their position. 

822. o&cotos: 'by no means alone/ may be regarded as a kind of 

823. *rd<ri|s : ' all kinds of,' in which sense worn, A 5, may also be 

824. irtfSa vttarov [y4arov= fcrxarov] : ' remotest extremity,' northern- 
most point of Ida. 

825. pAav tfSap : this phrase describes water as it lies in springs, as 
contrasted with the flowing water, bright with the light of the sun (ity\abv 
08c0/>). The same expression, Mavpb N4pt t ' Black Water,' is a very fre- 
quent name for springs in the Modern Greek. The expression, ' those 
who drink the water of,' has passed into poetry as an equivalent of ' those 
who live in.' 

838. 'Aptrfhflw [tt'Apifffrnsl 

839. atfWcs : may perh. be translated 'sorrel ; ' yet see on A 482. 

840. ncXcurySv : the origin and race (ethnical affinities) of the Pelas- 
gians are uncertain. We know that they were widely spread over the 
Greek peninsula in the prehistoric period, and we see from this passage 
that a part of them remained in Asia Minor. Hdt. i. 94 speaks of Pe- 
lasgians in Lydia and in Etruria. They are described as an agricultural 
people who settled in fertile (cf. the word here used, 4pifiw\ouca) plains, 

228 NOTES. 

and gave the name Larisa (or Larissa) to their cities. Eleven towns bear- 
ing this name are enumerated by ancient authors, of which three were in 
Asia Minor. The one here referred to was probably near Kyme in Aiolis. 
The epithet 4yx^<rifi^povs t ' mighty with the spear,' is inconsistent with the 
peaceful character usually ascribed to the Pelasgians. 

844. Orfucas : The Thracians dwelt along the coast from the Helles- 
pont to the river Hebros. 

845. hrh% ttpyct : 'includes* (as in v. 617), *.*. shuts off to the west 
and separates from the races of Asia Minor. 

846. Kucrfwiv : a warlike tribe whose city Odysseus plundered on his 
return from the Trojan war, (« 39-61). They are to be sought on the 
coast, just west of the Hebros. 

848. HeUovas : the Paionians were a Macedonian tribe. 

851. ncuj>XaY<Sv»v : Paphlagonia was on the south coast of the Pon- 
tos Euxeinos, west of the river Halys. 

852. TsWwv : the 'EvctoI, a tribe of the Paphlagonians who subse- 
quently emigrated to the Adriatic Sea. Hence are derived the names 

"Evcrof, Lat. Veneti, and ultimately Venice, frypoTcpdow : ' living in the 

fields,' ' wild ; ' the suffix -repos has here not exactly comparative force 

\ff, 6p4<rrtpos: 'dwelling in the mountains'), yet suggests a certain 
contrast with those who dwell in the towns. 

858. olwvurrfc : ' one who divines from the flight of birds-of-omen ' 
(ol*vol), ' augur.' See on A 62. 

862. 3>pifyas : the Phrygians are again mentioned and more fully de- 
scribed in r 184-187. They dwelt in central Asia Minor, were drivers of 
glancing steeds, and possessed a land rich in vineyards. 

863. 'A<ncav£i)s : Askania is the town on the lake of the same name, 
better known in later times because the important imperial city of Nicaea 
(seat of the council of Nicaea, 325 A. D.) was situated upon it. Hence, 

also, Ascanius, the son of Aeneas, received his name. ^jieurav (2 

plupf. from stem /m-, pres. palopcu) : 'were eager/ cf. frc/uufo-es, v. 818 

krjuvi : this form is an isolated dat. sing, of 3 deci. ; all other forms are 
of 1 decl. 

864. Mtfoou : the Mifovej [Mo/orc t], or ' Maeonians,' were the people 
who were later called Lydians. 

867. KofH»v : nom. pi. Kapcs, a people occupying the southwest corner 

of Asia Minor pappofxx^&vuv : in the later classic use, &dp$apos came 

to mean 'non-Greek ; ' here it is not used in that sense, but the compound 
signifies ' rough-voiced.' 

868. $0cipc0V : ntr. sing. ace. obj. of %x w > an( * explained by 6pos. 
860. MotdrSpov : the Maeander, from the winding course of which is 

derived the Engl, word ' meander,' was one of the great rivers of Asia 

Minor, flowing westward into the Aegean sea at Miletus MvtcdXip : 

Mykale, a promontory in Ionia opposite Samos, was the scene of the 

ILIAD II. 229 

great naval victory over the Persians gained by the Athenians on the 
same day as that on which the battle of Plataea was fought, B. C. 479. 

872. 4\fir* Kovpt| : connect, not with Uy [j/ci], but with XP V<T ^> used 
with special reference to bracelets or necklaces. 

873. Wjirvos: ♦fool.' fcWjpKWt: 'ward off;' the original meaning 

of bpK4o*. 

876. The list closes with the names of two of the very noblest of the 
chiefs who fought for Troy. The Iliad is so full of their exploits that 
they need no fuller mention here. Sarpedon, the son of Zeus, ranks next 
to Hector. Glaukos is mentioned at length in Z 145 follg. 

877* AvkCi)8 : ' Lykia/ on the south coast of Asia Minor, east of Karia, 
the remotest point hitherto mentioned whence allies of the Trojans came. 

To this fact Sarpedon alludes, E 478. 3&vfov : a river in Lykia, not 

the Xanthos of the Troad. 

We will recapitulate the leaders of the Trojans as we did those of the 
Greeks (v. 785). They are as follows : 

Hector (v. 816), Aeneas (v. 820), Archelochos, Akamas (v. 823), Pan- 
daros (v. 827), Adrestos, Amphlos (v. 830), Asios (v. 838), Hippothoos 
(v. 840), Pylaios (v. 842), Akamas, Peiroos (v. 844), Euphemos (v. 846), 
Pyraichmes (v. 848), Pylaimenes (v. 851), Odios, Epistrophos (v. 856), 
Chromis, Ennomos (v. 858), Phork^s, Askanios (v. 862), Mesthles, Anti- 
phos (864), Nastes (v. 867), Amphimachos (v. 871), Sarpedon, Glaukos 
(v. 876), — twenty-seven chiefs in all. 


Tdfifia S' ap ap4? 'EXivr)*: 0X019 jioOos iarlv ojcoItcu*. 

Gamma the Single Fight doth sing 'tzuixt Paris and the Sparta* img. 

1. For the connection, refer back to B 476, 815 ^ y i pdm mu \hy* 

fi6<ri]. — fKovTOi : ' in separate divisions,' according to Nesterfe advice 
in B 362. 

2. icXavYn ** *vairg : 'with roar and cry;' the distinction between the 
two nouns is that tckuyyfi denotes an inarticulate sound, while &<hHj 
(Iv&kco) describes spoken words. But it is probable that the two words 
are used here as nearly synonymous to express more strongly one idea 

{cf.Q&vw and pcrjpa, v. 6; see on B 352). tow: 'were marching.' 

— — flpvUfes &s : B 190 and 764. 

8. 1}fin ircp [&<nrcp] : the clause introduced by it does not prepare the 

way for anything which follows, but is explanatory of 6pvt0€s &s. 

oipayrfOi wp6 : lit 'in front of the sky,' i.e. flying just.below the vault of 
the sky. 

4. oiv : ' so,' ' once for all/ $tryov : gnomic aor., see on A 218 

&66r$arov: 'unending/ 

5. ir^Tovrai : the subject is really of re (v. 4) ; red y* (not necessary to 

sense) repeats this subject lirl £odo»v : M is occasionally used with 

gen. of place whither. H. 799 b. For Okeanos, conceived as a broad 
stream flowing around the world, see on A 423, and cf, Horn. Diet. 

6. Uvy\La£oun: the 'Pygmies,' men a myph (distance from the el- 
bow to the knuckle-joint) in height, were fabled to dwell in the south, in 
India and Egypt. Their land was yearly invaded by the cranes, with 
which they waged desperate but ineffectual warfare. 

7. 4^puu : ' at early morn/ irpo<|>^f>ovTai : lit. ' bring forth' (to 

light), ' commence/ 

8. ol 8* : antithesis to Tp&cs fi4y (v. 2) \Uvta wvcCovTfs : see on B 


9. |M|mU»t€$ : see on B 818. — &XX4jXoun : for case, dat. of adv., G. 
**#> 3> * • 3/ H. 767- 


10. €$t* [d>$] : adv. of comparison Kopv^.jo-i: local dat. tcart- 

X«*v : gnomic aor. What is the Attic form of 1 aor. of x«» ? 

11. CL\uiv<a (agrees with oplxkyv) : 'better ; ' because in a fog the flock 
is not shut up in the fold as it would be at night. 

13. r&nrov . . . &ro v : '(only) so far as.' t(«) : without weight 

in translation in either clause. 

13. r&v : with strong demonstrative force, ' of these.' iro<r<r( 

[iroffi] KovfcroXos &cXX4js : « thick dust-whirl ; ' for etymologies of both 

words see Horn. Diet. 

14. Silirptpro-ov : for orig. meaning of vp^crcrw [trpdrru], see on A 483. 

15. ht dXX-fjXouri Irfyrcs 1 ' as they advanced against each other/ 

vcSCoto : for gen. see on B 785. 

16. irpo|tdxigcv : • played the combatant in the fore-front of battle.' 

fociJMjs : ' of godlike beauty,' like bptfioov, of externals only. 

17. irapSoXlqv (sc. Sopdv) : ' leopard-skin.' rd{a : pi., for the bow 

consisted of three pieces (cf. A 45). 

18. avr&p : scarcely differs here from 8c, except that it is not postposi- 
tive (see on A 50) Sovpc 8fc> : he held one in each hand iccicopv- 

0|Uva X a ^ K< ? : li fc « ' helmeted with bronze,' i.e. ' with point of bronze.' 

19. irpoKaXCgcro : 'was challenging,' by mien rather than by words. 
20- 8' «os o«v : ' and when then.' 

21. AptjtytXos : ' dear to Ares,' very common epithet of Menelaos, but 
in this book only. Compounds of adjs. with the oblique case of a noun 

are unusual. H. 575 c irpoirdpotOcv ojaCXov [irpb 6pi\ov]. 

# 22. fwucpoL fhJ&vTa : ' taking long strides,' like a valiant hero, explains 

tpxfowov. pcucpd : cognate ace. with fitfi&trra. 

23. #s tc . . . tx<£pv 'as a lion rejoices.' The clause beginning 
with &s does not close the period begun with as 4v6ri<rcv (v. 21), but 
forms a second protasis (in the form of a comparison) to ix^pil ( v - 2 7)» 

the principal verb of the entire sentence 4ttI . . . icvp<ra$ [itrnvxAv]- 

26. ^dp: the greediness with which he devours shows his hunger. 
ct irep &v : followed here, after a primary tense, by subj. (cf. B 597.) 

28. &J>8aXjM>uri : for this regular dat. of means, Homer often uses 4v 
6<pda\/Mo?(ri } see on A 587. 

29. AXto : for breathing, see on A 532. He sprang to the ground, for 
Paris was on foot. 

33. iraX£vop<ros &ir6m|: 'recoiling steps away/ i.e. 'gives place in 
terror.' The aor. is gnomic. Vergil, Aen. II, 379, has imitated the 
phrase in the words trepidus refugit. 

34. *ird : adv. ; 'seizes his limbs below,' i.e. his knees tremble under 

35. iropcids : in partitive apposition with fiiv. In the repetition of tc, 
which adds rapidity and vividness to the description, we have a case of 



38. otaxpots ; the meaning is active, * injurious/ 

39. Aiffirapt : ' cursed Paris. 1 — *I&o$ dpum : - a hero in beauty 
(and naught else)/ 

40. dyovos i * unborn/ Another rendering is, * without children. ' a 
still more terrible imprecation to a Greek, who regarded the extinction 
of a family as the greatest calamity, Paris, according to the Odyssey, 
had no children by Helen. 

41. ml i« r6 pouXoCf*ijv : ' I could wish even this/ Supply *t &tti£k*o 
as protasis of xal ** tctp&tor fcv. 

42* tptv&v [tlvat] I sc> as subj. bL* — *irdijH0v tiXXaw; * object of sus- 
picion to {lit. 'of 'J others; ' cf. Lat. ceteris invisum. The genitive is sub- 

43. KdpTi KOp^uvrts : see on B 1 1, 

44. 4»dirres : ptc. represents ipf, tense and should be translated ; 'who 

said ' (thought), dpurrf|a : translate as subj. of tf^nevat, : *tbat a hero 

was (playing the part of) champion. 1 

45. for' [ciWTt] ^pwrC: local dat (tfi|: 'might for attack;' 

AXk^j : ' strength for defence/ 

46. fl Tot^o*St i<£v : ' did you, though such a coward ? ' Jf, for which 
we should expect % f is interrogative adv. % means * surely *; also * he 
said/ 3 sing. ipf. from flju. tf means * or * aud ' than ' ; but in the second 
part of a dependent double question with the meaning * or,* is written -JJ. 

47> A^ftpas : preliminary in time to fatirh&o'as, to which it is subordi- 
nate : * having sailed upon the sea after having collected* 
40. kwtr\t : * remote.* See on A 270. 

50. Notice the alliteration. ~ — Stjtup : * nation/ 

51. x^PM- -! (caTT|^(^v : appositives of the preceding sentence, of which 
the most important word is iHry"- 

52. ovk Av B^ \uivnai$ : ' could you not then withstand ? ' The poten- 
tial opt. used interrogatively is here equal to an imv,, * withstand then I ■ 
The two verbs ai^ysy and pttr* tgf, though grammatically independent of 
each other, stand in thought in the relation of protasis and apod os is {see 
on A 18, 20). 

53. ofo &y xpa^crfi-Q ; the opt. would have been regular to correspond 
with pjyttiff (see on A 137). 

68. 1\ : * surely ; * supply as protasis fl ^ fctSiftttPtf %*&> and see on 
A 232. 
57. torn? : 2 sing* plupf. from cvrvpt. 

59. "Eicrop, eird . . . 4v*£««Taf ; pfy wpdtftept completes the sense, 
00. drafts : pred. of KpaSlij. - — it&ckus «s : see on v. 2. 

61. itoi: 'goes/™-, 'is driven/ equivalent to a passive verb after 
which the gen. of the agent is in place. 

62. 5s fc-rajMrnrt [&t 4f iirrdtw$\ ^AXcl : se+ as subj. Wa«w. 

63. dn&ppTp-os : attributive, * an unterrificd ' mind. 



64, irp6^*pi : 'bring forward (as a reproach);* 'reproach with,' 

XpwriT|s 1 *>. * resplendent, 1 for her temples more than those of other dei- 
ties shone with golden gifts (see on A 611). 

66, erfW J * in person/ ' by their own act/ i,e. without request of the 

receiver, who should, therefore, not be held responsible for them 

jntfv : ' by his own will,' ' of himself/ 

08. koOmtov : ' bid sit down. 1 

70. &|u^ 'EXfrm Kal K-rfyMWi: 'for Helen and her treasure* (which 
Paris had carried away with her)* Two parties fight for the possession 
of an object which lies between them. Hence is explained the transition 
from the orig. meaning of &.fi$i{s ), * on both sides of/ to the meaning, 
* for/ 'in behalf of.' 

71. Kpsivmv Tftvip-ai : ' shall have proved himself the stronger ; * am- 
plihes the meaning of twrfjay. Cf.w. 2, 6. 

72- «fi irAvTCt \ ' all without exception, 1 'all in due form. 1 

73. ol B* ftXXai: 'but do you, the others/ — Tau4vTes, rr\. : ptc. 
joined by zeugma with two objects, though more appropriate to the sec- 
ond; translate: * having concluded ('struck*) friendship and having rati- 
fied-by-slaughter-of -victims {r4fam) sure oaths/ 

74. vo£o*r« ; opt. of wish, standing between two imvs. ra\ £«, kt?^ : 

' but let them ' (the Achaians). 

75. "Apyo* ; usecI as m A 3° * or Peloponnesus * Ax&ttfia : used 

for Northern Greece, 

78. £*Md«w 3 ptc. assigns the cause of Ix^FQ (rf* A 474). 

77. uicrtrov [m«Vw] 1 freq, used as ntr. substantive. — — dWep-vc [&vt?p- 
yt] : ' was forcing back*' 

78. pjUnrw: adj., translate : * grasping his spear at the middle/ i>. 
holding it horizontally and using the shaft as the means of forcing back 
the Trojans IBpuvfoicrav : ' were brought to order/ We should trans- 
late * took their seats/ were it not that this act is mentioned as first taking 
place, v. 326. 

79. Tif ( # Erro/H) : dat after M in composition. Translate (vv. 77, So) : 
*but the long-haired Achaians were bending their bows at him, nor were 
they only {re) aiming arrows, but were also (n) striving to hit him with 
stones.' By a kind of zeugma ihreTalciforro includes the actions described 
more particularly by rtruffH^fiafoi and IjSoAAop. Had the construction 
been perfectly regular, we might have had TtTvo-tcfoevai and gikKovrts* 
- — X&urcn [Aae<ri] : nom. sing ^Sm or has [hlBos]. G, 60, 5, t6, H. ai6, 11 . 

81. \uxKp6v : lit. 'over a long distance.' 

88 Agamemnon quickly comprehends Hector's purpose, and, in alarni 
lest injury should be done him, cries, ' Hold {lit. restrain yourselves) I 
Argives ; throw no more, Achaians. 1 

83. orriirat: see on B 597. 

84. avt& t {yfrovro : ' became silent/ in expectation of word from 
Hector (see on B 323). 

234 NOTES. 

85. knrv\Uv<** : ' quickly/ adv. formed from pf. ptc. of crtfo, 'hasten.' 

86. K&Xvrt : imv. redupl. 2 aor. followed by /acv as gen. of source* 
G. 176, 1, H.750- 

87. |t«8ov : lit. ' word,' />. ' proposal/ 

88. Tpfias Kal ' Axaiovs : partitive appositives of &Movs, translate : 
' others, both Trojans and Achaians.' 

90. afrr6v : as referring to the same person as the subject of jclAcrcu 
(or verb of similar signification, eg. ' proposes,' to be supplied) might 
have stood in nom. case, but, being coupled by Kai with MeWAoov, fol- 
lows that word in case. 

94. 4>iXorqTa, Spicta : accusatives of effect. G. 159, n. 3, H. 714 a. 
Translate (freely) : ' let us, the rest, conclude a league of friendship and 
ratify a firm treaty.' 

96. This verse occurs fifteen times in Horn, and is thus imitated by 
Vergil : Aen. XI, 120, Dixerat Aeneas, illi obstupuere silentes. 

98. t|&6v : emphatic by its position Suucpiv<H)|icvai [-KpiBrjvcu] : as 

aor. inf. denotes the single act just commencing, ' are parting.' 

99. 'ApycCovs Kal Tp&as [y^as kou v/xas] ir&roo-0c [v-cWWtore] . 

2 pi. 2 pf. from iri<TX<»> without connecting vowel, perh. for ireropQr*. 
Aristarchus read here, ir4vaa$€. 

100. Translate : 'on account of my strife (with the Trojans) and the 
beginning (of that strife) made by Alexander' (cf. rov cTvckcc rcTicos 6po»p€v, 

v. 57). 

101. Odvaros Kal potpa : Horn, fulness of expression {cf. w. 2, 6). 

102. TcOvaCi) : ' may he lie dead.' Suucpivfefoc : aor. pass. opt. ex- 
pressing desire. 

108. ftpif [&pv*] : for this we find later (v. 117) &pyas. G. 60, 5. 4, H. 

216, 2. ofcrcrc and of crc : anomalous aor. imvs. formed from stems o&r-, 

a£- (see Sketch of Dialect, § 20, 4). 

104. YD TC KCI ^ ''kcAty : it was the black ewe-iamb which was sacred to 
the earth otcropcv : f ut. indie. 

105. pCt|v nptdpoio : « mighty Priam' (cf. B 387 ; cf. also Vergil, Aen. 

IV, 133, odora canum vis) flpKia to>vt) afrfe ; «be present in person 

to conclude the treaty ; ' it is Agamemnon, not Priam, who actually slays 
the victims (w. 273, 292). 

106. afrfe : lit. ' in person,' refers to filtjv Tlpid/xoio as if it were Jcpccrt- 

pbv TIplajMov With pi. routes, which here refers chiefly to Paris, we 

may perhaps compare alxiW&M (v. 49)> which refers chiefly to Agamem- 

108. 8' : this verse gives a second reason for bringing Priam. Besides 
the arrogance and faithlessness of Paris, ' young men's minds are flighty.' 

109. ot« [oh &v] : sc, as antecedent, rotrois, a dat. of adv. with \twrati. 

110. (icr* d(ji<f>oWpoun : ' among them both,' i.e. for the old man and 
for those whom he counsels. 


112. irauffao-flot : varia lectie ir*dcr*<r0!M, which would be natural after 

a verb of 'hoping ' {tf. v. 28), The aor. inf. refers to a single event. 

ttoX^ujiq : for gcn>, G. 174, H, 74&- 

113. tpv£*v : ipvttia properly means l hold,' J detain.' As joined here 
with prepositional phrase implying motion, we may translate ; * drove into 

rows and held them there/ 4k {i£ frnr<w*) Iflav : ■ descended from their 

chariots/ Notice that frrwoi is freq. used in Horn, in the sense of fip>ia, 
cf B 770. 

115, wXijo-fov dXXi{X«v : ' near one another/ /jr. one suit of armor lay 

near another dji^fe: 'on both sides/ U* between the suits of armor 

as they lay on the ground. 

116, rt . . . T€ t see on vv, 34, 35. 

117, TttX&ipuis : Agamemnon's herald, already mentioned A 320. 
130. otcr^jwvat : anomalous aor. Ui£, see on v. 103 ovk dirC&ncrt ; 

takes the d at. like simple wti&ttrQai. Translate: 'and he, I assure you r 
did not fail to obey illustrious Agamemnon/ 

121, OrflU 1 [o£te]. Iris's proper office is to execute the commissions of 
the gods (B 786), but here she acts on her own impulse and brings before 
our eyes Helen, the occasion and the prtee of the single combat. 

124. Aooltfpcnv : should regularly be dat., as appositive of ya\4<^ (v, 
132), but the influence of the nearer e?x* prevails over that of the more 
remote tl&opftnt* 

126. SforXaica : lit. J double-mantle/ so large that, like a shawl, it waf 
folded before being thrown upon the shoulders. iroXeas aiGXovs [wok 

128. i-fltv [qv, b&ttjj] : not enclitic, because emphatic- 
ISO, vvptfra [vtifupn] : the word {Lat. nyntpha) properly means * bride/ 

but is also used of a married woman who has not lost her youth and 


132. ot: its antecedent is of (v. 134} kc dAXtfXoun ^pov : 'were 

bringing war against one another/ 

134. farm [{irru]. Ibtbi trtyp ; J remain quiet* (see on v. 7S and B 

135. AoTrfoi ictKAinfroi : 'leaning on their shields/ the ooTrfi, as it 
rested upon the ground, came up to the breast of the warrior. The verse 
gives us a picture of the Homeric warrior as he stands at rest. 

13 B. Tip M m vtidjravTt. [fir St Jte vad\trri\ \ i.e. k* is used with the ptc. 
as it would be in the conditional relative clause to which it is equivalent 

KOtXtfjo-n (more freq. in Horn, un contracted -«u) ; fut. perf. of Ka\ta> t 

which in the pass, voice often has the general sense ' to be * (see on A 139, 
B 260)1 but is never exactly equivalent to it 

140. dvSpfc irpGT^joui : Helen is regarded as no longer the wife of 

Menelaos (ef, F 172) ftcrrtos : i.e. Sparta tok^wv : >./, TyndareoS 

and Leda, who are thought of as still living, though Helen is also called 
Aths hrytyoAfia, (v. 199). 


141. *<Wvflcri : a 'veil,* also called ttpfatfi»a» and aaX^rrpij, was worn 
by (noble) women and maidens when they went out of the bouse or into 
the presence of men, 

142, h 0aXd|iou> : the BtLkxpai was in the rear of the house. 

144, This is the only passage In the Iliad where the attendants of a 
noble lady are mentioned by name. Aithra has been mentioned* B 
561, After Theseus became king of Athens, Aithra resided there, and 
was put m charge of Helen when she was carried off on a certain occa- 
sion by Theseus. Kastor and Polydeukes rescued their sister, and brought 
Aithra as her slave to Sparta, whence she seems to have accompanied 
her to Troy. Of KJymene nothing more is known than that she came 
from Sparta. 

145, Eioual ir&Kax : the ■ Scaean gates ' are the only ones which axe 
mentioned by name in Homer, 

146, ot W &|41 npiofiov : * but Priam and his suite j ' the follg. names 
stand on the same footing with those included in the phrase oi kp<pl Tlpt- 
apor f and might have been in the nom. case. 

149. Snjw^povres : in apposition with sub], of tiara [$m>] F * Sat as 
elders of the people/ &4. occupied, in virtue of their function, this promi- 
nent place, The follg, episode (vv, 149-160) illustrates, by its *jfect t the 
power of Helen's beauty. As she approaches the tower, it so impresses 
these old men that they declare that they cannot * blame Trojans and 
Achaians that they endure wars a long time for (to gain possession of j 
such a woman. 1 

150. iroMfUH* : gen, of separation^ * from combat ' (see on A 165)- 
LSI. TtTTl-vwoiv 4omc4t«$ |T^TTt|ir tticrfrfs] : the comparison of the 

cheery gossip and soft tones of the Trojan eiders to the chirping of grass- 
hoppers is not meant in a contemptuous spirit ; the Greeks considered 
this chirping an especially pleasant sound. 

152. Xt ipuS«nrqpV : Kt. ' lily-white f (Atf/wr, 'lily'); then, when the 
epithet is transferred from things seen to things heard, ' delicate,' * feeble/ 
Ulo-i [Hurt). 

153. Tetot : for construction, see on Aqpo^paprc*, v. 149, 

155, JJKft i ' softly/ the admiration all the deeper because expressed in 
hushed tones. 

158, alvtite gducw: as we say* she is fearfully like/— ils Awa : lit. 
1 into her face/ i.e. as one looks upon her face. 

159. icaY &s : * even thus/ ' despite that.' In this phrase, and after 
g&8(/), the adv. is printed with the circumflex accent (see on A 33), 

160. iirCcrcrw : ' for time to come/ 

161, iKoXicra-aTO $t*v^ [ejraAeVara ^w^(ras) i * raised his voice and 


l|Mt6: connect gen, with rd(me* t 'before me/ 

Eu f %*] : see on A 5^ ^ • foe enclitic may be used more 

than once, pot : * in my eyes. 1 G, i%4^ ^, t*, v **■ TM» 



108* As Igovoji'fjvtf « : ' in order that you may call by name, 1 a second 
final clause dependent, like titfipa tfBjj (y* 163), upon ffeu, 

187- Saris: predicate. Notice in the follg, dialogue that 35* is the 
pron, constantly used in the question, dSro* in the answer. Thus the dis- 
tinction is observed that S&e refers to something not well known, of which 
the description is to follow ; oWos, to something well known. 

168. kc^oXtj : best taken as dat. of respect, the same construction as 
in w. 193, 194, 'Greater in the head' means that the head is the part 
which attracts notice and marks the difference in size* We might trans- 
late freely : * the head of others is loftier/ or * others are superior in 

170. ytpap6v ; 'stately.' potriXf|i: pred, appositive of avSpt, *a 

man who is a king/ Cf. B 474. 

172, atSoios ti Suv6s tc . * object of reverence and dread.* Priam's 
kind invitation to Helen to draw near reminds her of her no worthiness, 
and suggests the first words of her reply (v, 172). The apparent hiatus 
before lav?* and lengthened final syllable before fcivds are explained 
by an orig. F* 

17 3 + koic&s flAvaros 1 *>. * suicide / 

174, yvvroH * here used in the sense of ' brothers/ 

175* iratfia: Helen's only child was Hermione (by Menelaos) 

o^JukCtjv [6fii}\was] : ' companions,' abstract noun used instead of con- 

176. Td y(e ) : i-e, my wished-for death to : [5ti tovto]. 

179. This was the favorite verse of Alexander the Great fyi+cn-fpov i 

in apposition with the follg. clause, BmnKe&s » . . aixpwfis* G. 137, N. 3, 
H. 626 b. 

180. **!-(*) ! ' besides.' — rf irOT* (tjv yi : * if it was really he i ! Varia 
Uctiv, ^ *ot' tit* yf : * yes, it was once he ! * 

183. ^ f>6. w : ■ surely as I now see/ 

184. fj&n ko£: 'already once;* for *«f, see A 249 tyMylip'- see 

on B 862* 

187. Jcrrpa.TO'uiyTO : { were encamped. 1 irap 1 A^Qd? 2ayifapCoio 1 

* along the banks of the Sangarios/ The Halys and the Sangarios were 
the largest rivers in Asia Minor, Both empty into the Foutos Euxeinos, 
the Halys lying farther east, 

189. *Api£|0V€s ivTiavtipcu : the Amazons are said to have lived east 
of Greater Phrygia on the banks of the Thermodon. 

191, Stfrcpov : connect with IpeWc. 

193. t6v&* : expressed by prolepsis in the main sentence, so that We, 
in the dependent clause, might have been omitted. See on A 536. 

105. ol: for dat., for which the pass. gen. would have been a near 
equivalent, see G. 184, 3, N- 4, H. 767. 

1ST* Ito-Kw : * I liken,' probably for cta-roui (efo*Aos, Uthos). 

238 NOTES. 

900. a$ : 'in turn/ in contrast with Agamemnon (v. 178). 

901. Kpavafjs irtp town)*: ' though very (wep) rocky* (see on A 131). 
90S. dvrCov ifiba : governs the ace. (t^v), like irpo<r4<pri or Tpoa&i-rev. 

905. SfOprf irar' ijXvOc : Before the expedition against Troy an effort 
was made to secure the restoration of Helen by negotiation, and Odys- 
seus and Menelaos were envoys. 

906. dyycXCtjs [iyycKos] : ' as an envoy,' best taken as nom. sing, masc 
in apposition with 'OSvaaetis. 

907. Igcfviova, ^CXtjoxi: 'discharged the duties of host (tfvos) and 
entertained.' {etWfw is the word of more general meaning. 

908. iSdip : see on B 299. 

909. d«ypojiivouriv : see on B 481. 

911. &p^fl» S' klo\Uvo> f kt\. : The two nominatives — &fi<t>a>> 'OSvinrefc — 
are to be explained by the principle of apposition of the whole with the 

913. Translate (w. 213-215) : 'Then indeed Menelaos spoke rapidly, 
few words (but) with a very clear voice, since he did not use many words 
nor missed the right word, though he was the younger.' 

915. t^vci : occurs only here in the sense of y*v*<b ' age.' 

916. dvatgcwM : opt. of repeated action in temporal clause. G. 233, 
H. 914 B. 

917. ord-oic-f-v, t8-c-<nc-€-v : iterative forms for tarry, cftey. icard 

X0ov2>s fyfiaTCi irfjgas : describes more minutely foral $h ffietricc. 

918. The thought in this verse is that Odysseus used no gesture in 
speaking Ivcufta : ipf . from vwpdw. 

990. ' You would have said that he was a sullen fellow or (lit. ' and ') 
simply a blockhead.' 

991. cttj (varia lectio Ui) : 2 aor. opt. from Tij/ui. 

999. tired vi^dSco-o-i : the lengthened a before vKpdfcatri indicates a 
lost initial consonant, — in this case <r. Cf. vupds and Engl. snow. 
994. &Sc &ycur<rdpc0' : 'did we so much wonder.' 

996. t£s t* dp' : cf. A 8. 

997. Kc+oMjjv : G. 160, 1, H. 718 a. 

998. TavihreirXos : variously explained as 'long mantled,' Le. 'with 
flowing mantle,' or ' fine mantled,' U. ' with fine-woven mantle.' 

999. Atas : * Ajax ' son of Telamon, brother of Teukros, from the 
island of Salamis (see on A 145). 

930. Here Helen's eyes fall on Idomeneus, and though Priam had not 
asked his name she goes on to speak of him, and of how Menelaos had 
entertained him as he came to Sparta from Crete in days of old. In a 
similar way, as her eyes run over the host, she is reminded of her own 
brothers who had died in Sparta during her absence, without her knowl- 
edge. For an admirable translation in English hexameters of this 
beautiful passage (vv. 234-244), see Essay on Scanning, § 7. 


281. ^-ycp&ovrai : see on B 304. 

285. fvohp l for °P t « G * 226 > 2 b » H * 8 7 2 Ka * T>: ' and ^s^' 

288. t<& |&oi |*£a -yclvaTO p4JTT|p : lit. 'one (and the same) mother with 
me (/.*. the same with my own mother) brought them forth ; ' *>. ' the 
same mother brought them forth who also brought me forth.' fila has 
the same force that 'h avri) would have, and governs dat. in the same way. 
G. 186 and N. 2, H. 773 and b. This abbreviated comparison is called 
in Latin comparatio compendiaria (cf. A 163). 

242. ScbSutas : 2 pf . ptc. from stem 8f<. This stem reduplicated would 
give MFiores, in which the first € would be long by position. To retain 
this long quantity of the first syllable after the disappearance of the F, € 

was lengthened into ci (see on A 33) & poC fcrw : *>. * which lie upon 


248. rote kAtcxw ala [ydia 4K<l\inrr(v airrois] : lit. ' the earth was 
holding them fast/ i.e. ' they lay buried beneath the earth.' Notice that 
the common legend of the immortality of Kastor, and the mortality of 
Polydeukes, is shown to be later than Homer by the poet's ignorance 
of it as evinced in this passage. 

244. a$8i : ' there,' ue. tv AaKeSalpoyi. Notice the melodious close of 
this verse. 

246. Otwv : gen. of possession ; the gods referred to are Zeus, Helios, 
Gaia. The narrative is here resumed from v. 120. 

248. fctypova : lit. ' gay-hearted,' ' cheery,' U. ' making glad the heart* 
For other epithets of wine, see Horn. Diet. olvos. 

248. TScuos : for -6s, see Essay on Scanning, § 5, 4. 

249. irapurrdpcvos : in order to ' stand by his side,' he had first to 
climb the tower of the Scaean gates, for Priam was there (v. 149). 

250. 6po-fo : 1 aor. midd. with intermediate vowel of 2 aor. In ordi- 
nary prose we should expect a conjunction, perh. ydp y between Spa-to and 
Ko\4ovtri t 'summon;' the absence of the conjunction, asyndeton, adds 
vivacity to the description. H. 1039. 

252. rd)ti)rf : subjects are Priam, and Hpiaroi Tp&wv Ktd *Axcuav. 

255. WKtfo-avri : for use of kc with ptc. see on v 138. 

256-258. These verses resemble closely vv . 7 3-7 5 fciroi/ro, va£oi|icv : 

these optatives expressive of a wish differ little from the future indica- 
tive ; they are joined with viovrtu, which always has a fut. meaning. 

259. ^yqo-cv : ' started with fright,' at the thought of Paris's danger. 

fraCpois : for dat. see on B 50 ; the king is constantly attended by his 

ircupoi, in the same way as Helen (v. 143) by her tyftvoXoi. 

280. 6rpaXla>s- lit. * hurriedly ' (orptvoa). There was need of haste, 
for it was necessary to go to the palace for the chariot and return to the 
Scaean gates. 

261. KttT-*rcivcv : • drew in the reins,' i.e. after untying them from the 
&vtv£ or rim of the chariot, to which they were made fast while the char* 
iot was at rest (see Horn. Diet, cut 10). 

wdp hi ol : 'and by his side/ 

fft©v : ' were guiding.' 

l£ twrov = rf£ &X*V t see on v. 113, ^ B 77a 

*<n-ixo«vTO : ' they strode,* 

267. 4pwn> &* oWk* (iwra : ' and then straightway upro&e/ £*, to bid 
them courteous welcome. 

268, KTfpuKi* , . . irvroyov: * the heralds were bringing together the 
trusty pledges of the gods/ U. the heralds, Greek and Trojan, were 
bringing forward from their respective sides the victims destined for sac- 

370* pAryw : ( were mingling the wine/ fa were pouring into a com* 
mon receptacle the wine which both parties had brought for a common 

purpose poo-iAfwrt : * leaders, 1 ' nobles,* of both Greeks and Trojans. 

This libation might not be poured with unwashen hands. 

271, pAxotfHLv : ' his (force of midd. voice in ptc) sacrificial knife.' 
For representation of t*&x**P** sc * Hom * Dict * cut ®9- 

272. ot : dat. of adv. limiting fapra instead of poss. gen. limiting {($«* 
G. 184, 3, n. 4* H. 767. Translate ol &wpra y lit, 'hung for him/ i<upro 
|^pr«]: 3 pi upf. pass, from aetptu [rfpuj. The theme is acp-; this would 
give in plupf. by a regular change %apTo, and metathesis quantitatis gives 

us Utepro . aUv [itt] : * always,' for, as commander-in-chief, the regular 

exercise of priestly functions belonged to Agamemnon. 

274. vft|xav (3 pi, 1 aor. from vifta) : distribution was made of the 
hair of the victim's head after it had been solemnly cut off, to each of the 
nobles, that they might each have a token of their participation in the 
sacrifice, and of obligation to help fulfil the agreement 

275. |uydXa : see on A 450. For attitude in prayer, see Horn. Diet. 
cut 14 » t/" also ad aulum cum voce manui ttnd&qtu suphms, Vergil, Aem 
III, 176, 

276. Ztfirdnp: invocation similar to B 413. The summits of lofty 
mountains were specially sacred to Zeus, as the Greek Church to-day 
consecrates them to Elijah fA-ytoi'Hfckt), In addressing Zeus, accord- 
ingly, Agamemnon calls on the deity presiding over the region. 

277. ■rjfo.Los 1 as the sun daily traversed the earth from east to west, 
he would be witness of all violations of plighted faith. 

278. irara|Ao(5 * rivers ' of the Trojan plain, yaUki the goddess 

* Gaia,* ■ Earth. 1 ot t£vw4ov : * ye who punish,' U. the two chief dei- 
ties of the lower world, Hades and Persephone. 

279. 6ns K* ±irfop»eoir 6\L6<nr^ [bs &»> iTtupje^fffll- 

283. v*^j« 0a: llie r P 1 - of hortative subjunctive takes the place of the 
imv.pwhich lacks this form. »*&**&* is exactly parallel to tx*™ ( v * ^ 2 )* 

285. Tpfios . . . diroBeftvfti : see on B 413. 

286. ty nva. feuctv : repeat &r#rtp4ftt v. 

289. o fa $Mkuv\ : * if they shall refuse/ d retusabHHt* ovk forms on« 
/c/ea with the verb? otherwise ^M^^Htii^TOiXwK. 


291, tIXos iroUf&Aio : *>. victory and the destruction of Troy {cf. B 
122), — icixtUi : for form see on A 26 : for mood, G- 339, 2, H, yui. 

202. air* . . . Tdjit : ' cut off,' i.e. severed the upper part of the gullet 
from the lower, \oX^ = f4«xa//n7 (y- a/I J. 

294, 9v|u0 Scuouivouv: * bereft of life,' explains atnratiporras* 

295. ©Evev . . . hc%vwi *but they were drawing off wine (with the 
vp6x 00 *) ^ rom * ne mixing bowl into the cups (fttirirOTi) and were pouring 
it Ollt 1 The libations were poured upon the ground separately from each 
cup as it was filled. See un A 471. 

289. indp fipKWL <irv|fLtf|Vftav : * work mischief by violating the oaths/ 
The opt. In the conditional relative sentence might lead us to expect far 
^m instead of the opt of wish without A*. 

300. <r+'(<) : for dat. of disadv. see on v. 272 £g &$« otvot : for 

similar symbolical actions, cf. Livy i. 24 ; Exodus xxl 6. 

SOL, auTuv *tal tmccwv : poss. gen. instead of dat- like o^t (v. 3QO>)_ 
AXoxo t S' dXXoLcn. S4u4MV i for more explicit statement, see B 355. &v 
XoKfi is dat. of agent. 

S02. This verse closely resembles B 419 Apa : see on B 36. 

308. AapftaWfrp ! Priam was sixth in descent from Dardanos, The 
royal line ran thus : Dardanos, Erichthonios, Tros, Ilos, Laomcdon, Pri- 

306, The passage beginning with this verse (vv. 302-326) will be found 

at the commencement of the book in facsimile from Codex Venctui* 1 

etf iru [06 *«r| : nulls moda tX4J(tv|mu : ' shall 1 have the heart/ — — h 

4^&oX|iourL : see on v. 28* 

307. Mw(Xdf f for dat. G. i96 p N. 1, H, 77* 

308* Z*it% |Uv [p4p]i ktA : This verse is a pious expression of Priam's 
willingness to leave all things with Zeus as the all- wise. The relation of 
Zeus to the other Olympian deities, as the superior of them all, is indi- 
cated in the phrase Zf fa fi ttal adauarm Geo! &\\<it. 

309. ttav&rew t&os I periphrasis for edwros Trtvptapfoov krriv 

310. fa Sifypov fipvas 0ero : the dead lambs were carried back to Troy 
for burial, for the flesh of victims slain in ratifying an oath was not eaten, 
but buried or cast into the sea. 

312. P^<rtTo : for form see on A 428. 

315. 8u|j^Tp€OV : ' were measuring across,' id, from side to side. 

310. iriXXov : 4 were shaking them/ so that all knowledge of the post* 
tion in the helmet might be lost. In v. 324, ird\\t means ' was shaking/ 
until the lot should fly forth from the helmet. 

317. &^«Ct) (2 aor. opt. from A^-fij^u) 1 opt, explained on the principle 
of the emtio ehltqua ; it stands here as indirect question. 

813. Xaol 8" 4jp-fjravro : ' and the people offered their prayer.' What 
the prayer was, is more particularly described in the four verses begin 

242 NOTES. 

ning with v. 319. The people continued praying during the preparations 
and while Hector was shaking the helmet. 

319. ns : * many a one ' (see on B 271). 

321. t6Sc tp-ya |mt* &fwJx>Wpouriv tihpecv : ' has occasioned these doings 
(*>. this war) between both parties.' Both sides agree in recognizing the 
guilt of Paris and in wishing his death. 

326. &+ £prf»v : each chief had scratched his mark upon a lot {tc\4fpovs, 
v. 316), and Hector turned his face away that he might not appear to fa- 
vor his brother. 

326. fgovTo : here, for the first time, the sitting-down of both hosts is 
mentioned, though they had long since dismounted from their chariots 
and laid down their armor (cf. w. 78, 113). 

327. Ikcito : extended by zeugma to apply to Inroi, though appropri- 
ate only to &pfiara. The natural verb with ftnro* would be tararro. 

328. &f*+* tfpowi: 'about their shoulders;' cuirass, sword, and 
shield could be said to be &/i$' &Atot<n. The sword was suspended from 
the shoulders by a strap, rcKap&v. The combatants had previously 
(v. 114) taken off their armor. 

330. This and the seven following vv. are interesting as a description 
of the process of arraying the Horn, chief in armor. See Horn. Diet, for 
pictorial representations of each article of armor named. 

332, 333. Paris had appeared on the battle field in light armor; 

hence it was necessary for him to borrow his brother's cuirass. 4fppo<r« 

8* <rfrcp: 'but it fitted himself.' For process of adjusting cuirass, see 
Horn. Diet, cut 59. 

334. 6pYvp4i)Aov : epithet applying only to the hilt; x&x* "* to the 
entire sword. 

338. tYX°« : two spears seem to have belonged to the complete equip- 
ment of the warrior (cf. v. 18) oi iraXd)ii)^tv [reus vaKxtficus]: for the 

two datives, standing in relation of whole and part, see on A 150. 

339. &s 8* aih-os : ' and in the same way.' &<ra6r»s is adv. formed di- 
rectly, with changed accent, from 6 avr4s (see on A 133). 

340. licdrcpOcv : lit. ' from each side.' 

341. Tp&ov Kal'Axauav : best explained as gen. of place, limiting h 
fifo(<r)ov after the analogy of the gen. with adverbs of place. G. 182, 2, 
H. 757- 

342. Ixcv : * was holding/ the amazement was prolonged. 

344. koU {> tyyta <rHjn|v : ' and then the two drew near.' kot4ovt€ : 

subordinate to oreiovre, l shaking their spears in rage at each other.' 

347. pdAcv kox &onr£8a, ktK. : Struck full in the midst of Atreides's 
round shield.' £cUa« takes the ace, not the gen., of the object hit. 

348. & ol alxp4) •* 'but its point.' For dat ot (referring to xaA*<k), 
see G. 184, 3, N. 4, H. 767. 

349. Apwro xoAk'P (dat. of accompaniment) : ' raised himself with his 


spear/ &A drew himself up to his full stature for a stronger thrust down- 
ward and forward. 

350. frm^dfievos : * uttering a prayer besides ' (4*£). 

351. dvn: for accent, II. 170 D b «: article used as relative, its 

antecedent omitted (cf, A 230) p* upd-repos x&k fopys : l was the Erst 

to work me harm/ tupy* : 2 perf. from frtfa (stem Fepy-)> 

352. fitov : implies illustrious birth and beauty, but has no necessary 
reference to character, 

353. tis : * many a one.' IppC-yD 1 " : 3 sing, pf, gubj, from fay it* ; for 

form, G. ug, 12, d, II. 381 D 1, 

354* irapdcrxn: subj. in conditional relative sentence. & k§v [ft* &?] 

355, apn-tiraXi&i' : redupl. 2 aor. from dva-iraAAco. 

357* B*A $dv : the lengthening of the first syllable of hi is necessary to 
make a dactyl. Such a verse as this is called acephalous. 

356. ^p^pf icmo [ ip^pturro] : li t . ' had leaned agai nst ; ' here/ had f orce d 
itself, 1 

359, din-iKpv irttpaC : ' right on past. SuL^cr* {Bt-afdw} : * cut {lit, 

* mowed 7 ) through/ 

362. &vm-x*p*vds: * having raised himself/ to strike with greater 

force {cf, v, 349) One object of the £eUoj, the * crest* or 'ridge * of 

the helmet, was to make blows glance harmlessly off. For illustration, 
see Horn- Diet., cuts 20, 12S. dp^l *i&T<i: w. afitpl rf <pd\*p* 

363, tuarpv^iv (a aor. pass, ptc from Bia-^ptfirrttt) : agrees with fyxof. 
• — TpiX^ T€ Ka ^ **rp«x(W : for idiom, see on B 303, 

365. Such an exclamation of vexation and disappointment does not 
imply, m the Homeric hero, profanity or disrespect toward the gods. 

366, Thruo-Bai: for meaning of aor. inf. see on v. 112. Translate, 
with ^ t* itpdnTjv : * and verily I believed that I was sure to take ven- 
geance on Alexander for the injury to me/ 

367* Avn [idyri] : 2 aor, pass, from iyvvfii. In /to** twice used, we 
have the common use of dat. (of disadv.) limiting the verb, instead of a 
poss. gen. limiting the noun (see on v, 33S) 4k: join with WxH- 

366. Translate this verse 1 f flew (lit. * leaped *) from my hands a use- 
less thing : nor did 1 strike him, 1 j\a I only hit his shield and cut through 
his cuirass iraXdu/n+w [iraA.B^«j>] . 

369- ^ : see on A 210. krat|a$ AAp*v : ' sprang upon and laid hold 

of him (sc. efrrdv) by the helmet (icrfprtrt).' 

3T0. krurrp6|«ks tX«* 1 * turned over and was dragging.' 

372, *x«vs rhwrQ Tpv<f>aXfCus : ■ was stretched as a helmet-strap T (lit, 

* holder'). 

373, ^patfl r I aor. from iprv/utt (see on A 159!. 

374, it p^t tip' *£i vtJu<rf i ' unless at just that moment {&pa) had sharp 
ly discerned/ 



373* porff : ' ox-hide.* Here the word jBcxta, by a kind of zeugma, 
means * ox ' with reference to rr-qpfroio, and ' ox-hide ' with reference to 
fyidWo. Translate : ■ the si rap of the hide of an ox slain by violence/ 

370, KtwiJ l**rh] - 'empty.' a|i ffrmro : * followed close after, 1 Li. 

being empty , made no resistance. 

380* <*YX*i X°k* f ty : ***• with his second lance, for, like Paris (v, i&), 
he had two spears, one of which {v. 355) he had already hurled, 

381, faun. \^aX t ; ' very easily/ 

383. KdXioiicr T 1 probably fut, ptc*, G. t», 2, H. 4M U l#ei]. 

385* Translate s * and she laid hold of and plucked with the hand her 

fragrant garment.* fovoO : connect, as gen* of part taken hold of, wilh 


386, |ttv : for constr., see on B 22. 

887, voifro&rQ : join with of [atfrflj, dat, of adv. with Vjtwfiv (ipf. 
from avKiuf). v movable is sometimes appended to the contracted form 
of 3 sing, ipf. (f/, A 436). 

388. uiv 1 Le* ypn&v* 

391. KCbvos 8 y* : * there he is, J tc§?var is translated as if it were Are?. 

SiVfiiTown, f &ih£v, ' tarn ') : lit. ' rounded ' or r turned, 1 properly of posts 

and bars of a bedstead, then applied, with perhaps the more general 
meaning ■ polished,' to the bedstead as a whole, 

393, Note the difference in meaning between the aor, ixte?* and the 
presents fyxto-Gai, naBifriv. 

384. x*P°"> i for g^n. of separation after A^ya^o, see on A 224. 

385. -ni : for dat, see on B 142 0v|ufr : * wrath,' - indignation." 

396, Kfii ft* &% ■: * and so when, 1 fV<&T]<rc : ' she observed,' the women 

about her {<f* v. 420) only saw the yp^bs waktuye^ (v. 3S6J. 

397, irepvKtiXXf a Stip^y irH]0ta 0' iptpowro, kclI SfxuaTa jiap^aipoirra : 
•beauteous neck, lovely breasts, and sparkling eyes/ These character- 
istic marks the goddess allowed to show through her disguise, Cf. Ver- 
gil, A en. I, 402, Dixit et avertcm rosea arvt'a rcfuhit- 

398, edpp-no-tv : J amazeme nt seized her/ fires t* I^ot* Ik r 1 ovo |*a£t \ 

see on A 361. 

400. \ t see on v. 46* The particle of asseveration here, as often, 

stands in an interrogative sentence iroXfov [WAew*] : best connected 

as gen. partitive with adv. irjf, irporipi* : here local, * farther away, 1 

Le, farther from Sparta. 

401. ^pu-yCas; gen. limits rahtuv* It may be considered either as 
partitive or possessive gen. 

402. xal kiiGl j * there also,* as Paris is now your favorite at Troy, - 

uipo iruv : see on A 250, 

403, 8 if: * forsooth.' 8wsv: see on v. 352. 

404, : 4 is resolved/ 

405, iropto-rns ; ' didst thou come hither and art standing by/ see on 
A 6, rp 7 . 



400. *Go and sit by him and withdraw from the path of the gods I ' i.e. 
give up thy place among the gods. 

409- inHT]Vffrat : subj. with shortened mood-sign. Sketch of Dialect, 
§ 17, G. 339, 2 f H. 921, 1055, 7, 

410. vfp.wo-TjTbv s * blame worthy,' because, by the result of the com- 
bat, Helen belongs to Menelaoe, 

418, ftKpLTu; Ht, ' undistinguished/ Le. • countless, 1 ' endless/ Helen's 
expressions of penitence and self-abhorrence are frequent {if. Z 344 follg.), 

414. 9xffrXCi| (^x to ) ; ' stubborn/ ' self-willed one/ 

415. dirixflTfptt : aor. subj. from k-w^x^P^- 

416. uitrcru fi* d^4>0T€puv : 'and between both 1 (peoples) j for gen, 
see on v* 341 and G. tBz, a, H. 757. p.t|TLcro|iai. 1 see on v. 409. 

417. dXijo.L (2 aor. subj. midd. from tfAAi/jtt) [oJui] : the subj, is poten- 
tial (see on A 137) oCtgv : cognate acc v G. 159, H. 715 b. 

419. KEmurxopim) : lit. * having held (drawn) down {over her head)/ 
'having veiled herself with' (see on v. 141), 

430. Jjp)t« S£ Sa^uv ; the meaning is, * for a deity led the way/ 

432. afu^braXoi : mentioned by name in v. 143. 

424. rj : join with tta,Tc&riK€ : * placed for her.' 

425. 'AX^dvSpoLO 1 for gen. with adv. of place, see G. 182, 2, H. 757. 
427. fio-o-t irdXtv ttktva&a : esniti avtrris* 

42$. flXufl*s, kt\. : indignant exclamation, like our, *Ahl there you 
are ! back from the combat t ' 
429. Sap^ : * having succumbed to/ 

431. ^prcpas; 'superior/ - — |3£fl ; dat. of respect. 

433. irpoK&Wcrtu : ' call forth against yourself/ * challenge/ 

434. irave<rfloi : the gen, toA^iov, or the supplementary ptc *oAt/tffvj', 
may be supplied. 

438. T&x a : ' speedily ; ' this word has never in Horn, the meaning 
common in Attic, * perhaps/ — - BovpC [ftd/iori] : connect with &T& 
437- (rifawi : join with vpao-fctnev. 
436. }u . , . GupSv: see on A 150, 362 ; tf. also v. 442. 
459, crv* * AOijvfl ? ' by Athena's help/ U. the credit is not his own. 

440. -f|ulv: i.e. Paris and the Trojans, The indolent and cowardly 
always expect another time when they shall show industry and courage, 

441. TpairfCo)i€V [raprw/AGv] 1 1 aor. subj. pass, from r4pw». Sketch of 
Dialect, § 23, R. 

442. dp-^KKiXv+tv : 'enveloped/ 'encompassed* &%*: antecedent 

to &r (v. 446). 

445. Kpavdn : the adj. KptLvaas means ' rocky/ It is used as an epithet 
of Ithaka (v. 201)- The ancient prehistoric rock-city at Athens (south- 
west of the Acropolis) was called Kranaa. Pausanias identifies, as the 
first stopping-place of Helen and Paris, a little island between Sounion 
and Keos ; Strabo, an island off Gytheion, the seaport of Sparta* 

246 NOTES. 

446. For distinction between trrtpyw, tpaficu, tpt\4» 9 see Dictionaries. 

447. Helen is the counterpart of Paris, with the same weaknesses- 
Like him, she can see the right and deplore the wrong ; and yet — though 
she has, in words of bitterest reproach, just painted Paris's character as 
coward and seducer and has declared that, now that he has been conquered 
by Menelaos, it would be a shame to go to him (v. 410) — she does not 
resist his allurements, and at the last follows him not unwillingly (v. 447). 
And thus, before ever Pandaros's arrow had wounded Menelaos (A 205 
follg.), the two original causes of the war, Helen and Paris, had broken 
the compact (cf. w. 71, 72). 

449. dv* 6fttXov : sc. Tpdav. 

453. 0$ . . . iKcvOavov : the positive denial includes the qualified de- 
nial oinc &y Kcvddvoicv, which would form the regular conclusion to cf ns 

454. <r+iv : for dat. G. 184, 2, H. 773. fcrov mpl |uXatrQ : ' like 

black death/ Cf t with the expression wip\ fic\alvy, Horace's atra cura. 

456. Tpocs ical AdpSavot ^S' tirfcovpoi : see on B 816. 

457. <f>cUv«Tcu (sc. olara) : ' appears to be (and is).' McvcXdov : pred. 

gen. of possession. 

459. diroTiv^icv : inf. coupled with imv. IkSotc, without any sensible 
difference of signification. Cf. A 20, where the inf. used as imv. imme- 
diately follows an opt. 

460 = 287. 

461. Iirl . . . fiviov : 'shouted assent/ while the Trojans admitted by 
their silence the justice of Menelaos's demand. Cf lT€v<p-l\nri<rcur> A 22. 


AiXra, de&v ayoprj, op/ccov %u<W, apeo? apyr\. 
In Delta is the Gods' Assize; the Truce is broke; Wars freshly rise. 

1. The gods have been witnesses of the entire combat between Paris 
and Menelaos, and now, after Greeks and Trojans have pronounced upon 
the result (r 455-461), it is natural to await their verdict. It is to decide 

upon this that they hold an assembly (vv. 1-85) ^-yofwWro [&K\ij<n- 

d(ovro] : ipf . 3 pi. from ayopdo/juu ; for explanation of the assimilated form, 
see Sketch of Dialect, 18, 1. 

2. Bair&w : ' on the floor/ i.e. of the houses which *H0cu<rro* iro/qcrer 
IBvltfcrt irpairf$e<r<ri, A 608. 

3. fcpvox<ki: 'was pouring;' for change from original meaning, see 

on A 598; for form, see H. 359 D xP wr * ot s : whatever belongs to the 

gods, for wear or use, is freq. represented as of precious metal {cf. xpv- 
ff4tp f v. 2). See on A 611. 

4. SctS^xaV [Mctyn&oi foav] : lit. ' pointed,' here ' pledged one an- 

6. KCpropCois: 'sharp-cutting;' it seems to contain the roots of both 

Kttpw and Wpiw irap apX^8r|v : ' covertly,' ' maliciously.' The noun 

Tapa&oK-fi (Engl, 'parable') means 'comparison;' hence the adv. comes 
to mean ' by way of invidious comparison.' 

7. Bowl |i*v : the correlative is found at t£ 8* aire (v. 10). 

8. 'ApycCtj : ' Argive,' for Argos was a chief seat of the worship of 

Hera *AXaXxo|&cvr)ts : either proper adj. from the town Alalkomenai 

in Boeotia, where Athena was especially honored, or descriptive epithet 
derived from root o\k-, lit. ' warding off/ ' protecting.' 

9. cUropowo-cu t^mtco-Oov: 'took delight in beholding;' for use of 
ptc, G. 277, 2, H. 969 b ; for form claop6oo<rcu, G. 120, 1 b, H. 409 D a. 
See also Sketch of Dialect, § 18, 1. 

10. r$ : easily understood as standing for Paris, though he has not 
been mentioned, in this book, by name $iXo|*|uiSt)s : *>. $tAo-(<r)ftci« 

248 NOTES. 

Hh (^.with n*itid*, Engl. % smile t ' and notice the same interchange of d 
and / which may be recognized in Scucpuov, lacrima, 

11. irap-|U|ipXttiKc : ' stands by his (r£) side ; ' for apocope of Toprf, 
G. 12, N. 3, H. 84 D ; for form ntp&Kuicc, see Sketch of Dialect, § 7, 3. 
afcoft : a more common construction is rl nvi tyivvciv (see on A 67). 

12. kbX vfiv : one case of the habitual practice referred to in eu'el, v. 11. 

14. (bras Ivtcu toSc tpya : *'.*. ' what the result of the combat shall be.' 

15. f{ . . . i\ [icArtpoy . . . fl : dependent double question ; the sub- 
junctive is dubitative. 

17. il 8* a$ ir»s : * but if on the other hand by any means.' This is 
an alternative which Zeus neither expects nor desires, for it is inconsist- 
ent with his promise to Thetis, A 509, 523, 558 t6$*: i*. <pi\6rrrra 


18. olidotro : opt. of desire, as is also Hyoiro in follg. verse. Pronounce 
kCoi as one syllable by synizesis. 

20. 4ir-l|A.v{av : fitfa lit. means ' utter the syllable pv-.' This might 
express various feelings ; here, indignation at the last part of Zeus's 

23. fjf>« : descriptive ipf., ' was seizing her/ with increasing power. 

24. "Hpfl : dat. of interest limiting IxoSe ( 2 aor » fr° m x^lum) instead 
of gen. of possession limiting arrjOos. 

25 - A 552. 

27. ov : on account of orig. initial F in T&p<o<ra poi : see on v. 24. 

28. Kcucd : * to the ruin of/ appositive of \u6v. Cf. Y 50. 
80 - A 517. 

31. 8ai|u>v{i| : see on A 561. 

35. A|ifcv f3cpp66oit (from 0i0p6o , ic<o) : the expression 'eat raw,' 'eat 
alive/ seems to have been in common use in Greek in such connection as 
here. Cf. Xen. Anab. IV. viii. 14. 

37. cpjov : from the theme ipy- or pey- two presents — Ipftu, fiefa — 
are formed. 

39 « A 297. 

40. pc|tcu6s : connect with idfav, ' desire eagerly/ 

41. Ttfv : placed after its noun, that it may stand nearer the rel. adv. 
50i [08], of which it is the antecedent. 

42. SiarpCpciv, 4ao-<u : infs. used as imvs., see on A 20. 

43. S&ica : ' have conceded to you/ used absolutely iic&v AIkovtC 

y* 0vfKJ» : ' voluntarily, yet with reluctant mind.' An expression that 
seems to contradict itself like this is called oxymoron or paradox (5|tf 
and n&pov : lit. ' pointedly foolish '). We have an example in Acts xxviii. 
21 : 'to have gained this harm and loss.' 

44. at, jctA.. : the relative clause precedes the antecedent, which last 
is found in v. 46. 

4& vatrrdoverv : lit. ' dwell/ i>. are situated. *-4xi;c* stands as sub> 
by 4 strong personification. TYve meamxv^ twSNjj v* •. * to &wlt in.' 

ILIAD IV. 249 

46. rdwv : gen. of the whole. The partitive word is "l\ios % the name 

of one city ircpl Ki)pC : vtpl is adv. ' exceedingly/ and icnpl is local 


47. tuppcXfo : the ending of the gen. sing. «, a contraction of do, 
occurs after vowels. G. 39, 3, H. 148 D 3. 

48. Cf k 468. The latter part of the line (what follows the caesura) 
is identical in both verses. The wants of the gods are thought of as 
precisely the same as those of men. 

50 ■= A 551. 

64. rdw [t«v] : governed by H-paV^ %ara^ai = irpo{(rrafiou = irpo(Trarr\s 
dpi With pryaXpM, 9imr4p<rai may be supplied. 

55. oiic cUS : translate * refuse to permit.' For oIk in protasis, cf oft* 
4e4\»<ri, r 289. 

57. ofoc Mktarov : cf. v. 26 follg. 

59. irp«rPurdTipf : has double signif., ' oldest ' and ' most dignified,' as 
explained in follg. verse. 

61. k6cXi||mu: for signif., see on r 138 <ri . . . Av&rxrcis: an in- 
stance of parataxis. We should naturally use a rel. clause, ' who art 
ruler among all the immortals.' See A 5. 

64. 0ouro-ov : ' right quickly,' an example of the absolute use of the 

67. &p£axnv irpo'rcpov : ' be the first to begin/ a pleonasm (nrip 

SpKta : see on r 299. 

70. pcrd : for meaning with ace, see on A 222. 

73. irdpos |U)iavtav : ' already eager/ for she had expressed in v. 20 
her unwillingness that the war should stop with the victory of Menelaos. 

74 — B167. 

75. olov [&s] : adv. ' as.' ^kc : gnomic aor., see on A 218, r 4 

Ao-Wpa : i>. ' meteor.' 

77. diro : join with Uvrai and translate : ' stream forth from it (rod). 9 

78. Athena is likened to the falling star in radiance and swiftness ; 
arrived on earth, she begins at once to execute that of which her appear- 
ance was the sign (r4pas). Cf. v. 86. 

79, 80 = r 342, 343. 

84. Av0p£ir»v : gen. depends upon neither rafxlrjs nor to\4/jioio taken 
separately, but upon the compound idea of both together (see on B 145). 

87. AooSliccp : sons of Antenor have been mentioned, B 822, r 123. 

88. IldvSopov; cf B 827 8i£o|iivT| [frrowra] . 

90. d|i+l 84 |uv : sc. tfm\<ra.v. 

91. Alo^wovo : cf B 825. 

93. iKOovo : opt. in potential use, would be joined in prose with &v. 
It implies a protasis of which rKalris kc* is apodosis. Translate : * would 
you obey me ? (if you would obey) you would have the courage/ etc. 

(cf. r 52). 

250 NOTES. 

94. fcmrpoJpcv [httvpocirat] : 2 aor. inf. from ixiTpoirj/ju. Distinguish 
Us y ' arrow ; ' Tos, ' one ; ' for, ' violet.' 

95. TpAfovt : * in the sight of the Trojans ; ' for dat. (loosely con- 
nected with whole sentence), G. 184, 5, H. 771 4pou> : see on A 159. 

97. tov [ou] : gen. governed by vap\ which would have been written 
vdpa had it not suffered elision (cf. A 350). The caesura in this verse 
after vafivp&rc^ which separates tap* from its case, may be compared 
with that in B 30, where the caesura comes between */*4>i{s) and <f>pd- 

98. Apfyov [^pctoy] : the Attic form occurs v. 407. 

99. irvpfjs : for gen. after the prep, in composition, see G. 177, H. 751. 

100. WoTfuorov : ' direct thine arrow at,' governs the gen. as a verb of 

102. irpwroyrfvwv : 'firstling,' U. earliest born (in the spring) and so 
the oldest. 

103. vovrf\<rajs : ' after thy return.' ZijXcCas : cf B 824. 

105. lo-6\a : * was stripping (of its cover),' ' was laying bare.' aXy6% : 

gen. of material. 

106. 8v : construe with /Sc/SA^kci, for rvxA<ras [rvx&v] would require 
gen. Translate: 'which once on a time he himself had fairly smitten 
under the breast.' He was lying in wait below the mountain goat (cham- 
ois), which he shot as it peered down at him from a ledge of rock. 

109. K^pa : final a (regularly long by contraction) here loses half its 

quantity before the initial vowel of the next word &cicaiScicdS«pa : 

' of sixteen palms,' i>. in span from tip to tip. 

110. This verse may be compared with B 827. The fact that the bow 
was Apollo's gift to Pandaros is not inconsistent with its manufacture by 

human hands dordjcras: 'skilfully.' — *ipap«- 'fitted together (the 

two horns).' 

111. Kop&vny : the ' tip ' over which the loop of the bowstring was 

112. Kal . . . AyicXCvas: 'and when he had strung it, by leaning 
his weight upon it while one end rested upon the ground (ayitKlvas vorl 
yaly ), he laid it carefully down.' 

113. The shields were interposed that the Greeks might not see what 
was preparing. 

114. irplv . . . irpCv : see on A 97, cf. B 354. 

115. p\^<r6at : 2 aor. without intermediate vowel, cf. MxBat, A 23. 

116. <(>ap^TpT]s: connect as gen. of separation with <r<5Aa [Mxa], 

117. Ipft* 48w£«v : see Horn. Diet, for what appears the most reason- 
able explanation of the phrase, lit. ' series of pangs,' i> # * carrying with it 
a long succession of pains.' 

118. Karctcrfafm : ' was adjusting.' 
219-121 = w. 101-103. 

ILIAD IV. 251 

123. rtf£<p 8) (HSipov (sc. Wxao-cp) : *>. he drew the arrow back until 
its iron point rested on the bow. 

124. KvicXoTip^s : best translated as pred. adj. used proleptically, 
strained the mighty bow 4 into a circle ' (cf. A 39 ; see Horn. Diet., cuts 96 
and 97). 

126. Xfry{€ : onomatopoetic word, cf. Engl. * ting-a-ling-ling/ 

126. |*€V€a£v»v : ' eagerly desiring,' applicable to 6i<rr6s on account of 
the personification. 

127. XcXdOovro : ' forgot,' the unreduplicated aor. is used with differ- 
ent^meaning in r 420. 

128. &7*X«£t) (probably = q &yov<ra r^v \*2av) : 'bringer of spoil.' 

129. toi [aoi] 1 join with &fivy*y. 

130. t&tov dir6 yjpoh* «s 8tc p^TTjp, ictX. : two things are prominent in 
the comparison: (1) the distance from Menelaos's body at which the 
arrow is turned away; and (2) Athena's tender care for Menelaos. The 
perfect ease with which the goddess deflects the arrow is also indicated : 
' as easily as a mother brushes away a fly.' x/x><fc [x/w*r<fe] : gen. sing, 
from xp&s (cf xp6* [x/>»to], v. 139). 

131. 80* (Sre) tegerai [Sray Ac^tcm]. 

133. IJvTfTo : sc. faorrjpi and translate : ' where the cuirass met the 
girdle and became of double thickness.' By zeugma ijyrero is translated 

134. Aptipdn: 'close-fitted.' 

135. Sta |iiv : see on r 357. IX^jXaTo : lit. * was driven,' differs little 

in meaning from fl\0€, r 357. 

136 = r 358. 

137. |aCtpt|s : the fxlrprj was a woolen belt passing around the body at 
the hips and next to the skin. It was sometimes strengthened by metal 
plates, and was broader than the £»/ia and fo<rrfip, which were worn over 
it See Horn. Diet, cuts 51, 78. 

138. fj ol irXciorov Ipvro (sc. rhv 6i<rr6v) : ' which most of all warded 
off the arrow from (lit. for) him.' draro : 1 aor. from clfii. Trans- 
late the half-verse: 'and it forced its way out (irp6) also through this.' 

139. dicp^raTOV \poa : ' surface of the skin.' 

140. &r€£\i)s : used only here and in v. 149 of 'arrow wound.' lp- 

puv [*/>/>«]. 

141. We are familiar with the staining of ivory with red, through the 

red ivory chessmen orig. brought from India. IXtyaira: refers to 

plates or strips of ivory. 

142. MflovCs: i>. 'Lydian woman,' see on r 401 K&cipa: fem. 

form from Kdp, ' a Karian/ The natural fem. form would be Kapla, then, 
by metathesis, Katpa, thence Kdupa 

143. ^prfo-avTo : gnomic aorist. 

144 lineiin : ' knights,' « chariot-drivers,' — not « horsemen.' 

252 NOTES. 

145. Cf r 179 and A 6a 

146. Totol Tot : translate as if ofrrus trot |udv0Tjv [£/u&0ij<rar or 

149, tcarapplov: why not proparoxytone ? G. 25, 1. 
151. vcflpov: the 'string' by which the metal point (aforipov) was tied 
to the shaft (iceUoftos) tarcfe: sc. wrelXris. 

155. 6dvaTOv: appositive of Hpiua. Translate: 'the truce which I 
ratified was death to thee.' For Zpicia rdfiyay, see on B 124. 

156. irpooTTJ<ras irpfc 'Ax<u£v : such repetitions of the preposition are 
very common in Greek of all periods. 

157. cbs IfoXov, ktK. : explains particularly B&varov, and &$ is nearly 
equal to iweih-fi icard . . . irdTt|<rav : ' trod under foot.' 

158. o-tf ir»s AXiov : ' by no means without result,' for divine vengeance 
will surely come upon the Trojans for their breach of faith. 

159 = B 341. 

160. cl o*k fr&fo-o-cv : for ov in protasis, see on r 289, and translate, 
•if Zeus fail to fulfil.' M\t<nr* and Mriffay are gnomic aorists. 

161. tcXci: pres. G. no, II, 2, n. i, H. 423. 

162. This verse is added as an explanation of abv fi€yd\<p. In an- 
cient warfare, the men were slain (<r<pfi<n Kc<f>a\ji<ri), the women and chil- 
dren sold as slaves (see on A 367). 

163-165. These three verses are said to have been repeated over the 
ruins of Carthage by Scipio, who applied them to Rome. 

167. iiruro-cCfloi [iwurcfy] : subj. used in sense of fut indie, see on A 
262. atyCSa : for explanation of the word, see on A 447. 

168. rdjUv: is easily referred to v. 161 ftr<rcTai 061c &T&«rra: 

' shall not fail of fulfilment,' litotes. 

169. This verse is the antithesis of the last half of the preceding 
verse. The thought is : 'Little comfort the destruction of Troy, however 
certain, if it is at the cost of thy death I' — <r*0€v : gen. of the cause of 

170. Wt|m>v : used in sense of jioTpav, ' appointed space.' The phrase 
vSrfiov hvairK-hoys is the fuller way of saying Odvys, cf. A 88. 

171. The motive for continuing the war would be gone with the death 
of Menelaos, in whose behalf it was begun. 

174. irwrci: causative, 'shall make decay,' instead of saying 'thy 
bones shall decay in the earth.' 

175. &T€\€vrrfJT<p hr\ tpyq : ' with work unaccomplished.' 

177. 4iri8p<&<nccov : exactly equivalent in meaning to Lat. insultans. 

178. fcrl ircuri : ' in all things.' x^ ov tcX&tcic : cf. A 82. 

180. Kal &f| tfh\ : ' and now he has gone.' 

181. Xnrwv fryaO&v Mcv&aov explains Kuvyai rqwrl. 

182. i&ot \6ivoi : * ma y ^ °P en f° r me i' '•*• °P en t0 receive me. 

184. p4j ir» : is equal to pM rm {cf. T 306 and v. 234) SctSfaro 1 

here transitive, though in B 190 \t was mtcaxaKfat. 

ILIAD IV. 253 

185. trdpoi6«v : in contrast with v*4v*p6* means ' in front/ ' outside/ 
187. For (Q/ut and fi/rpq, see on v. 137. 

190. kmp&avtTax (iiri/judofjuu) : lit. * touch/ />. 'probe/ 'examine.' 

191. kcv iraikrQO-i [icav(T€t* &y]: 'would free from pains (68vvdeev).' 
An ace. vi may be supplied. 

193. 8m rdxurra : as with &>s r&x i(rTa * sc - Mvourax. 

194. +»t' 'Ao-kXtjitioO vl6v : ' heroic son of Asklepios.' Machaon has 
already been mentioned (B 729-733) with his brother Podaleirios. Askle- 
pios (Lat. Aesculapius) is thought of by Homer as wholly human and as 
a scholar of Cheiron (cf v. 219). 

196. 6urr€v<ras EpaXcv \pi<rr$ ifrciKev] : ' has hit with an arrow.' 

200. nuirrcUvwv : redupl. from the root irro- of xr^ovw, lit. 'look 
about one's self timidly or cautiously ; ' here ' cast glances after.' 

201-203 = 90-92. For Tpiiais, cf B 729. 

204. Notice the anapaestic (anapaest, \j \j-L) rhythm of this verse af- 
ter the first syllable —I L \j\j- 1 - kjkj-L L w-L | — . 

205-207 = 195-197. With t£ ^v k\4os, cf. B 160, r 50. 

208. 0u|i&v flpivc : ' stirred his heart ' (to pity) . Cf. Y 395 : ' stirred her 
heart (to indignation).' 

209. tea? 6|u\ov, dvA orpaTrfv : icari denotes motion through without 
regard to direction ; kva indicates that the progress was from one end of 
the army to the other. 

211. pMj|uvos: 2 aor. ptc. (cf v. 115) from 0<&Ac» used as attributive 
adj. Translate (from HOt) : ' to where the wounded yellow-haired Mene- 
laos was.' 

212. Kvic\6<r'(e) : 'in a circle.' The apodosis begins with 6 ft' 4v /ucV- 
trourt: 'then (8') the god-like hero was standing among them by his 
(Menelaos's) side.' See on A 137. 

214* irdXtv : join with 4^\KOfx4voio. ftyfv [4dyn<ray] : 2 aor. pass. 

from iyyv/iif cf r 36. The barbs of the arrow were broken off as it was 
drawn back through the metal-plated (wrHip. 

218. In* . . . ir£<nrf : from bei-x&aaw fyrrva: 'mild/ 'soothing/ 

' healing.' 

219. ot : dat. limiting the verb is here used instead of gen. limiting 
the noun, of trarpl *6p* [r$ varpl ainov ftawey]. Translate the entire 
clause : ' which Cheiron once in kindness (0(\a Qpovsw) bestowed upon 
his father.' 

220. Ap^cirfvovTo : 'were busied about/ cf. A 318. 

221. Connect kid with IjXvdov : ' had come on.' 

222. afri$ : ' again/ for since r 114 the Greeks seem to have remained 
without their armor. 

223. 061c &v tSots : cf T 220. The verses from this point down to 421 
describe the renewal of the combat and exalt Agamemnon's virtues as a 

254 NOTE£. 

226. lore: 'left* standing, i>. he forsook horses and chariot in his 

zeal to exhort the chiefs promptly and with the greatest result. iroue&a 

XaXxf : ' gleaming with bronze.' 

229. iroXXd: 'earnestly,' as in A 35 iropurxlpcv [wap^xetv]: sc. 

roh% tvxovs. 

230. iroX&s Sid icoipaWovra : Bid governs irokeas [voMovs]. Strand 
4yd never suffer anastrophe. Koipaveovra : used in pregnant signif. Trans- 
late : ' moved as ruler through the ranks.' 

231. lireiruXeiTo : as in r 196. 

232. <nr€v8ovras : sc. €« n&xn* which was expressed in v. 225. 

234. |dj ir»: 'not yet.' 

235. tirl +«v&<r<rvv lowr* dporyfe [rots ^€<5<rrais brafwyhs t<rnu or Ara- 
p4£«] : ' will aid liars.' ^evfcVo-t is dat. pi. from adj. ^ct/S^s, used as sub- 
stantive, and M is separated from kpoy6s to which it belongs. 

236. Cf vv. 67, 72, 271. 

237. t«v afcrwv : ' of the men themselves,' contrasted with b\6xov$ and 
rUva. in follg. verse. 

242. Ufuopot : word of very uncertain meaning. Perhaps the most 
satisfactory of the various etymologies is that which derives it from Id 
' voice,' and the root /top- ' to shine.' Thus it would mean ' mouth-heroes,' 
' boasters.' For other etymologies, see Horn. Diet. 

243. Iott|tc : for other instances of aor. with signification of pf ., cf A 
158, 207 ; cf. also v. 246. 

245. |urd +pc<K [4v <J>pca(\ dXidj: 'power of self-defence ' (cf. r 


248. clpfaT* [cfpurroi] : pf. pass, from lpfa> here used in its literal 
sense, ' have been drawn up.' See on A 239. 

249. at k' farcpoxQ: see on A 137. 
250 = B 207 ; cf also v. 231. 

251. Iirl Kp^T«nn : M with dat. here denotes motion towards, but 

not with idea of opposition. Contrast with v. 273. dvd o£Xop6v: 

'through (the length of) the dense crowd.' 

253. <rvt: 'a (wild-) boar.' 

255# yfj0T)<rcv I8<£v : 'was glad to see ' (see on A 330). 

256. pciXixfouriv : ntr. pi. used as substantive, see on A 539. 

257. Construe irtpl as adv. and &avaS>v as gen. of whole with <r4. 

258. dXXo&p lirl tpya> : ' on business of a different sort ; ' e.g. on a mis- 
sion as envoy (cf A 145). 

259. 8tc [tordrav]. 

260. h\ KpTrrfjpt K^pwvTat : ' have mixed in a mixing bowl.' M Kprrriipi 
is added for vividness, though implied in jc/payroi, which is pres. subj. 
from ictpafxai [Kepdwvfu]. 

262. Scurprfv (taiu) : 'a measured portion.' trXrfov [~*4rr] 

l<mjK€ : ' stands filled.' 

ILIAD IV. 255 

263. trUiiv : such uncontracted forms explain the accent (perispome- 
non) of 2 aor. infinitives in their Attic form. 

267* $ir&rri)v ical KaWvewra : a more common equivalent phrase is 
uvoiTxivO<H Kai icaravcfciv (cf. A 514). 

269, For different expressions signifying breach of truce, cf T 107, 
299, A 67, 157. 

273. Kopwror&r0T|v : * were arming themselves,' cf. B 1, r 18. 

274. The cloud of foot-soldiers (v. 274) suggests the comparison in 
the following simile with the cloud sweeping down upon (Kar(px^ yoy ) 
the sea. 

276. Iwfjs [n-vojjf] : ' blast.' The west wind (z4<f>vpos) which came to 
Asia Minor from the snow-clad mountains of Thrace was a cold and vio- 
lent wind, and is thus represented in the Iliad. See on B 147. 

277. T<p . . . irdvTov : * and to him who is far away it appears blacker 

than (^tfr€ = $ pitch as it descends (Uv, lit. * going ') upon the. deep.' 

&yfi: 'brings. 1 

279. pCy»jo-€v and {^Xcurc, like €?5ev (v. 275), are gnomic aorists. 

280. Toieu : * in such wise ' (cf v. 146). 

281. S4ju>y v6\t\Lov : ' hot combat.' The point of comparison is found 
in the density and blackness (vvkivoL, icvdvcai) alike of the vc<pos and the 

282. Kvdvccu : ' steel-blue/ adj. derived from Kvavos, ' steel of a bluish 
color.' ir«J>piKvtai : * bristling' (cf Lat. horrentes). 

286. <nf>«t : ace. obj. of Ke\c6a, with which jxdxevdat may be supplied. 

287. a$T<& 2 '(you) yourselves,' i.e. on your own impulse. 
288 =B 371. 

290, 291=B 373, 374. 

292. iter* dXXovs : see on A 222. 

293. Itct|1€ : redupl. 2 aor. from theme reft- [KwreKafev], 

294. ote trdpovs crr&XovTa : ' placing in position his comrades.' 

295. 296. The chiefs named are all Pylians. 
297. linrfias : object of (i)<TT7ia*v in follg. verse. 

299. Spicos fyw iroAi|Koio > ' to be a protection against the combat ' (cf 
A 284). 

300. Translate : ' so that, even though unwilling, one would fight per 
force.' In the disposition of the chariots, foot-soldiers, and non-combat, 
ants, may be observed rudimentary military tactics. 

301. fireriXXero : refers to the specific directions which follow : first 
(v. 302) in oratio obliqua; then (vv. 303-305) as direct commands. 

302. &|iC\<p : local dat. 

304. otos vp6vV aXXuv: i.e. as vpSpaxos (cf T 13, 16). 

306. Translate (this and first half of follg. verse) : ' But (Be) whoever, 
from his chariot (i.e. without leaving his place in the line), shall have 
reached another chariot, let him thrust forth his lance.' 

256 NOTES. 

909. v6or ical Ouprfv : • mind and heart' Cf. A 193, B 352. 

313. Ovprfv: * courage/ 

314. yovva? : * strength,' of which the knees were reckoned the seat. 

315. b\u>Ciov : ' common to all. 1 

316. fx*v : sc. yy pas. 

319. &s tpw [ofhvs *X€iv]. KaWicrov : this 2 aor. of the -/u form is 

peculiar in that it does not lengthen the stem vowel. G. 125, 3, H. 484, 4. 

320. &|u& vdvTa : ' all things at once/ i.e. the wisdom of age and the 
fire of youth. 

321. cl : • as sure as.' fard{ci : ' presses hard.' 

324. alxpfa alxp£OTove% : * shall brandish their spears/ 

325. bvXfacpoi, yrydcurv : ' are more able to bear arms/ 
326 = 272. 

227. IlfTfcSo : see on B 552. 

328. a\i^C : adverbial, ' on both sides (of Menestheus)/ 

330. irdp . . . d|t^l . . . fcrrcwrav [a^<pt,vapi(rraa-av]i 'stood close 
beside him on both sides/ 

331. «r+v : dat. used instead of a gen. limiting \a6$, so that in Attic 
we might have had 6 \abs abr&v, i.e. the host of Menestheus and Odysseus. 

332. v4ov <rwopiv6|Kvoi : * just set in motion/ 

334. frinrrfTc : * for the moment when/ See on A 67. 

335. Tp&w : gen. of obj. aimed at after bpyA\a*i*. 

336. vcCkcoto-cv : the cause of his reproof is given in tarwrap w. 331, 
334, l<rTT)Kct v. 329, itrra6r' v. 328. 

339. kckoo^vc : pf . ptc from Kodyvfiai. Kojcobn SoXoiot : * in base 

wiles,' not in deeds of valor. 

340. d^rraTf : • do ye stand aloof/ 

341. <r<f>»iv . . . 4ovTas : see on A 541 for another example of ptc 
agreeing with subj. (understood) of infin. rather than with the dat (here 
dual) expressed. With Moitc* compare in meaning bricucts, A 547. 

343. Translate : ' For you are also the first to hear from me (the sum- 
mons to) the banquet/ The verb of hearing is followed by two genitives 
instead of the gen. of the person and the accusative of the thing (cf T 87). 

345. icpfa, is subj. of 4<rrl to be supplied, and <pl\a> on which ftpcyai 
depends, is the predicate. The construction is exactly similar to that in 
A 107. 

346. Jtypa KMXt|tov : ' as long as ever you may desire/ 

347. 4>C\«s : the adv. is suggested by <pl\a (v. 345). The thought is : 
' you have been glad to eat and drink your fill at my table ; now you 
would be glad to see ten files of men between yourselves and the enemy/ 

350. gpicos 686vto)v : epKos stands in definitive apposition with <rc. 

351. |M0il|uv [fitBiivai] : cf. v. 240 and A 241. 
352; hftipo\uy • subj. with shortened mood-sign. 

363. ical al nth rot rd iwyi.TfXn/. * and if this interests you.' Thus the 

ILIAD IV. 257 

taunt is cast back upon Agamemnon by implying that he himself has no 
real wish to enter the combat. 

354. Cf B 259 follg. 

355. «ri 8) TaW dvcjju&Xia fidgets : * these words of yours are but wind.' 
357. x wo F^ V010 : tne supplementary ptc. would more naturally be in 

the ace, which is the case in which we should expect the obj. of yvw 
\tyvt*\ to be. Here, however, the verb is construed with a gen. of the 

obj. (G. 171, 2, H. 742), and the ptc. agrees with this gen irdtav Xd- 

Jero : * took back.' 
359. iccXcvft) : ' urge (you) on.' 

361. 4jirta S^vca otSc* rd y&p ^pov&is A r> ky& irep : '(your heart) has 
friendly (#r«a) thoughts to me (sc. i/iol), for your views are the same as 

362. dXX' I0i : not different from toX &yt (cf. V 432) Ta&ra 8» 

JhruHkv dpcar<rd|&c0' : (freely) ' I will arrange this to your satisfaction 

363. rd 8) irdvra Ocol |ura|L&via Octtv : ' may the gods make it all dis- 
appear like a breath of wind.' If, as usually explained, ncTapt&via is for 
iurav*n6via (&vepos), the word is suggested by dvc/ufoia in the last line of 
Agamemnon's speech (v. 355). 

364 = 292. 

365. Agamemnon now comes to Diomede, the son of Tydeus, one of 
the very noblest of the Greek heroes, distinguished not less for self-control 
than for courage and strength. His exploits fill much of E and Z. 

366. tv V tmrouri ical &f»jwurt : ' in the chariot to which the horses 
were spanned.' 

367. irdp W ol : • and close by him.' 

371. ri 8' 6mir€V€i$ iroXl|&oio v€<j>vpa$ ; ' why dost thou gaze at (in- 
stead of entering) the bridges of combat?' Imagine the two armies 
opposite each other, separated by a narrow space. This space, which 
both are desirous to cross and in which the combat takes place, may 
naturally be called y4<f>vpa iroKfaoio. 

372. 'Not so fond of skulking was Tydeus.' The word m-ax^s, 

' beggar,' lit. • one who cringes,' is derived from root of irr<£<nr», from 
which icrtotncatffiev is formed. 

373. Join vo\6 with wp6 : ' far in front of.' 

374. irov€ii|i4Vov : cf. B 409, where vov4w is used of the ' toil of com- 
bat' 0$ -ydp fyA T€, kt\. : gives reason why others should bear testi- 
mony, and not Agamemnon : it was before his day. 

376. drcp iroXEpov : i.e. * without hostile preparation.' 

377. (ctvos : ' as a friend,' adds a positive designation to the negative 
irtp Tro\4/toto, Tydeus and Polyneikes who were brothers-in-law, having 
married daughters of Adrastos, king of Argos, had come to Mykenae to 
enlist volunteers for the expedition of the Seven against Thebes. 

258 NOTES. 

878. ol U 1 U. Tydeus and Polyneikcs 4rrpar6«v0' : conative ip£ 

* were seeking to make an expedition.' 

380. ol 84 : i.€. the inhabitants of Mykenae. 

382. oi 8' hrcl otv : see on B 20. irpo 68o9 *¥*vovto : 'were well 

advanced on the road.' G. 182, 2, H. 760. 

384. We know too little of the legend to be able to say exactly to 
whom the word 'Axcuof refers. 

386. php 'Et«okXt]cCt]s: 'of the mighty Eteokles ' (see on r 105). 
Eteokles was now holding the throne of Thebes in despite of the claims 
of his brother Polyneikes. See Class. Diet, article Thebes. 

389. irdvra : * in every contest,' ntr. pi. 

390. Athena's aid is mentioned, not so much as the cause as it is the 
proof of the courage of Tydeus. Had he been less brave, he would not 
have had her help. 

392. The Thebans appear to have waited until Tydeus was beyond 
their boundaries before sending the ambuscade to lie in wait for him. 

396. ical Town : * upon them also,' *>. they as well as his competitors 
in wrestling succumbed to Tydeus. 

397. Ivc^v 1 : redupl. 2 aor. from stem ^cr-, ' slew.' — rq>4c0TO [r4pturi\ : 
G. 56, 2, H. X83. 

400. x4> Cia ( also xtpii** c f- A 80) : ace. sing, from x4"7*> It has the 
force of a comparative, and is equivalent to xe/telw [x*lpw]* 

As the passage w. 374-400 is unusually obscure, it seems proper to 
give of it the following paraphrase : " I cannot speak from personal 
knowledge of Tydeus, for he was before my time ; but they say that he 
was superior to all others ; for without warlike pomp, but with the rights 
of a guest-friend, he entered Mykenae with Polyneikes, seeking to collect 
a host. (The chiefs, you know, were planning a campaign against mighty 
walled Thebes.) And the people of Mykenae were resolved to give them 
what they asked and approved their request, but Zeus diverted them from 
their purpose by showing unpropitious signs (cf. B 353). And so, when 
they were well on their way and had reached the Asopos, the Achaians 
in turn sent thither Tydeus as messenger to the Thebans. Accordingly 
he went and found them feasting in the house of mighty Eteokles. There, 
though a stranger (and a declared enemy), not even for an instant was 
the knight Tydeus afraid, though alone amidst a multitude ; but he chal- 
lenged to a wrestling-match and conquered them all easily, so potent was 
the aid of Athena (whose aid he enjoyed in such measure because him- 
self so brave). And the Kadmeians in wrath prepared for him on his 
return a strong ambush of fifty young nobles, and the leaders were two — 
Maion the son of Haimon and Polyphontes the son of Autophonos. Ty- 
deus slew them also, as he had vanquished his opponents in the games, 
and he let only one escape : in obedience to the gods he sent home Maion- 

ILIAD IV. 259 

Such was Tydeus; but the son whom he has begotten is inferior in 
battle, but outshines him in the agora." 

401. 08 n : ' not a word ' {cf A 511). 

403. Sthenelos (see v. 367) defends his superior, who has heard the 
whole in silence. 

404. +€v8c' : for ^erfSco [tytfaov] o^tya : adv. with changed accent 

from aatfrfis [kkuB&s] ; connect with €iVe?v. 

405. The ground for this famous boast of Sthenelos, which has been 
as much quoted, as a model of self-respecting self-assertion, as any verse 
of the Iliad, is that we (the sons) have done more than our fathers. They, 
and among them Tydeus and Kapaneus, though performing prodigies of 
valor, were unsuccessful in their attacks upon Thebes ; we, their sons, 
who participated in the second expedition against Thebes, — that of the 

Epigoni ('Ewtyovoi, 'after-born'), — conquered it jif/ tyifoovcs : so 

far from being x e V* ta *& Agamemnon had charged (v. 400). 

407. iv6 : ' under and before.' Apctov : may be adj. from prop. 

name "A/mjj, ' martial ; ' or, if considered irreg. comp. from ityadis, is best 
translated without comparative force, ' firm.' 

408. ircUMpcvoi : ' in obedience to,' i.e. we showed no impious defiant 
spirit, such as brought destruction on the leaders of the first expedition, 
but took counsel of the gods, and thus had their guidance to success. 

409. An often quoted verse. 

410. p4j . . . fvOco : notice the departure from Attic usage in the use 
of yAi with aor. imv. 

412. Cf A 565 owirg -tyro : ' sit in silence,' ' be quiet' 

413. V€\ua-& > Ayc^U)ivov\, 6rpvvovTi: ve/xeaw may be followed by the 
inf. or by the ptc In the former case, it is not implied that the action 
censured has taken place ; in the latter, it is so implied. G. 279, n. 1, H. 
986. Cf B296, Ti56. 

415. To^rrqp : repeated (in v. 417 ) with special emphasis. Agamemnon's 
personal interest (as brother of Menelaos) in the war, his personal glory 
or grief depending on its termination, seems to Diomede to excuse even 
misjudged reproof. To this reproof his sufficient answer is the succession 
of exploits which fill £ and Z. 

.419 = r 29. 

421. im6: 'below,' with special reference to that trembling of the 

knees which is a common effect of fear (see on r 34). ircp heightens 

the meaning of ra\euri<f>pova : 'even a stout-hearted one.' kcv flXtv: 

sc. cl vapcytvcTo. 

423. JSpvuToi : ' rises,' as the wave does just before it ' breaks ' on the 

shore iiratnrCmpov: see on r 383 Z«j>vpov faro: 'by reason of 

Zephyros ' [cf. B 95). 

4& X*9** : '•» th* fr™ land.' — ty+l • • • Kopv+ofiroi: 'and be* 

260 NOTES. 

ing curved forward raises itself aloft about the headlands. 9 This simile 
(vv. 422-426) may be thus translated : ' As when on the resounding strand 
a wave of the sea is raised (one following another) under the force of 
Zephyr urging them on : first it raises its head out in the deep, but then 
as it breaks on the mainland it roars loudly, and curving inward towers 
aloft about the headlands and flings forth the sea-foam/ 

428. vwXcfiittS : ' unceasingly/ ' steadily. 1 ic&fDf, icrA. : ' each com- 
mander was giving orders to his own men.' 

431. m-YJ SciSidTft cn)|tdvropas : ' in silence from dread of their com- 

433. criXj: 'farm-yard. 1 

435. &tTO*s pquucvitu : * incessantly bleating ; ' in these words lies the 
point of the comparison. The restlessness and uproar of the Trojans are 

436. 6p&pn(v) : the addition of v movable in the 3 sg. of the plupf. 

and in the 3 sg. of the ipf . of verbs in -co* is rare. AvoL trrpaxbv rfpvv : 

• along the whole breadth of the host.' 

437. 0p4os : ' language ; ' yfy>v$ : ' dialect ; ' but the two words differ 
little in meaning (see on r 2) ta: 'one,' and so 'the same' {cf. T 238). 

438. iroXtMcXTrroi : ' summoned from many nations.' 

440. Deimos and Phobos are the ordinary attendants of Ares, but 

on this occasion they attend Athena as she urges on the Greeks. ApoTov 

pcpavia: 'incessantly eager.' 

442. Vergil has imitated w. 442, 443, in his description of Fama, Aen. 
IV, 1 76 follg. The prominent thought in both descriptions is the rapid 
growth from small beginnings, which is as noticeable of strife as of 
rumor. Cf. on B 93. 

443. otyavtu: local dative. 

444. b\ioCiov : ' common to both ' (see on v. 315). 

447. <rw {? EpoXov ^ivovs : ' brought together the shields of ox-hide.* 
449. tir\T|VTo : sync. 2 aor. midd. from stem ireXo-, which is contained 
in the pres. vcxdfa ; it describes the single act included in a general way 
in (rvvtfraXov fm/ovs (v. 447). Translate the sentence: 'and the bossy 
shields came into collision with each other.' 

451. Connect oWvvrwv with «vx«A^, oWvfitvav with ol/xwyfi. 

452. \ti[Ukppoi (x^M* a ^d p4<o) : lit. ' made to flow by a storm,' orig. adj., 
then subst., ' torrent.' This word and the equally common x<WV a (x«- 
pdo-aoo, ' to cut '), 'gully,' are to-day the ordinary designations for streams 

in Greece, and their etymology well suggests their character icaV 

6p€<r<|H \Karb rtav bpS>v\. 

453. fipptfiov : lit. ' weighty,' from the depth of the fall as well as the 
mighty mass. 

454. Connect Kpovvwv itc fieyd\uv with }>4ovt*s. The simile (w. 452- 
454) may be thus translated : ' As when storm-swollen rivers (streams) 



flowing from copious sources down the mountains pour together a 
mighty mass of water into a basin within the hollow torrent-bed. 1 

455 1 The stupendous operations of nature are made more impressive 
by the solitude suggested by the introduction of a solitary beholder* Cf 
v. 275, r 11 ; cf also Verg., Aen. II, 307 \ tfupet insciui qUq auipuns stmi- 
ium saxi dt vertke pastor l«Aut : gnomic aor,, as in V 4. 

457* Antilochos, Nestor's son, the youngest of the chiefs, often cele- 
brated in Horn, for his swiftness of foot, begins the slaughter. His 
death at the hands of Memnon we learn from the Odyssey, 8 187, 

460. ir*^€ Iv : * planted (his spear} firmly in,' * pierced.' 

461. rbv Bwt \ apposition of the part with the whole (see on A 150). 
For various phrases descriptive of death in battle, cf vv. 469, 470, 4S2, 
504,517*52^ 531*544- 

464 = B34L 

465, (Xk« B' W 4k fJcX4«>i> [forcfeTAjM] : 'and he was dragging him out 

from under (the shower of) missiles/ ii^pa *rvXf|imt : the inf, is 

more usual than the final clause (cf A 133 J. 

46& jiCvuvOa hi ot yb& bp^: 'but his effort lasted but a little 

468, 61 Kv^avrv ; 'as he bent over ; * dat. to be joined with the verb 

469* %wrr4v : ' the polished * spear-shaf L 

470, Ipv&v dp yoXlov : * hard struggle/ 

474. -fjtflrov : this word here occurs for the first time ; it differs little 
in meaning from al(nfo (cf. B 660, r 26), 

477* o-uS^ . . . dbriS<tfi« : 'but he did not recompense his parents for 
their care/ 

479. W: connect with dovpt {cf T 436). 

480. TTpwrov yap pw terra ; *for him as he was charging along in the 
front of battle/ Cf as of equivalent meaning, •wp&rar with iv wpapdx°"r 
Ti6, 31. 

483. tfajiWQ {probably from same root as V w > c f- aor * *^ £ra ) : * Mt " 
tling, 1 ' depression/ * hollow/ H irt+tfttfl f fy Sf Tntputtj)]. 

434 ol *ir* ixpOTarg i«tj*v«urL |otn-p iprpoTtfrp iimrtpvafft] : "grow upon 
its summit/ bitparaTt} agrees with ol T which is pron. r not article. 

485. atBwvi : * gleaming/ because whetted and polished- 

486. itdji+n : subj. used properly after the gnomic aor,, which has the 

meaning of a primary tense k^HTI Ktuv: ' bends into a felly/ The 

ace, is one of effect. 

488, to toy, ktA, ■ translate so as to give strong demonstrative force to 
tqTqvz 'so lay there (taW) Anthemides, whom Ajax was despoiling/ — 
' Av%€at$r\v 1 not the precise form which the orig. name (v, 473) would 
have led us to expect ; more regular would have been *Av&*piwvi$v}i?* 

490. kqB' 6|ilXov : cf v. 209 

262 NOTES. 

482. Wp«9i : * to the other side ' of the Greeks. 

493. &|i+* airy: U. about the corpse which he was despoiling. 

494. rod . . . airoicrc|Uvou» : not gen. absol., but causal gen. after a 
verb of emotion. 

497. ap^l S irairHjvas : ' looking on both sides of himself/ to see that 
no part of his body was exposed to a side-thrust. The shield (cf. v. 468) 
would protect only against thrusts from the front. 

498. avSoos : depends upon the frw6 t and is construed with ircjc&orro 
(redupl. 2 aor. from x<ff°/"")< Tne meaning of the verb, ' retired,' nat- 
urally suggests the equivalent meaning * were forced back/ with which 

the gen. of the agent is natural (see on A 242) ovx &Xu>v : 'not in 

vain/ litotes. 

500. irap frnrov Akciowv : * from his swift mares/ i.e. leaving a part of 
the royal stud at Abydos, where he had the care of them (cf. B 836). 

502. K<Sjxrr)v : used as synonymous with KpfoaQos. Hence $r4poio is 

appropriate with Kpordcpoio : ' through the other (farther) temple.' ^ 8' 

is separated an unusually long distance from alxph- 

505. x&pr\a-av 8' faro' [5' inc€x<*>pyo-ay\ : fa6 does not suffer anastrophe 

because 8( ^) intervenes between preposition and verb tOwrav 81 iroXv 

irpoWpw: 'rushed a long distance forward.' 

507. vcfi&rqo-c 8' 'AiroXXwv : in the way in which Apollo expresses his 
wrath, we have an example of the anthropomorphism of Homer. 

509 cfcerc x^PPP 'Ap-ycCois: 'withdraw from the fray before the 
Argives;' for dat. G. 184, 3, H. 771. 

510. xP^s i s subject ; \ldos and aihypos are predicates. 

511. &vcurx4o-0oi : inf. of result without the conjunction &<rre y * so as 
to withstand.' G. 265, N. ; yet see on A 8. 

512. 06 |idv [ufa] <rf&' • carries back the thoughts to oft (v. 510), and 
introduces a more emphatic and more important denial. 

513. v&nrci : see on A 81 ; cf. also B 237. 

514. irr6*\ios : i.e. iucpoirSXtus, where was the temple of Apollo (cf. v. 

516. Cf this verse with v. 240. 

517. MStprc (1 aor. from vcBdw) : lit. ' fettered/ ' arrested.' 

518. xcpjioStcp: with the expression x^Pf^^V flcfoAei*' cf. Numbers 
xxxv. 17 : 'if he smite him with throwing a stone.' 

519. Kvrjfinv : had fiXrjro (sync. 2 aor.) been act. we should have ex- 
plained Kv^fxrjy as in partitive appos. with the pron. referring to the per- 
son struck. In the pass, voice the ace. of the part is retained, although 
the person struck is in the nom., this ace. is then called the ace. of speci- 

520. IIcCpoos : mentioned in B 844 AlvrfOcv : Ainos was a city at 

the mouth of the Hebros. 

521. AvoiSifs : as applied to Kaas, the adj. means ' relentless/ ' cruel/ 

ILIAD IV. 263 

— dft^or^H* T^vovn : dual number is suitable, because every joint im- 
plies zpair of tendons. 

528. IrApouri: dat. after a verb of 'reaching,' 'stretching toward/ 
Here the gesture is one of appeal, and the dat. approaches closely an 
indirect object. Possibly we may find a parallel construction in A 351. 

524. Oupfcv dnwrvcCwv : ' gasping his life away/ a strong expression to 
denote the result of a wound which would not appear to us to have been 

526. \xivro : join with this 4k of the preceding verse. Notice the 

527. iiremrfyicvov : ' as he sprang away/ 

529. AYxtpota" W 01 4|\0€ : ' came near to him/ but the dat. is depend- 
ent upon the verb. G. 184, 3, H. 767. See also on B 408. 

580. lonrdo-aTo: recognize the force of midd. voice by translating 
(yxos ' his spear.' 
582. ircpCorrjcrav : see on B 410. 

588. &icp6ico|ioi : see on B 11 and 542 and contrast the epithet with 
icdpr) Kofi6o»mts and faiQtv ko/i6wvt€s. 

585. ircXcpCxOi) : ' was driven back ; ' the primary idea of the word is 
of ' wavering motion.' 

586. TCT&<Hb |y ; plupf. pass, from reiyw. 

589. oitchi kc 6v6caiTo : ' no longer (as Agamemnon had done in mar- 
shalling the host, v. 242) could one find fault with/ 

541. The optatives in this and the follg. verse are explained on ac- 
count of the implied condition in the relative clause. 

542. *p«V : 'sweep/ 'reach ' of the missiles (see on r 62). 


El 1 — fidWei KvOepecav *Apf}d re TvSeo? vtt?. 
In Epsilon Heaven 9 s blood is shed, by sacred rage of Diomed. 

The first eight verses are a fitting introduction to the exploits of Dio- 
mede, who is the hero of E and of a part ( w. 1 19/-236) of Z. The dignified 
reply of Diomede to Agamemnon's ungrounded censure (A 37ofollg.) had 
led us to expect the valor which this book illustrates. He justifies his 
rank by the side of Ajax as second only to Achilles. Many combats of 
other heroes are introduced — partly to break monotony; partly to bring 
out by contrast the superior bravery and might of Tydeides. 

1. EvO* a$ : ' then in turn/ for Diomede now for the first time takes his 
place in the field. His deeds are too remarkable for it to be possible that 
he should have wrought them alone ; hence ff£«cc IlaAAaj J A$^vrj. 

2. SkSijXos yfooiro : ' might shine forth ' like a light from darkness, cf. 
for the same figure iKvaiOdtrirctv, B 843. 

4. Satf ol : the hiatus is only apparent, see Sketch of Dialect, § 8 ; in 
translating join the dat. with the verb : ' there flamed forth from (lit 'for ') 

him.' duedparov : suitable epithet of fire from its irresistible force and 


6. XcXovpivos : ' after having bathed/ i.e. having risen above the ocean- 
stream 'fticcavoto : may be considered local genitive, or possibly it is 

gen. of separation, • from Okeanos-stream/ U. with waters from Okeanos. 
The latest view gives to this genitive the name of quasi-partitive genitive, 
and includes under it a great number of examples (see Monro's Horn. 
Gram. § 151, H. 760). 

7. &ir& Kpar6s re teal Suov : i.e. from his helmet and shield, which last 
was suspended from the shoulders (see v. 4). 

8. &po-€ : sc. 'AB^vrj kXoWovto : ' were surging to and fro.' 

10. ^\vrr\v : this form (for ijrify) occurs in Horn, in this place alone. 

1 EI was the ancient name for the letter E, which was designated by the 

ILIAD V. 265 

11. pAxi* *A«"i|* : see on B 823. 

12. oi [owry, i.e. Aio/jL-fitei] : connect with 6p/iri0^rriv t and translate : 
• the twain, separated from the crowd, rushed upon him from the opposite 
side [Ivavriw). 

13. A+* fonrwv [ty' £/>/uitos] : see on r 265. 

14 =1*15. 

17. *PaV a*rdv : 'did he strike him/ ^ r 368. For the translation of 
the last hemistich, see on V 349. 

18. o*x &**ov: litotes. 

19. |&cni|id];iov : adj., best translated by a prep, with its case, * between 
the breasts ' (see on A 39). 

20. Airopowc : ' sprang down from.' 

21. ircpipfjvcu : cf. ituQi&e&riKas, A 37. 

22. o4Si -ydp o$84 : one oM strengthens the other, see on B 703. 

23. &XX' Spvro : instead of ct /*^ fym-o. 

24. 6sS4j: 'in order, no doubt, that.' oi: refers to Hephaistos, 

and is ethical dative ; its force may be given by the words ' in his sight.' 

25. frnrovs : *>. the chariot of Phegeus and Idaios. 

26. Kardyciv : for the shore was lower than the battle-field. 

28. irap $xcor<ja [ Ta P* &X** 1 ] '• an idea of rest is naturally associated 
with kt&ixcvov, ' lying dead.' 

29. 6p£v<H| : ' was stirred.' 

31. * Apes, "Apes : the difference of accent shows that the penultimate 
vowel is used with varying quantity. So the word <pl\os in the first foot 
of the hexameter is sometimes used with long penult. Cf. B 381, A 441 ; 
cf. also A 14 and 21. 

32. ofoc dv . . . 4d<rai|uv : the interrogative potential opt. is used in 
much the same sense as the hortative subj. in v. 34. 

33. fanroWpoun . . . oplffl : the subjunctive is deliberative, ' (to see) 
upon which party Zeus shall have bestowed renown.' 

34. Zeus's purpose (cf. A 524) is to turn the tide of battle in favor of 
the Trojans after the gods have quit the field. Athena here assumes that 
such an order has been given to the gods, though this has not been stated. 

36. ^io€vti : a word of wholly doubtful meaning. The natural signifi- 
cation, 'with lofty banks,' is not in harmony with the present configura- 
tion of the river and the Trojan plain. Autenrieth translates : ' with • 
changing banks' (from frequent overflow), while La Roche abandons all 
connection with iflwv, ' shore,' and would translate, ' swift-flowing,' con- 
necting the word with with e7/*i. 

39. "OStov : cf B 856. 

40. irp<&T<p (pred. adj. with <rrpe<f>64vri) : ' for in him as he was the first 
to turn. 9 — |MTCufo>lvq» : governed by iv, which here follows its case. 

41. vrtflto^i [<rrn6wv] : Sketch of Dialect, § 9, I. 
43. Mxjovos : adj. = Atitoy, see on B 864. 

266 NOTES. 

44. T&pVTjp : « Tarne ' is supposed to be an older name of Sardis. 

46. linrwv 4irifh)0'4|icvov : ' about to mount his chariot/ that he might 
take to flight. 

47. Cf with last hemistich A 460, also vv. 310, 659 infra. 

50. 6£v6iVTt : ' with piercing point/ deriv. adj. formed from the stem 
of 6^6$ by affixing the termination -ockt, nom. -ous. The regular suffix is 
-€vt, nom. -ft$, G. 129, 1 5, H. 567. 

52. frypui irdvTa : ' all kinds of game. 1 oflpwi : local dat 

54. IktjPoXCcu. : abstract noun formed from ckt)$6\os, ' skill in sending 
darts.' The plural may suggest that this skill was shown on various occa- 
sions tidiceurro : plupf. from Kalvvpcu (cf. B 530, A 339). 

56. irp6<r6€v Wcv +cvyovTa : * fleeing before him.' 

58. Cf for the latter hemistich, A 504, also infra, v. 294. 

59. TActovos * AppovCScw : Tlinw, * Builder/ is here a proper name, 
and 'Ap/j.oyi$ris is a patronymic from "Appuv, * Fitter.' Thus we have an 
indication of the descent from father to son of skill in a craft. 

60. 8s : refers to **p€K\ov. — SolSoXa : ' works of skill/ 

61. tylXaro: infrequent 1 aor. midd. formed from the theme $iA- and 
referred to <pi\4u f cf.v. 117. 

62. TCKnjvaTo : notice the play upon the root of t4kt<*v. 

64. ©It' a*Tcp [4aur$] : /.<?. Pherekles 0€«v 4k tenjwwa: 'decrees 

of (lit proceeding from) the gods.' 

66. 8tA vp6 : ' right through/ often written as one word (cf. B 305). 

67. W flo-Tcov : ' along under the bone/ cf fab yX&aarav, v. 74. The 
bone referred to is that which forms the front side of the cavity of the 
pelvis. Here, as in A 524, the poet shows ignorance of what wounds 
would be immediately fatal. 

69. tirc^vc : cf A 397. 

70. 0eav<& : the wife of Antenor and priestess of Athena, mentioned 
again in Z 298. 

71. ir&rct if : an instance of the lengthening of a final vowel before an 
orig. initial F in f ollg. word, comparable to the freq. lengthening before a 

72. QvkttZtp : i.e. Mtyns (cf B 628). 

74. Translate : ' and the bronze, passing straight through along (be- 
tween the rows of) the teeth, cut the tongue on the under side' (6x4). 

75. t|roxp6V : ' cold/ said with a certain grim sarcasm in contrast to 
the warm flesh which it pierced. So we speak of ' cold steel/ 

77. 2ica|idv8pov : the river Scamander was honored as a god by sacri- 
fices of bulls and horses, and Dolopion was priest of the Scamander. 

78. o^jjMp : local dat., ' among the people.' 

80. |icTa$0O|idST)v IXcurc : ' smote him as he ran after him.' faafotur 
is used of blows given in hand-to-hand conflict. 
81. Aw6 Igctrc X'^P* : * lopped oft his arm.' 

ILIAD V. 267 

83* t&v Korr&apc 6axn : lit. ' seized his eyes/ apposition of part and 
whole, as in A 150 irop^pcos [/i&as] : cf v 47. 

84. This is a verse which marks a transition ; cf for the meaning of 
woyfovro, A 318, B 409. 

86. This case of prolepsis is very similar to that in B 409. 

87* &p irfSlov : ' up through the plain.' 

88. xctP^PW: appositive of worafi$ yc^vpos: 'dikes,' 'cause- 

90. fcpicca AXttdav IpidrjXtav : ' walls of the blooming gardens.' 

91. IXOo'vTa : agrees with t6v referring to *0Ta/i6v. 

92. icartfjpiirc (like liec'Sao-o-c, v. 88) : gnomic aor im avrov : ' under 

and because of it/ the prep, combines local and causal meaning Ver- 
gil imitates Ipya aljft&v, ' the work of sturdy farmers,' in his expression, 
bourn labor es, Aen. II, 306. 

93. inrb TvSctSfl : seems to equal gen. with for<J, the prose construc- 
tion. Perhaps it may be regarded as an abbreviated expression for fab 
Xcptri TvBeiBov (cf B 860). 

95. AvKdovos vids : Pandaros, cf B 826, A 88. 

97. 4irl TvScffifl : ' at Tydeides,' dat. with M of hostile intent r6Ja : 

for pi., see on A 45 tvx^v : cf rvxh ffa h A 106. 

100. dvnKpv & Siiirxc : 'held on through,' />. passed through his 
shoulder so as to protrude behind. 

101. T<p: governed by the compound verb kwX . . . &><re: 'shouted (in 
triumph) over him' (cf v. 119). 

102. K^VTOpcs forcr«v: cf A 391. 

104. &v<rx4jo-e<r0ai : f ut. inf. is used naturally after Qti/jlI in sense of 

105. Apollo is frequently called frog, cf A 36, 390, 444. 

106. Join uk6 with &4\os 8d|«itnrcv: translate by pi upf. 

107, 108. Diomedes, as is generally the case with the Horn, heroes, 
fights on foot, but his esquire holds the chariot at hand in case of need. 
KairaWjiov : notice the formation of the adj. by affixing the adj. end- 
ing -io to the lengthened form of the stem of Kavavevs {Kairayrj length- 
ened from Kcurcwclv). See on A 1. 

112. Connect tiiafiirepcs as adv. with the verb itfpvae : ' drew through 
and out of (the shoulder).' 

115. It is interesting to compare the prayers in the Horn, poems. 
This prayer (vv. 11 5-120) may be compared, in length and in "manner, 
with A 37-42, 451-456. Here the aid of the goddess is implored not on 
account of the services the hero has rendered her, but on the ground of 
her affection for him, shown by her former favors. 

118. iropAmjs : ' didst stand by.' 

117. 4>iX«u : 'show thy love,' see on v. 61. 

118. Notice the change of subj. from e\€?i> to i\$uv. Cf for the tarepow 
wp6T€pov, A 251. 

268 NOTES. 

122. yvla : ' joints/ ' limbs/ the regular Horn, word for members of 
the body corresponding to the prose word p4\os (pi. /ucAi}). 
124. Oapo-Av : ptc. is nom. because the inf. is used as imv. (see on A 


126. o-oudo-iroXos : cf. in formation with lyx.t<r*a\oi, B 131. 

127. dx^irv: the mist did not hide Diomede from view, though it 
prevented him from distinguishing gods and men on the battle-field. 
Cf. with kx^hv IAok, Vergil's nubctn ertpiam, Aen. II, 604-606 

130. dvnKpv [frarriov] : 'face to face.' The final v of this word is 
everywhere long except here and in v. 819. 

132. ofrdpcv [owray]. 

133. dir^prj : v. 418 shows her on Mt. Olympus, whither, however, she 
did not go directly, as v. 290 shows. 

134. ' But Tydeides went and entered once again among those who 
fought in the fore-front of combat.' 

136. An anacoluthon begins here which leaves nc/ta&s standing alone, 
yet the sense is simple (cf. B 353, Z 511). 

138. xP a ^°Tl : ' nas grazed/ i.e. slightly wounded. 

139. Spo-cv : gnomic aor., ' he rouses the lion's strength and then he 
does not come to the rescue (of the sheep).' 

140. ra 8' ^rftiut <fx>fkiTcu : ' and they, forsaken, flee.' 

141. at yiv : refers again to the sheep, but is fern., though the ntr. 

(rd) was used in the previous verse AyxwrTivcu kt aXX^X-no-v k^vv- 

tcu. : ' are tumbled (lit. ' poured ') thickly upon each other (in death).' 

-142. pa66)s [PaOelas] : see Sketch of Dialect, § 13, 3. 

146. KXtjtSa : in partitive apposition with rhv 0" crept)?. 

147. 4^»7a0c(y) (from tpyu, dpyw) : 'shut. off/ hence 'cut off/ The 
form is an intensive ipf . ; it has the syllabic augment, and $ is added to 
the theme by an intermediate vowel a. G. 119, 11, H. 494. 

150. tovs o*k tpxofUvokS, kt\. : ' not for them as they went to the fray 
did the old man interpret dreams/ i.e. he was wise for all others, only not 
for his own sons. Another translation is : ' for them no more to return,* 

153. TtjXvY^rw : ' of tender years/ is the most probable signif. of this 
word, as to the derivation of which there is great uncertainty. 

154. 4irl KTcdTco-o-i : ' in charge of his possessions.' 
157. £<&ovt€ vocrrfjo-avTc : ' having returned alive.' 

159. Xdfk : ' took captive ; ' quite different in meaning from cAc (v. 
144), ' slew.' 

160. ilv 4vl Styp? irfvras : U. one as combatant, the other as chariot- 

161. Join *v . . . 0op4v, $ . . . dftj (&ywfii). 

162. irrfpTios ^ Poo's : ' of heifer or cow/ *>. of young or old. 

164. /ft)o-f fccuc&s ockoVtos: 'roughly made dismount, though reluc- 


16B» dXn.7rd^ovTa : * destroying, ' cf B 367, 

168> 169 = A S8 r S 9 . 

170. ivrCov ^i£a : governs two accusatives, like *7><Hnn5Sa or <Kp&vUi-*i* 

172; kX»s : here means " fame ' won by skill with the bow* 

173. Avitfy ; Pandaros came from Lykia in the Troad [cf v, 105), 

174, l+«: cf A 51. 

175* Sims SS« \ ■ whoever it is who prevails here ' (^/ r 167, 193). 

176. ttoXXjuv t« KalicrflXw : see on B 213, Touvar ^wrcv : frequent 

synonym for slaughter of an opixment; see also on A 314* 

178. if »v (n^irai : ' wroth because of (some defect in) sacrifices J (see 
on A 65). The clause introduced by Be contains a reason for thinking that 
it may be a god who is fighting under the guise of Diomede. 

181. Ito-K* ; see on T 197. 

182. dorrfSi : * by his shield,' for the shields of Homeric warriors bore 
on their fie id various devices, the prototypes of modern coats-of-arms, 

atiJUfort&i Tpv<fr*Aj(fn : the first of these words is probably connected 

with ttifkh r * tube,' and means * perforated ' to receive the horsehair 
plume. Tpwpahth seems to be derived from rp6t* * to pierce, 1 and to 
have had a similar meaning with a&Afiinj, except that it is a substantive, 
while abKwrtt is adjective. Translate the two words : * by his plumed 

1S4. vWs : translate as predicate t f if this man whom I mean is the 
son,' etc. 
185* Trf$« : cognate ace. (cf V 399). 
187. toGtwj : gen. of separation, for frpa** » tfAAp differs little from 

&TfTpett€P t 

189* e*&pfjKos yvdXaiQ : cf v. 99, 

190. tya'piiv : midd. used in same sense as the act. {cf B 37). 

191. vv ; ' doubtless ' [cf T 164). 

192. hnrei kqX fif |Aara : we reverse the order and say * chariots and 

194. upamjirayiEs : lit* put together for the first time/ 1.*. 'yet un- 
used. 1 —^ woTcux&s : ' newly made. 1 

195. wlirravrcu (inTdvyvfii} 1 l are spread out (over them). 1 

196. Cf&7j6 oXvpas 1 from nom. sing. JAtyft, * spelt, 1 the name 

of a species of grain not unlike barley. 

198. ipxopfrui ; * as I went * to the war {cf. v. 1 50). 

200. Cf B 345. Lykaon came from Zelea, a city in the Troad lying at 
the foot of Mt, Ida (B 824-827). Hence his subjects are Tpmrt. 

202. ^iSopcyo?, *tA. : 'as I wished to spare my horses, lest I should 
see them f/ipc ethical dat, G* 184, 3, N. 6\ H + 700) want fodder* 1 

203* clXoptvw : * if the men were crowded together/ as would be the 
case In a siege. 

205. f jiiXXov : pL where the sing, would be regular in prose \tf A 36). 


208. dTpods : * certainly.' — Ifrtipa Si paXXov : 'but I (only) roused 
them the more.' 

209. icaiqQ alcrfl : lit ' with an evil fate,' U. ' to my own hurt ' (see on 
A 418). 

211. <Hp«v x*P iV : compare with xwCfaeyos and with 3pa ^€<r (cf 
A 572, 578). 

212. vo«rHjo-» : fut. indie as is shown by iorStyoftai. 

215. iv «vp£ : dat. of rest after a verb implying motion (cf B 340). 

216. &vt|i£\ia : in pred. apposition with pron. referring to rl£o, the 
subj. of £n}5c£ 

218. wdpos o*k fcrtrercu &XXa>s : « the past will not be changed,' ix. will 
not be mended. 

222. vcSCoio : local gen., cf Y 14, but see also on v. 6. 

223. fv6a ical Iv8a : ' forwards and backwards/ in the two directions 
indicated by Biwicfaw litl <p0€<r$cu [<ptvyfiy]. 

224. rib teal vut wtfXivSc oxU&crrrov : ' they shall also bring us safely into 
the city,' an additional reason for taking the horses. 

225. Iirl . . . 6p^ri : m the sense of the simple verb 6p4fy. Cf v. 33. 
228. rrfvSc : Aio/iriBca. 8£k(o : pf. imv. midd. ' take upon thyself,' 

'sustain the assault of.'' 

232. olo^rov : * will bear ; ' for the chariot was drawn by a yoke, and a 
considerable weight rested upon the necks of the horses. 

233. |d| ua-Hjorrov [fMT-fioyroy] : 'that they may not linger,' may be 
regarded as a final clause dependent upon £x e ( v - 2 3 )- 

236. vfii : obj. of xrclvp 4irat{as : used without obj. (cf B 146, r 

240. 4|ijMjMi«T , (€) : 'furiously.' 

244. 4irl <ro£ : ' against thee/ dat. with prep, where the simple dat. with 
fidxe<r6cu might have been used. For accent of <rol, G. 28, N. 1, H. 263. 

245. o |Uv : sc. 4<rrl. 

248. vWs: the pred. nom. follows as naturally after iicyeydficr as 
after cTvat in the preceding verse. 

249. pok : ethical dat. ' I beseech you.' 

252. jitf n ^opovS' ayo'pcuc : ' do not counsel me at all to flight.' 

&k irciorlpcv : for midd. voice of verb in similar phrase, cf A 289, 427. 
Here <ri is subj. of weurtfiev [wtlirw]. 

253. aXwicdgovTt p&x ta * ax: liL <to Ag nt wnile fleeing;' iiaxPH&V 
b\vaK<kfav t ' to flee while fighting/ might seem more natural. 

255. Kal atirws : ' even as I am.' 

256. AvrCov itfii : okt/os ttfii would be more usual (cf A 535, Z 54). 

257. Tofaw : ' both of these/ dual, though the pi. has just been used 
of the same persons in v. 256. 

261. oi> SI: 'then do thou/ 94 in apodosis. 

£6& ^pvKcuc&iv : 2 aor. infin. with peculiar redupl. at end of stem (see 

ILIAD V. 271 

Sketch of Dialect, § 15, 2) 4J Avnryos : the &vrvt was the rail which 

ran around the upper edge of the body of the chariot, serving as a sup- 
port for the driver, and as a place of attachment for the reins. See 
Horn. Diet, cut No. 10. 

263. Iirat£ai : followed by the gen. as a verb of aiming. 

265. Tfjs Tcvefjs: pred. gen. after tlal understood fjs: part. gen. in 

the same way we should say in English 'of which ' or 'from which Zeus 
gave ' (cf rrjs ytycrjs, v. 268). The myth was that Zeus, in the form of an 
eagle, carried off Ganymede from his father Tros, king of Troy, to whom 
he afterwards gave these immortal horses as a compensation. 

267. irk* ^» tc 4j&irfv tc : i.e. ' under the light of day ' (see on A 88}. 

269. 0i|Xcas [0rj\cias\ : adj. is used as if of only two terminations. 
See Sketch of Dialect, § 13, 2, and cf. B 767. 

270. ycWOAi) : added as pred. nom. though not necessary for complete 
sense. It repeats the idea contained in lyevovro. 

271. afrrbs !x»v drCroXXc : ' he kept for his own use and fed.' 

272. fWj<rra>pc $6$oio : cf A 328. 

273. 6polpc0a : 2 aor. opt. from &pvufiai (see on A 159). 

275. t& 8c* : Diomedes and Sthenelos. 

276. t6v: Diomedes. 
280 = r 355. 

281. Cf. the first part of the verse with r 356; the latter part, with A 



284. Kcvewva : ' belly/ literally that part of the body which is destitute 
of (icev6s) encompassing bones like those which form the frame-work of 
the chest; for case, see on A 519. 

286. 06 ropf!Hj<ras : 'undaunted/ 

289. atyiaros do-ai "Apija: the ferocity of Ares is indicated by the 
strongest possible expression. The gen. aifxaros is one of very freq. occur- 
rence in Homer (cf. B 415, Z 331). A dat. of means might be substituted 
for the gen., but would not give precisely the same sense. The gen. is a 
gen. of material, and has associated with it a partitive idea (see on v. 6). 

291. {tlva : poetical ace. designating the goal reached ; in prose a pre- 
position would be required {cf A 322) Mpt)<rc (vepdoo) 1 sc. rb /3Aoj, 

' the arrow forced its way through/ 

292. toO S' &ir& *y\»<r<rav irpv|ur?)v t6l\u: 'cut off his tongue at its 
root.' The spear entering near the eye, and passing out below the chin, 
must have described such a curve as to descend almost perpendicularly. 
Various explanations suggest themselves : the goddess directed its course ; 
Diomede stood on higher ground. 

294 = v. 58. 

295. iroptrpcovav : ' started to one side,' ' shied.' 

296. aWi [avT60t] : ' on the spot.' 

272 NOTES. 

297* dwdpowi : sc. hxi*v> 

298. ot : ix. « in spite of him,' dat. of disadvantage. The pronoun refers 
to the subject of the principal verb. 

299. dji+l 8' dp' a4r$ patvc : ' and then he was walking about him ' 
(Pandaros's body). — dXicC: heteroclite dat.; the nom. sing, in use is 

300. ol : join with &rx«. If it depended upon vpoVtfc it would be in 
gen. Translate : ' held for his protection (oi) before (him).' 

301. toO : *V. rod vckoov. 

303. pfya Ioyov: 'a mighty mass.' <^pouv: potential optative, 

though without tv (see on A 137). 

304- |uv : may stand for all genders, cf A 237 fAa [ficfilws] wdX- 

Xf : ' was swinging (preparatory to the cast) easily.' 

305. Alvctoo : see on r 356 for construction. 

307. ol : dat. of disadvantage ; translate the verse literally : ' shattered 
for him the hip-pan, and broke besides the two tendons (which held the 
thigh-bone in place).' 

308. Art 8* dwd : see on A 505. 

309. !ott| : ' remained erect.' 

310. 7<Ui)S : gen. of place ; translate : ' sustained himself (lit propped 
himself up) upon the ground.' The dat. yoiy is the ordinary construction 

with Ipeftw v4{: 'night' of unconsciousness (not, as usually, of 


311. kcv dirdXoiTo : more regular would be ix^Xrro dv, as the conclu- 
sion is contrary to fact. 

312 = r 374. 

313. *w* 'Ayx^HI : <bv Anchises ' (cf B 714). 

315. 6cd\in|rcv : followed by dat. of the person ol and an ace. of the 
thing irrty/ia. 

316. fcpKos piXiwv : cf tpicos iroAljuoio, A 284 and tpKos luc6vrw, A 137. 
318. faregtyepev : ' was trying to carry forth,' conative ipf . 

320. rd«»v : the article here and in v. 332 is placed after its noun. It 
is, of course, a demonstrative pronoun. 

321-323. Cf 262-264. 

326. 0|&t)\mc£t)s : see on I* 175 ol ^pcirlv dprva flSij : 'knew in 

his heart things suited (agreeable) to him,' 'was like-minded with him.' 

328. &v tinrov : ' his own chariot.' 

329. p#eirc: takes two accusatives, 'guided his solid-hoofed horses 
after Tydeides.' 

331. 6t : quod, see on A 244 dvoXios: 'without power of self- 
defence (&x*4).' 

332. dv8p«v : limits iro'Ae/ioi', cf fidxyr &v8p»v, I* 241. 
334. iroXvv kx6* SjuXov : ' through the numerous host.' 

336. dxpny x € ^P a : ' tne hand at the end ; ' more exactly defined, v. 339. 



337, &PMxriv 1 epitliet of x^po, ' a feeble part, 1 ■ a feeble thing/ 

Xpois : the gen. instead of the ace. indicates that the spear entered only 
a certain distance into the flesh, 

339. wpvpvhv virep fliWpos : 'above the base of the palm* (of the 
hand), L*. near the wrist \ef, v. 458). 

340. {xn : ' flows/ ' courses/ 

341. ov -ydf enrov iZowr' : this verse gives the reason why tx&p differs 
from the blood of mortals, 

342. KoXiovrai : nearly equal to *i<rt t see on B 260. 
344* p*rd xtpaiv = iv xcptfir. 

346 = 317. 
347. C/.v. 101. 

343. ftKi woXi |ww : tf. A 509, r 406, 

351* Kftl iH x* Wpufli wvOrpu: ' even if you hear of it from another* 
(lit. on the other side). 

353* t^v: obj. of f(a?«. 

354 pjXafaro: refers to the change from loss of flush or bloom, 
rather than from blood-stain. 

355, <V CTfMTTtpA (ntn pi,) n^xu^: * on tnc ^ eft ( wcst s ^e) of the bat- 
tle-field/ Arcs was sitting (v. 36} ou the banks of the Scamander. 

356. Jj^u iiKkkiTO : lit* ' rested in mist/ £a were shrouded in mist/ It 
is by zeugma that ty%o^ and Twttoi are connected as subjects of IkIkKith, 

& t 327* 

357- KOo-i-yWlTaio : join with fam& 

359. icdp-nroi.; 'take under thy protection/ ef. A 594 n . . * 84: 

cum . , , turn, The second clause is specially emphasized. 

361. tt p-i : cognate and object accusatives after fa-acre v. 

364. aKi)X c H^ VT l : varied metri gratia for jbt&xw*^?* 

365, irdp Be ol : see ou F 262. 

366- |fcdcrr(4€V Ihaav : Mashed them to drive them forward/ ixdap is 
inf, of mixed purpose and result. G* 265 and N. f H- 951, 
369* irofd , . , (3dA*v: sc butdjj. 

370. iv Y>wvaxi : * in the lap/ — . Auuvn, : fern- substantive formed from 
the stem A*- of Ztvs, Diane seems at first to have had the same at- 
tributes, perhaps to have been identical, with Hera. Cf. the Lat name 
JunQ (= Jov-ino) from the stem of Jupiter (Jov-is). 

371. GvyaTepd fjv : for another example of the poss, pron. following 
its noun with power to lengthen preceding vowel, r/. v. 7 1. 

37 & CHpo.vt[Sv»v : ' of the celestial beings ; ' it does not occur to Dio- 
ne as possible that a mortal should have inflicted the wound. 

374. iv-ia-irrj : * openly/ lit. l in (every one's) sight ' [ef. eV ^0d\fio7a^ 

A 587)- 

37 5> ^*Xop, r wtS^s : habitual epithet, not specially appropriate to Aph- 
rodite in her present condition. 

274 NOTES. 

3761 ofou : the accent is irregular for a contracted ipf . ; hence proba- 
bly to be considered a 2 aor. 

379. Translate: 'for 'tis no longer a dire combat of Trojans and 

382. kt)So|Uvt) xcp : ptc conforms to the natural, not the grammatical 
gender of rocroK, cf A 586. 

384. t( &v8p£r: ' in consequence of men.' To comfort Aphrodite, 
Dione adduces various examples of the suffering and humiliation which 
various deities had endured at the hands of mortals. Ares, Hera, Hades 
have thus suffered. 

385. Otos and Ephialtes, indignant at Ares for the murder of Aloeus, 
their reputed father (they were really sons of Poseidon), confined the 
war-god in a great jar (perhaps to be conceived as of earthen-ware 
bound with hoops of bronze, x***^ & **p<fw) an ^ kept him prisoner 
for thirteen months. The story is supposed to symbolize the conflict be- 
tween war and agriculture. The god of war was held captive for more 
than a year, the time necessary for a cycle of the earth's crops to reach 

389. The mother of the giants, we learn from the Odyssey (A 305), 
was Iphimedeia. 

392. The hostility of Hera to Herakles was the occasion of the bond- 
age of the hero to Eurystheus and of all his labors. 

394. koX: should not be joined to piy, which in that case would have 
the accent as emphatic, but rather to the rest of the sentence, krfiK&rrov 

395. h rotoa : i e. among the other gods who suffered. 

336. wirds \b avr6s] : ' that very one,' i,e. Heracles. Does 6 avr6s 
mean ' the same,' in Homer ? 

397. h IIvXip : ntfAy is probably equal to irtfAp (sc. 'Aftoo), and the 

meaning is « in the gate of Hades,' />. ' in the lower world.' £oX4v is 

to be joined with 4v pcjc6c<r<rt : ' casting him among the dead/ U. ' leaving 
him for dead on the field.' 

401. 68vWj<|>aTa : lit. ' pain-killing.' The stem </>*■ appears in pf. *4- 
<pa/uai and f ut. irc^tro/Acu. In the present we find the stem $cy-. 

402. Wtvkto : scarcely differs from 4y4vero or ijv, cf v. 78, cf also A 
84, B 320. 

403. (rx^rXios, APpipocpyfe ' nom. in exclam. (cf A 231). Both adjs. 

refer to Herakles. 8s o6k 69er* afcrvXa £4»v : ' who makes nothing of 

doing high-handed acts' (cf A 181). 

405. M : join with Avifrc. Were aol governed directly by it, it would 
be accented fri by anastrophe. 

407. |*AX' o* SnvauSs : 'by no means long-lived,' litotes. 

408. Cf for the sentiment, Z 130 and 140. 
411. 4>pai&4w : ' let him take heed.' 


412» Aigialeia, the daughter of Adrastos and the wife of Diomede, 
was the younger sister of Diornede's mother! Deipyle, 

413. oUfjas; [wih'tbj] ; ' house servants ' [cf, Z 366) yodwo*a tyttpfl : 

'wake by her laments.' So Penelope, in the Odyssey, laments the absent 

416, 6.yi.$oTtpr\a-i : 'with both hands.' — tx& ! a heteroclite accusa- 
tive instead of ix&p*- 

418. "AftrivatfiTi Ka,i tf HpKj; Athene left the battle-field after giving 
directions to Diomede at v. 133, 

419. Ipifalov : Zens had taunted these two goddesses f A 7) with the 
energy of Aphrodite; these taunts they now return upon Aphrodite* 

422, dvuLO-tt inr^crfld.1 : * while inciting to follow/ ^<j>&T]crf : * has 

been smitten with/ 

424. "Axfcw&SaJV li'w&rXw : merely a repetition of 'Ax*u&wv [v. 422), 
and really adds nothing to twit, which would be amply sufficient alone. 

429. Translate: 'but do you rather praaise (lit. pursue) the loving 
work of marriage/ 

431 — 274, 

432. kropowrtt l charged upon 1 [cf« V 379, A 472). 

433. Translate : 'although knowing that Apollo himself held (protect* 
ing) hands over him (of)-' 

434. fcro: * was desiring/ ' was striving/ Though respecting the letter 
of Athena's command not to engage with gods in combat, yet he might at 
any moment provoke Apollo to personal conflict, 

437. I<m4&i£€ : ' dashed back ' {cf< A 58 1 ) . 

440- <£?*£» : as in v. 4" lv{*) fypovkw : tf. Yvov ^dtrBm, A 1S7, 

441. ov . . . ipoiav : ' a far different thing ' (see on A 27S). 

442. x 01 !** 1 ipx°\uivwv i the description of men is not without a tone of 
contempt in contrast with ' immortal gods/ 

443. rvrfldv : Diomede shows his intrepidity by retiring only a little, 
415. didbipGiv : ' apart from, 1 ef. B 587. 

446. Hep^an^ dv : not Athena alone, but also Apollo, had a temple 
in the citadel (cf. A 508 J. 

447. Tdv = AiWar,. — Aijni t< koX *ApTfu.L3 : the mother and sister 
of Apollo are naturally found in his temple. 

448. KuBaivov : € were making illustrious/ &£ were heightening his 
beauty and strength. 

452. Translate : ' were hewing to pieces the ox-hide shields about 
each other's breasts/ 

453. doTrtSas ctkukXqus XotuHjtd rt Trr^pdcvra, ; this verse is explana- 
tory of foeUs. \*ttrfna [\&vtm t "shaggy') is applied to a small shield 
covered with hairy ox-hide* irrcpdtvTa, * fluttering/ is thought by Auten- 
rieth to refer to a kind of apron hanging from the shield (see Horn. Diet, 
cut No. 79). Others take wrtpivm in the sense of l light/ lit. ' light as a 

276 NOTES. 

454. Apollo is so closely pressed by Diomede that he recalls Ares to 
the battle-field, whence he had been withdrawn by Athena, w. 29-35. 
455 = 31. 

456. efe &v W| tpitauo : for use of mood, see on r 52. 
458. o\<&6v: 'in hand to hand conflict' x^' [x € *P«] : c f A 316. 

461. Tfxpds ; ace pi. fern, of adj ofoe? l*\o<fc] : ^/ B 6. 

462. " AxdjiavTi : this hero, the bravest of the Thracians, is slain by 
Ajax, Z 7. Ares conforms to the usual practice of the gods in assuming 
the form of Akamas ; when they enter the battle-field, they usually take 
on the appearance of some mortal or are veiled in mist. 

465. *Ax<uofc : dat. of agent to be joined with jtrclj'€<r0cu (cf. V 301) ; 
see on A 410 for another example of ktcIvw used in pass, sense. In prose 
the pass, of (&iro)KTclya> is regularly (4iro)0v^07ca. 

467. Kctrcu : ' lies prostrate.' 

469. <rtU»<ro(A€V : 1 aor. subj. 

471. |iAXa: 'sharply.' 

473. +fjs [tyys\ : cf. B 37. In Qlyuv and %x*<r**s (v. 472) there may 
be a play upon the signification of the name Hector, lit. ' Keeper ' (cf Z 


475. r&v : i.e. yaftfip&y Ktunyrftrup re. 

477. Ivcijtcv [ftcf/icy] : i.a §V t§ irjAci cV/acV. 

479. njXoO : sc. lart, and for adv. instead of adj. in predicate, see on 
A 416. 

481. k£8 : U. KaniXvKov. 6s k* fcrtScvfa : sc. $ (cf A 547). 

483. &vSp£ : ' with my man/ i.e, in single combat. — drdp : ' and 

484. With <fr4poicv and &yoicv a dat. of disadvantage may be supplied : 
'as the Achaians could carry and drive away from you* The distinction 
between <f>tp€iy and &yuv, that the former applies to things without, the 
latter to things with, life, scarcely needs to be mentioned. 

485. fcrrqicas : 'art standing idly here.' o$8' : ' not even.' 

486. Apco-ot : for odpcorci [yvvai£l]. 

487. |A.-f| . . . 7cvt|<r0c : ' see to it that ye do not become ' (cf. A 26, B 

195 aX6vrt : the dual number is explained by the pointed reference 

to Hector and the &W01 \aoi of v. 486 : ' both of you caught.' 

490. rdSt irdvra : the things outlined in vv. 487-489 (cf B 62). 

491. \k<ro-o|icvcp : the iritcovpoi were held by a slender tie, so that their 
chiefs must be treated with great deference. 

492. cx^ftev : ' persist,' i.e. not to abandon the siege. cVwHjv : ' fault- 

494. 4Xto : sc. "Eicrcop (see on r 29). 

495. SoGpa : sometimes we find Sofyc, as the chief carried two spears 

(cf r 18). 

497. 0uXCx0ri<rav :« were rallied.' 

ILIAD V. 277 

499. Upds : ' sacred ' to Demeter. 

500. JavWj : ' yellow-haired,' appropriate epithet of Demeter on ac- 
count of the golden color of most varieties of grain when ripe for harvest. 

501. Translate : ' separates, in the rush of the winds, the grain and 
the chaff.' 

502. al 8' frroXfuicaCvovTai &xvp|ua£ : tne point of the comparison lies 
in these words, viz. the whiteness of the heaps of chaff and of the dust- 
covered warriors. 

503. 81" afrrwv : ' throughout their ranks/ 

504. ttoXvxoXkov : the vault of the heavens is thought of as con- 
structed of bronze tir£ir\Tryov : redupl. 2 aor. from vK-fiaaoi governing 

Zv (v. 503) as cognate accusative. 

505. fari]Li<ryo\Uvo>v : should probably be joined with frnraj/ in v. 504 : 
' as they (the horses of the Trojans) mingled themselves again with them 

(the Achaians) in battle/ {neb 8* ?<rrpc^ov: this clause contains the 

reason for lTnnuryofi4v<ov. 

506. ol 8i |Uvos x <l P" v M^s <Hp°v : * and they (the Trojan combatants 
who rode in the chariots) were bringing to bear the might of their hands 
straight against them. 1 

607. p^XTI : dat. ^ ter &p$€KcUtnf'€ : ' spread night around the combat' 
Tp&co-i ap4jv<i>v : ' aiding the Trojans/ by isolating the combat. 

508. to0, kt\. : article used demonstratively, translate : 'of him, Apollo 
with the golden sword/ 

512. irtovos: 'rich/ 

514. ucOCoraro : ' was taking his place among' (see on A 6). 

517* 0$ *yap la irrfvos AXXos : ' for other (and greater) toil did not per- 
mit it/ 

518. Cfifor last hemistich, A 440. 

519. rota 8' . . . Aavoovs , ( but these, namely the Danaoi/ 
.620. Kal afoot : i>» 'without urging/ 

523. vi|vcaCT)s : ' in a time of calm/ t<rrr)<r€v : is gnomic aor. as is 

indicated by the Subj. cftfytri in dependent temporal clause in the next 


* 524. arplfias : join with %<rrn<rev t * fixes immovably/ 

525. OTcutara: cf A 157. 

526. wot jonv Xiyvpxjon. SuunciSvcuriv &Ivtc« : ' scatter with their shrill 
blasts as they blow/ 

527. \Uvov o*8* tyipovro: cf, Ij/xfyores oW frvx*** v. 287. 

528. Cf T 449. iroXXd : cf A 35. 

680. oXX4jXov$ al8ct«r9c : lit. ' have a sense of shame before one an- 
other/ i.e. ' demean yourselves bravely in each other's sight/ icard 

icparcpas foruCvas : cf B 345. 

531. irtyairai : pf . = pres. It is a common observation that death 
often overtakes the coward and seems to spare the brave. 

278 NOTES. 

534. Alvcfa : the contraction of ao to * in masc. substantives of 1 
decl. takes place after a vowel (see on A 47, 165). 

538. IpvTo : ( held back,' syncopated ipf. for iptcro ctraro : for 

meaning, see on r 61. Cf the nearly identical hemistich A 138. 

539. vcuUpfl : -aipa is fern, termination (cf lo-x*- «p«» v. 53), and the 
adj. has superlative force. Construe with ycurrpi : ' in the lower part of 
the belly. 1 IXaoxrf : sc. as subject, Agamemnon. 


542. AioicXfjos : Diokles was son of Orsilochos, the son of the river- 
god Alpheios. 

543. #ijpf : In the Odyssey, 7 488, the name of the place is given as 
plural, Pherai being the town half way between Pylos and Sparta where 
Telemachos, on his way to the court of Menelaos, halted for the night. 

544. &4>vcibs ffaSroio : cf Lat. dives opum. 

545. tfpv £&i : ' flows broadly/ *>. with broad bed. 

546. &vSp€o-ot: cf the datives in v. 511 and A 7. 
54a SiSvpdovc [SiMfAto]. 

649. ii&x 1 !* «* «IW« ir&oTjs : cf B 823, E 11. 
553. dpwfUvoi . . . TV|i4jv: cf A 159. 

654. ofw r& 7€ : La Roche explains as by enallage for t4 7c ofo, and 
sees in r& ye, which simply anticipates rd in v. 559, a similar pleonasm 
to that in B 459 and 474. Translate : * just as a pair of lion-cubs,' etc. 

655. rdp^co-iv : ' in a jungle.' 

558. &vSp«v 4v iraXdji|j<rt : * under the hands of men.' 

562 = A 495. 

564. r& ^poWuv : ' with this intent/ prepares the way for the final 
Clause %va . . . Jo/ac/tj. 

566. iroi)Uvi Xo&v : ' for (in behalf of) the shepherd of the peoples.' 

667. fWj tv irdftoi : euphemism for yh tooddvoi diroo-^rtfjXcu : 1 aor. 

opt. from 4iro(r</)c£AAcw, lit. * should cause to fail of result of their toil/ The 
subj. is Menelaos, though what is meant is Menelaos's death* The ex- 
pression illustrates the partiality of the Greeks for the personal con- 

573. vcicpovs : *>. Krethon and Orsilochos peril Xoov : * toward 

the host/ 

574. tA 8ci\£ : ' the two slain heroes/ &a\6 may be regarded as a 
euphemism for 6.iro0ay6vT€. 

579. vtfjc : ' pierced/ follows as the sequence of rvxfiaras icot* K\rj7Sa : 
'having smitten upon the collar-bone/ 

582. AyicAva \U<rov : ace. of the part in apposition with fuv 9 which 
may be supplied as obj. of $d\*. 

583. Xrf k' IXtyavTi : ' white with ivory/ i.e. the reins of leather were 
adorned with plates of ivory (see on A 142). 

584. K<5p<rr]v : cf A 502, and for ace. cf fryjewa, v. 582. 



587. du&Goio : distinguish fya&os, * sand of the plain/ and ipdpa&os, 
* sand of the shore/ 

588- The dying hero had plunged head foremost into the deep sand, 
and remained upright in this strange position until, in consequence of 
Antilochos urging the horses forward, 4 they dashed against him and cast 
him down in the dust/ 

592, iniTVWt: 'august.' 

693. txovtra Kv&oipiv avatSfa BtjuStijtos : ' having with her the ruthless 
turmoil of combat.' Enyo, that is, carries with her as an attendant teapot- 
fihv ffijioTTrror. Hence jruioiprffj as personified, might be written with a 
capital letter. 

597. AirdAauvos : should be translated as pred- adj, with subj. of o-Hfo ! 
'stands irresolute.' lav iroX<os -rriSfow l * passing over a broad plain/ 

593. br : f on the bank of.' 

599. The real point of comparison is reached in the gnomic aor, JW- 

601. olov &?| 8auuA|ou<€v : * how much forsooth we wonder / implying 
that the wonder is unreasonable, as Hector's courage is explained by the 
adversative clause {v. 603) t$ 8" nUl irdpa els yf titan*. 

604, k*lvos : best translated by the adverb ' there ' i * and now there by 
his side is/ etc. {cf. T 391 ). 

605. irp&s Tp&af Ttrpajji^voL : £ with faces toward the Trojans/ 

G06. jwvfaiWuw : cf T 459 for another example of an inf. used imper- 
atively. Observe that, as usual in such cases, an imv. precedes. 

607. afrwv : !#• 'A^aiiEy, who have been implied in $lhoi t v. 601. 

609. ttv to 8<4p« tew* : see on v. 160. 


611 = £ 496. 

612* ivl. llaur<p : Ttaurfc is supposed to be the same place as *A*a«r&, 
B 828. 

613. \kolpa : for similar reference to fate, whose decree not even 
Zeus can alter, cf w. 83, 629, A 517. 

614. liriiicoup^iravTd \utA : * to come as ally to join/ 
6l8 t *irl . , , lx. €t,av: 'showered upon him.' 

620. IcnrAtra-ro frfX** : ' drew f ° nh AiS spear.* 

621 < dXXa: 'besides/ lit. 'other (beautiful arms)/ Ajax recovered 
his own spear ; he was unable to despoil Amphfos of the armor in which 
he fell. 

623. &|4lpwriv upaTfpnv * 'the stout defence/ Cf the similar mean- 
ing of kppi&*&'QK*v in A 37. 

624 tyxe T ^xovt«$: 'with spears in hand/ 

625, 626 = A 534, 535, 

627 = 84- 

628 = B 653. 

280 NOTES. 

630 = ri5. 

634. IvOdS': join with wrfoacur, 'to be skulking here.' &vn . . . 

fy*rl : the ptc. and pred. nom., as is usual in Greek, conform to the case 
of rot expressed with kvdyKTj rather than to that of the <r4, which is men- 
tally supplied as subj. of wr&aatur. 

635. ^cvS6|mvo£ tyaax : ' falsely declare,' for the reason given in the 
next verse. 

638. AXX* olov, rrA. : « ah, what sort of a hero do they say was the 
mighty Herakles ! ' The gender of ot6v riva is masc, the construction 
conforming to sense instead of to the grammatical gender of fiinv 'Hpa- 

640. Herakles was summoned by Laomedon to free his daughter 
Hesione from a sea-monster : horses of the wondrous breed mentioned in 
v. 265 were to be his reward. Herakles performed the service, but Laom- 
edon withheld the recompense. Thereupon the hero destroyed Ilios 
and slew Laomedon. 

641. otgs o-vv vrpxrl, rrA. : ' with only six ships and fewer companions ' 
(than Sarpedon had brought with him). 

642. x4p aMrc &Ywfa : * made her streets desolate/ . 

643. Kcucbs Ovpfe : • thy heart is cowardly.' 

645. KopTcprfs : refers especially to strength. A man may be xaprcpSs 
without being i\Kifi6s (faxap &rc<r0ai) or &ya$6s (cf. A 178). 

646. inr fyjol : 6*6 is here used with dat. of the agent, (cf. T 301). 

648. Kctvos : ' that hero,' *>. Herakles. 

649. tiifypaSlxfrx : Laomedon's falsehood is called folly, because he was 

foolish not to foresee its consequences ; for use of pi. cf. A 205. Ayavoti 

Aaop&ovros : appositive of kvcpos. 

651. 0*8 * &ir!8«»x* : m prose we should have been likely to have owe 

652. <roC : contrasted with kuvos, v. 648. Herakles succeeded, for he 
was wronged ; not such success shall be thine, ' for thee, I think, death 
and dark destruction shall be prepared from my hand.' 

653. T€vfc<r0<u : fut. midd. with pass, signif ., cf. TeAeWflcu, B 36. 8c 

\Uvra agrees with <re, supplied as subj. of 8d><rciv. 

654. 8w<r€tv : joined by a kind of zeugma in a slightly different sense 
to two objects of different meaning. 

656. t»v : ' of them (both).' 

658. dXryf iWj : * painful/ ' grievous.' 

659. KaT tyOoXpuav : ' settling down upon his eyes.' 

661. pcpMjicciv [4fr8ktni(w)]. 

662. irwHjp : Zeus, the distinction of being whose son was enjoyed by 

Sarpedon alone of all the heroes of the Trojan war In: suggests 

that the protection was not to avail for a long time. Sarpedon is finally 
slain by Hector, IT 502. 


663, 5(oi : 'illustrious.' 

665. t6: anticipates the inf. JfepAru lirc^p&niT* ovS* Jvoip-i : 

the coupling of two nearly synonymous expressions emphasizes an idea. 

&$p empale : ' that he might walk,* perh* with the support of 

667. <nr€w5dvT»v : may be taken as gen. absoL, or as gen. of the whole 
depending on o§ ny tt6vqv : %g t labor bellieus. 

670. tX^jiovo. 0vji&v tytiw : equivalent to the common epithet of Odys- 
seus in the Odyssey, *o\&Th*s. 

672 » irpoT^pu : [ farther/ i.e. entering more deeply into the lines of the 
Trojans {cf T 40a J, 

673. t»v irXedvwv : l of the larger number/ in contrast to the one, 

680. KopuBafoXos : usual epithet of Hector {cf. B Si6 f T 83) \ 

681 = A 495. 

682, ot irpcMruivTL : ' at his approach.' 

686. IfuWov : see on B 3G, 

689. QCA5IL, 

690, iropi^fy : * sprang past/ not heeding Sarpedon's prayer. 

&j>pa droiTo : the inf. would be more natural than the final clause which 
is substituted for it {cf. A 465 and A 133). &<to\tq (&&fa) [ffttf|cie], 

693. +t]ym; this word corresponds In root to ljaX.fagus t Engl. fatch t 
but is not the same tree j it designates a species of oak with edible acorn, 

694 &o-e0vpa£ f ; 'forced forth/ perh. * wrenched forth/ strength be- 
ing required to extract it. The meaning of the radical part of GtJpafe 
ffliJpa, * door T ) is entirely lost in the adverb, 

696. iKurt i|njx^j : *-*■ i he swooned/ 

698i gu-ypEi : * revived/ There seem to be two presents fw^p^u, one 
meaning to* capture 1 ({aufc and Lyplw) ; the other, to * reanimate* (£wii 
and iyelpw)* gate ate KiKaaVnoro. Ova-oV : * painfully panting out his life/ 

700. wpafp&rovTO : 'were driven headlong.' lirl vnaiv: see on 4t\ 

podaiVf F 5. 

701. dvTf<(»4poimi s cf A 5S9. 

703, lirvftovro: * learned/ from Diomede [cf. v. 604). 

703. irp&TQv and flora/rov : pred, adjs., ' who was the first and the last 
whom/ etc. 

704, x^ K<os ! ma y ^ taken literally, * clad in-bronze * {cf x^xox^^)* 
or may mean ' with sinews of brass/ * strong.' 

705, lirl W [fire*™ M\. 

706. AItmXlov : join with TpijJx *'- 

7OT. aloXojiiTpnv : cf follg* passages : V 1S5, A 137, 186, 489, 
70S, "YXfl : this place was mentioned B 500, but with 5. - — ply a iicpn- 
X<fo 1 ( caring much for/ 
709, KficXL^iivos ; lit. Meaning upon/ 'adjacent/ Kn+urflk : this 

282 NOTES. 

lake, here named from the Kephisos, which flows into it, was later 
called Kopais. 

710. 8%»v: 'district.' 

711. tovs : i<£. *E*r»p t« Upid/xoio xdts Kal x<£&**°* "Apip, ▼• 704. 

712. AX&covtos : act. voice of the same verb which was used in midd. 
A 10. 

715. fiXiov : pred. adj., ' vain is the promise which we gave.' 

716. 4icir^p<ravT(a) : ace. as in B 113, 288. 
718 = A 418. 

719. With this verse begins the Seofiaxla, or ' Battle of the Gods,* 
which fills the remainder of the book. 

720. XP^V 1 ™* * : c f- yy - 35 8 » 363 lwoixonivt| Ivtucv: 'stepped 

up and began to put to.' 

722. &|ufr' 6\Uov% : « on both sides of the chariot,' more closely de- 
fined by Qovi bn<pLs : • at either end of the axle/ v. 723. 

724. yjpvaii) : pred. adj. For trvs and &<f>diros, see A 486, B 46. 

725. irpoo-apTjp6ra : ' closely riveted to it (the felly).' 

726. Translate : ' and the hubs revolving at either end (of the axle) 
are of silver ; ' or xcpitpofioi may mean ' round.' 

723. The chariot body {tifpos) 'is made fast' (irrdrarcu) to the axle 

by straps ornamented by plates of gold and silver Sotal dvruyes : it 

is doubtful whether ' two ' forvyes, one on the lower, the other on the 
upper, edge of the chariot box, are referred to, or whether total means 
' two-fold,' and describes an £ktv£ of unusual breadth and size. 

729. to$ : governed by ££, 'from it (Mtppos) there extended (t4\€v).' 

730. 8^0-6 : sc. 'Ufa 4v 8^ kt\. : ' and upon it (the yoke) she laid 

the breast-collar.' 

731. fab Si Jvy&v ^ayc : ' brought under the yoke,' language to be 
taken literally, for the yoke rested upon the withers of the horses.' 

734. iraTp&s kit* otfSci : ' on the floor of her father,' i.e. in Zeus's dwell- 
ing, in which Athena armed herself with the breastplate of Zeus (x<r£pa, 

v. 736). 

737. tcvx€o-iv : may refer to Athena's usual armor. 

738. 6vo-avo'c<ro-av : see on B 447. 

739. Hv ir^pi irdvTxi ty^os Icrrc+dvwrai : 'which Flight encompasses 
round about on every side.' 

740. h : ' within,' U. on the expanse of the shield. 

741. rofrycCti : the proper adj. is equivalent to a gen. Topyovs, witb 
which Tt\<6pov is in apposition (see on B 54). 

743. d|i^C^a\ov kvWtjv Tcrpa<^XT|pov: 'two-crested helmet with four* 
fold plate.' rerpatpdKiipos (<pdkapa, « cheek-pieces ') probably describe? 
plates of metal, of fourfold thickness, on either side of the helmet ex- 
tending perhaps from the temples to the neck, and forming an additiona) 
defence against lateral blows. A different explanation is given in the 
Horn. Diet 

ILIAD V. 283 

744. Uarbv . . . Apapvtav: 'fit for the combatants of a hundred 
cities/ *>. of colossal size. 

745. Notice the regular recurrence of short syllables (<rrlxos 6\oB&- 
ktv\os) and the tripping movement of the line. Disregarding the first 
syllable, we have an anapaestic movement. 

746. ppi0* |&6ya <mpap<fc : the three epithets, following hard upon 
one another without conjunctions (asyndeton), emphasize the mighty 
weight of the spear. 

747. Korlcnrcrcu [Korfiarrrcu]. 

749. |m)kov : * grated on their hinges.' fxov [iffaarrov]. 

751. vtyos : The clouds which separate the lower afip from the aXHp 
are the gate of heaven. It seems rather a harsh expression to speak of 
cloud-gates as 'grating on their hinges,' v. 749. 

752. Translate : • there then straight through them they held their 
goaded horses/ 

753. 754 = A 498, 499. 
755. Cf vv. 368, 775 

758. &<r<rdrirfv tc teal olov : ix. $ri r6<rov re Kal rotor (cf. B 120). 

759. dxos : in apposition with v. 758 (cf T 50, 51). 

761. &v6t€s : ' at having let loose.' 

762. 4) £d ri pot tccxoXAtreai : ' will you then really be wroth with me 
at all ? * This question follows naturally after the assumed affirmative 
answer to the question in v. 757. 

763. Xvyptts TrcirXTryvta : cf with ireirA^yta keiitfoffi x\riyriffiv, B 264. 

765. aypci |idv [&7€ W]. 

766. ircXdlciv 68w jo-t : cf for the same idea v. 397. Athena as god- 
dess of war is a natural rival of Ares. 

768. Cf.Y.366. 

770. 8<nrov: ace. of extent of space, and fopoe&is agrees with it. 
Translate: 'as far into the cloudy-grey (distance) as.' 

772. rdinrov : i.e. the horses covered at each spring a distance as great 
as a man's eyes can penetrate into space. 

774. orv|fcpaXXfTov : notice the position of the dual verb between the 
two singular subjects. 

776. irovXw : metrical convenience may explain the employment of 
the ace. masc. of the adj. instead of the regular fern, form -koKK^v. 

778. WpaO' : ace. of specification. The two goddesses are compared 
to pigeons ' in their gait* because of their short and rapid steps. To the 
hero on the other hand is applied the expression ficucpk fit&arra (cf. T 22). 

780. 80i : 'to the place where ' (cf r 145, A 132, 210). 

781. pCtpr Aio|W)Sco$: cf B 387, r 105 &rra<rav: 'were standing,' 

for in their retreat around Diomede the Greeks halted occasionally to 

782. 783. For other instances of comparison of heroes to lions and 
boars, see A 253, E 299 o4k aXairoSvrfv : litotes. 

284 NOTES. 

785. Stentor is only mentioned in this one place in the Iliad, yet this 
mention is the origin of the familiar adjective ' stentorian.' 

786. atfWjoxuricf : ' used to shout ' (as often as there was occasion). 
787* alWs : nom. for voc. in exclamation kok IXfy^ca: see on B 

23s <t8o « «W°* : C /- T 39- 

789. iruXdttv AapSavULwv : ix, Sxaidp wv\mv (cf T 145). 

791. tirl vrpoi : a comparison with v. 700 shows this to be an exag- 
geration. The extremes between which the battle oscillated were the 
city gates (irfocu, v. 789) and the ships rijcs). 

793. TvSctSj) fartfpovo-c: 'hurried up to Tydeides/ not, as in T 379, A 
472, with hostile intent 

795. IXkos dva+vxo vTa : 'cooling off his wound,' *.*. wiping away 

the sweat which increased the pain t6 |uv fttXc : see on v. 361 for 

double ace 

796. iTeipf: 'distressed.' 

797. t$: 'by this/ U. by the sweat. 

798. dvC<rx<i»v : ' lifting up/ so as to get at the wounded part beneath. 

800. ol : here reflexive and used as in prose =s£6i. 

801. Toi : ethical dat. ' I tell you/ or ' you know.' 

802. icaC £ ' 5tc w«p : ' and so even when.' The apodosis follows in v. 

806, a&T&p *pOKO\l(€TO. 

803. v6<r<j>iv 'A\au&v : ' without (i>. unaccompanied by) Achaians.' In 
A 388 the expression is fiouvos t&v (cf Agamemnon's account of the same 
scene (A 376-400) from which many phrases are here repeated). 

804. 805. Cf A 385, 386. 
807. CfA38g. 

803. This verse is a combination of A 390 and E 828. It is inconsist- 
ent with v. 802, and weakens the contrast plainly intended between w. 
802 and 810. Hence there is good reason for rejecting it with Aris- 

810. irpo<|»povfa$ : join with k4\o/jlcu. 

812. otcfjpiov (4 priv. and Kr}p) : lit. ' without heart/ ' spiritless.' 

815. yiyvdxrKta : in spite of her appearance in mortal form, as may 
be inferred from v. 835. 

818. <rtav tyerjUwv : cf vv. 127-132. 

819. ofl n' etas : Diomede replies that he is in precisely the same 
situation as was his father Tydeus (cf v. 802, obic clacicov). 

820. 821 = vv. 131, 132. 

823. dX^fuvat [&A^om] : 2 aor. pass, infin. from cfA« (cf v. 782). 

824. pdxt|v dvd [iv* pdxvr] : **<* and did do not suffer anastrophe 
when they follow their object. See Sketch of Dialect, § 6. 

827. to 7c : ace. of specification, lit. ' in respect to this/ ' on that ac- 
>unt/ *.*. of the goddess's previous command in vv. 124, 13a 

W. crgfSlijy : ' in hand to Viand tucou&tet/ The form is ace. fem. of 

dj> ((/• fori&iriv, A 278). 

ILIAD V. 285 

831. rvterbv iccucrfv : lit. ' an evil worked out to full completion/ ' a 
consummate evil/ The character of Ares is without dignity or worth, in 
most unfavorable contrast to that of Athena. 

832. vpqrfv : the promise here attributed to Ares is not found in the 

Iliad. rn&r d«yopcv<ov pax4)o-c<r6ai : 'was giving to understand by 

words (&yop*(wv) that he would fight/ 

836. vdXiv tpwraucra : ' having drawn him backward,' ix. forth from 
the open part of the chariot in the rear 4|tpair&>s : ' instantly/ 

837. Athena enters the chariot, not as combatant (vapa&dnis), but as 

838. t|ipc|iau?a : cf v. J 42 cj^jvivos : see on v. 693. 

839. *ycv: 'it bore/ 

845. "AtSos Kwtojv : ' the helm of Hades/ This made the wearer in- 
visible, like the fog-cap ( Tarn-kappe or Nebel-kappe) of German mythology. 
Athena put on this cap that Ares might not recognize her ; she would not 
have needed it to make herself invisible to men {cf A 198). 

849. 104$ with gen. : ' straight at/ 'straight for/ 

85L Ap^faTO : ' aimed a stroke/ 

854. Were we to read inr4p (with Codex Venetus) instead of W {*, the 
sense would be easier. As the text stands, we must translate : ' and she 
caught it with her hand and pushed it aside, so that it flew harmlessly 
under and out from (behind) the body of the chariot/ 

856. tir-^pcio-c : ' drove it home/ 

857. i^TpTjv : ace. of the thing with fwwtfcricero, ' was wont to bind 
about him (midd. voice) his body-band/ For note on filrpri, which was 
worn next the skin under the (w/xa and {oxrr^p, see on A 137. 

858. ofrra : see on v. 376 (cf A 525). Notice the change of subject 
between ofrra and Bi&atycv [Silicones']. Se. with the latter verb Z6pv. 

860. cvvtdxiXot, ScK^xiXoi : shortened forms for ivdicis x^'°*» ^icducis 
xfAtoc. The enormous numbers make a burlesque of Ares's pain. 

861. (w&yovTcs IptSa : cf B 381. 

862. inr6 : adv., cf Y 34, A 421. 

864^ 865. Translate : ' as there forms itself (lit. comes to view) from 
the clouds a black fog-mass, when a gusty wind rises in consequence of 
the burning heat/ 

866. Toio* : ' such/ *>. ' so black ; ' the point of the comparison is the 
blackness of the two appearances. 

867. Join 6/iov vt<p4«j<riv with l£y : 'as he went with the clouds (in 
which he was wrapt)/ 

868. Portions of this verse are found in B 17 and E 367. 
870. Ajipporov alpa : U. Ixfy (cf w. 339, 340). 

873. t«tXi)6tcs *l\Uv [r4r\afi€v] : cf Y 309, where rcirpw/ieW itrriv = 

875. vol : * against you/ because the acts of your favorite child, Athe- 
na/bring us into opposition with you. 

286 NOTES. 

876. <5tf]<n>\a : seems to be the same word as a&n/Ao, v. 403 P<|M|- 

Xf : this 2 pf. does not differ in meaning from pres. /*&€i. 

878. 8c8|i4j|uo4a : pf. with sense of pres., ' are subject to ' (cf. T 183). 

879. irpoTipdXXfai : ' dost punish/ lit. ' castest thyself upon.' 

880. dvwis [totris] : as if from pres. kvUu instead of kvlrjtu (see Sketch 
of Dialect, §24, 1). 

885. vnrfjv«ucav [faHircyicav] ijWw: cf. T 56. 

886. kv vficA8c<nnv : Ares, as immortal, could not die, but he might be 
severely wounded and be stretched on the battle-field (abrov) among 
heaps of corpses (rcmifccrcrt). 

887. \fa[Cm6s]. 

890, 891. Cf A 176, 177. 

892. 4dox«rov, ofoc liriciKTrfv: 'uncontrollable, unyielding,' showing 
the opposite qualities to those suggested by v. 878. 

894. t$ : ' therefore/ because of the character ascribed to Hera in v. 

895. Zeus speedily relents from the feelings expressed in v. 889. 

896. ylvos : ace. * by descent/ ipo£ : • to me,' i.e. ' as my son.' 

898. IWpTCpos [Kardrcpos] Otipavu&vwv : 'lower than the (rebel) sons 
of Uranos/ i.e. than the Titans, imprisoned in Tartar os. 

899, 900 = 401, 402. 

902. iirciytf|MVos : lit. 'in haste,' b*6s being personified. Certainly 
personification is natural of anything so rapid and mysterious in its oper- 
ation as rennet or any substitute for it. o-vWirrjJcv : gnomic aorist. 

903. ircpiTptyerai KvicdwvTi : ' thickens on every side as one stirs it.' 
906. Contrast this verse with v. 869 (cf A 405). 

908. These goddesses have now done enough to clear themselves of 
the charge of supineness which Zeus in Z 8 follg. brings against them. 


Zfjra 8' ap 'ApSpofidxrjs Kal"Etcropo$ ear oapioTV$. 
In Zeta t Hector prophesies ; prays for his son; wills sacrifice . x 

Fighting continues after the gods have left the field, but with decreasing 
violence (1-118). Thus room is left for quieter scenes: first, the parley 
of Diomede and Glaukos (119-236), as an illustration of the power of the 
bond of guest-friendship ; then, the meeting and parting of Hector and 
Andromache (370-502), as an illustration of the strength and sacredness 
of the marriage tie. Paris's frequent appearance on the scene reminds us 
how he had violated both of these bonds. 

1. Tfxkuv teal 'Axawov : join with <pv\oris ot£0r) : i.e. xwpl? C "" 

4y4v*ro. Ares, Apollo, Athena, Hera, and Aphrodite, who had taken 
part in the combat in E, have now withdrawn. 

2. treSCoio : for gen. see on B 785 tfhxrc : *Mvw from l$6s [eMs], 

lit. 'go straight.' Translate: (v. 2) 'and the tide of battle set in many 
directions over the plain, now this way, now that.' 

3. aXXVjXwv : gen. of object aimed at {cf A 100). As subject of ptc. 
supply a word meaning ' combatants.' 

4. Join this verse with Wwo-t in v. 2. The caesura in the verse indi- 
cates that lifU^vTos is not dependent upon fiodwv, but is governed by 
/*€<r<nry^s [ju€to|^]. 

6. +<S»s Wt|K€v [ffarrjplw iroirjircv] : lit. 'caused a light,' i.e. 'let in a 
gleam of light/ 

7. optoros : in proportion to the valor and size (Wv t« p4yay re) of 
Akamas was the relief which Ajax brought to his companions (<f>6vs 
ttolKcv) by slaying him Wtwcto [fycVcro] : plupf. 3 sg. from retx*- 

9-11 = A 459-461. 

12. fcre^vc : redupl. 2 aor. from stem $>«k-, ' kill ' (see on A 397). 

14. o^vcita (Jvoroio : cf. Vergil's dives opum, Aen. I, 14. 

1 Chapman's couplet is not a translation, it will be observed, of the Greek hexameter 
which stands above it. 

288 NOTES. 

15. &S£ fcrt [ty Wy] : 'upon the road/ so that all wayfarers must pass 
by his dwelling. 

16. Translate : 4 but not one of them all (i>. the many whom he had 
entertained, r&rye referring to irdrras) warded off from him (lit. ' for 
him/ see on A 566) sad destruction/ There is pathos in the thought of 
how little return he received, in the hour of need, for all his kindness to 

17. trp6o4cv : may refer to time or to place : ' having first (prior to 
Axylos) faced Diomede ; ' or * having faced Diomede in front of him 
(Axylos)/ i.e. for Axylos's protection. 

19. tyiprtoxos : see Horn. Diet. -yatav ffivnpr : ' they went below 

the earth/ 

21. ft & jier : ' and went after/ i>. to overtake (see on A 222). 

82. vr\k : ' Naiad/ derived from vdw, * flow/ 'Apopffopli) : perh. a 

compound of & priv. and &6p&opos, * mud/ Thus the meaning would be 

24. <tk6tvov 81 4 ycCvaTO |i4)n)p : ' and his mother bare him in secret' 

25. iroi|&a£v«»v : so Paris kept his father's flocks on Mt. Ida. — 
daXonvri teal c^vtj : cf. V 445. 

27. far&wrc : ' relaxed underneath ; ' the preposition is used with 
special reference to yu?a, which here equals y6vara (see on r 34). 

32. 4v4jpa.TO : 1 aor. midd. from ivalpw. 

34. ivppciTao : the doubling of the p in this word is the indication of a 
lost consonant. The orig. form of the root of f>4a> was crpv-. 

37. fbrijv fryaGos : see on B 408. 

38. &rvlo\Uv<i> ircSCoto : ' fleeing bewildered over the plain/ 

39. |ivpuc£v<p : adj formed from puplicy, Lat. myrica, * tamarisk/ a shrub 
mentioned as abundant in the Trojan plain. 

40. The entanglement {frXatpOime) of v. 39 is the cause of the break- 
ing (*|arr[e]) of v. 40. The horses were attached to the^hariot only by 
means of the yoke, so that the shattering of the 'fore part of the pole ' 

(tp&t<P fiv/xf) would set them free. Cf. Plate I in Horn. Diet avr£ 

\Uv : i*. the horses, in contrast with the chariot which they left behind. 

41. -j icq> ol aWoi, kt\. : * by the very same road by which the others 
(horses and men) were fleeing bewildered/ 

44. 8oXixoo*Kiov <YX 0S : c f- ^ 34^. 

45. Connect yovvoav with \afr6v. 

46. tAypci : ' ta ^e me alive/ i.e. ' spare my life/ The plea for life is 
based, however, on the ransom which he offers. The emphatic portion 
of the verse follows the caesura (cf. 8c|ou faoiva, A 23). 

47. kv d+vttoO iraxpos : the first example in the Iliad of the ellipsis, so 
common in prose, of the word ' house/ 

49. t&v k£v toi \apCa-axro : ' of which things my father would gladly 
give to thee/ 



60. -irnrifloiTo : redupl, 2 aor. from irvvQdvonat. The thing learned 
is here something about a person, ■ that I was alive 1 ({f, A 257). 

51. JfirttBe : * sought to persuade ' {contrast the force of the aor, in v, 61, 
where the counter-persuasion of Agamemnon is successful), 

62* t<4.£* i^uXXt : ' was just on the point- 1 

53. itctTay^*v : Hard suggests the direction ' down to the sea ; ' Lhe 
form is 1 aor. with intermediate vowel r instead of a (tf. V 105). 

54. 6}u>K\T|<ra$ ; implies a loud tone of reproach and reproof. 

55. & ir&rov, <u M<v«Xa« : the repetition of the interjection suggests 
haste and eagerness.— — El [8^]. 

58. av&p&v : used for fa/Bpfc, an exaggeration for the sake of effect ■ 

^ oroi, KTk. : ironical reminder to Menclaos of the wrongs which he 

had suffered fr run the race, one of whom he seemed about to spare. 

5W> Kofipov: lit. ( a (male) youth, 1 here simply a designation of sex, 

' a male child, etc.' yitfi' 6t : rcl. used as demonstrative, ' let not 

even him/ 

00. didj^eirroi, wa\ A^avroi : both adjectives are used prole ptieally ; 
translate : ' let them perish out of Ilios without burial and without leaving 
a trace behind r (cf, A 39, 126). 

62. cd&o%p.a impttirwv \ ' urging (upon him) what was proper * {tfi for a 
different meaning of the verb, A 555}. 

64, &v*Tp4irtT : * fell back * (^ ffirnos tirwtv, A 10S). 

65. Xu| fa &rifiiv<ri (Me : ' planting his heel on his breast. 
67 = B ua 

68. i-rripaXXapevo? : l throwing himself upon/ the gen, ivdpmv depends 
upon the preposition in composition, G. 177, H. 751. 

70. t& : refers to ivipmv, 

71. o-vX^o-fTt \ int. with potential force [cf, A 137, B 203, 367. The 
verb as a verb of depriving takes the double accusative of the person and 

the thing. veicpois t^vcwto-s : cf* a similar expression in King James's 

Version : ■ In the morning they were all dead corpses. 1 2 Kings, xix. 35. 

73. in? J Axa"-»v «UraWfJr|crav : * would have been driven {forced to go 
up) into Ilium by the Achaians/ The gen. of the agent is often used 
after verbs which though not passive are equivalent to passives (see on 
A 242). 

74, dvoXiCfi-noT. : ' on account of their failure to defend themselves/ 
76. QC A. 69. 

78. Tpiuwv «a\ AvK&av : connect with tippt [Spiv], 

79. l*uv : orig. meaning f motion, ' 'direction; ■ hence 'undertaking. 1 

80. vri^rt a^rou ! * take your stand here. 1 £pv*dicm : 2 aor. irav, 

with peculiar redupl. (see Sketch of Dialect, § 15, 2). A last effort is to 
be made before the city gates to stay the flight of the panic-struck mul- 

81. taotxtfpwoi : cf- A JI-— ^irplw «rfrt . . , -wwkv* *. * Vre&ore. <&b*s^ 

280 NOTES. 

630 = r 15. 

634. IvOdS': join with Tr&avciv, 'to be skulking here.' 16m . . . 

tyarl : the ptc and pred. nom., as is usual in Greek, conform to the case 
of rot expressed with twdyicn rather than to that of the <r4 9 which is men- 
tally supplied as subj. of vrrfovcu'. 

635. i|rau86|MVo£ +00% : ' falsely declare, 1 for the reason given in the 
next verse. 

638. 6XX* otov, rrA. : ' ah, what sort of a hero do they say was the 
mighty Herakles ! ' The gender of o\6v riva is masc, the construction 
conforming to sense instead of to the grammatical gender of fil^y 'Hpa- 

640. Herakles was summoned by Laomedon to free his daughter 
Hesione from a sea-monster : horses of the wondrous breed mentioned in 
v. 265 were to be his reward. Herakles performed the service, but Laom- 
edon withheld the recompense. Thereupon the hero destroyed Ilios 
and slew Laomedon. 

641. olfls <rfar vipxrl, icrX. : ' with only six ships and fewer companions ' 
(than Sarpedon had brought with him). 

642. xfa w<r€ &7«iA« : ' made her streets desolate.' 

643. kok&s OvjkSs : • thy heart is cowardly.' 

645. Koprcfxfe : refers especially to strength. A man may be Kaprcp6s 
without being i\Ktfi6s (fajcap £<rc<r0cu) or hya06s (cf A 178). 

646. far fyjoi : &k6 is here used with dat of the agent, (cf. V 301). 

648. tccivos : ' that hero,' *>. Herakles. 

649. &<|>pa8(fl<ri : Laomedon's falsehood is called folly, because he was 

foolish not to foresee its consequences ; for use of pi. cf. A 205 &<yavov 

AaopiSovros : appositive of kvipos. 

651. o£S* diHStDx* : in prose we should have been likely to have ovk 

652. <roC : contrasted with kwos, v. 648. Herakles succeeded, for he 
was wronged ; not such success shall be thine, ' for thee, I think, death 
and dark destruction shall be prepared from my hand.' 

653. T€v£«r0cu : fut. midd. with pass, signif ., cf. Tf AeWflcu, B 36. 8& 

\Uvra agrees with tr4, supplied as subj. of Sdaeiv. 

654. St&o-civ : joined by a kind of zeugma in a slightly different sense 
to two objects of different meaning. 

656. t»v : 'of them (both).' 

658. dXryciWj : ' painful,' ' grievous.' 

659. icor 6<f>0aX|K»v : 'settling down upon his eyes.' 

661. PcpUjtcav [48ta\4««(i')]. 

662. traTfjp : Zeus, the distinction of being whose son was enjoyed by 

Sarpedon alone of all the heroes of the Trojan war Iti : suggests 

that the protection was not to avail for a long time. Sarpedon is finally 
slain by Hector, n 502. 


28 1 

663. Stat : * illustrious/ 

G65, t6 i anticipates the inf. Ifcp&roi. lire^pAo-a.T 1 oiS* *v<Jt]o-« : 

the coupling of two nearly synonymous expressions emphasizes an idea. 

066. &$p Imparl : 'that he might walk/ perh. with the support of 

667. cnt'fufiovTwv : may be taken as gen. absob, or as gen. of the whole 
depending on oS tii. ir4v«y : *>. labor Mlicus* 

670* tX^ovo. Qvpbv lx«v : equivalent to the common epithet of Odys- 
seus in the Odyssey, Trokfrrha*. 

673, Trpor£p« : * farther/ i*e* entering more deeply into the lines of the 
Trojans {cf, T 400). 

673* rmv irX*dvuy : l of the larger number/ m contrast to the one, 

680. KopufltttoXos : usual epithet of Hector {cf. D Sid, r S3), 

681 = A 495. 

682. 01 irpocnoKTi : ' at his approach.' 

686, If«XXov b see on B 36. 

689, Cf. A 511. 

690. irapi^tv : * sprang past/ not heeding Sarpedon's prayer, —. 
fitjjpa dScrcuTo : the inf, would be more natural than the final clause which 
is substituted for it {c/l A 465 and A 133). tieraiTo (ufl^u) pic£(*»]. 

633* 4 ,1 1Y ( ? : this word corresponds in root to Lat./i£wj, Engl, buck, 
but is not the same tree ; it designates a species of oak with edible acorn. 

694. $o-€flvpd|fj * forced forth/ perh. * wrenched forth/ strength be- 
ing required to extract it. The meaning of the radical part of etipafc 
(B&pA, ■ door') is entirely lost in the adverb, 

696* EX Lire i^Kfi '■ ** * ne swooned.* 

698. (^YP* L : * revived. 7 There seem to be two presents (wypiw, one 
meaning to* capture' ((wos and aypew); the other, to ' re animate' (farifr 
and iyclptfi) kok^s tctKct^dra 6uluJv : * painfully panting out his life/ 

700. trpuTp^TrovTo : 'were driy en headlong.* lirl vr\&v% see on iirl 

fodwvj r 5. 

701. airr«)>fpovro ; if, A 5S9- 

702. JirflJovTG : * learned/ from Diomede [tf. v. 604). 

703. irpwrov and tiffTa-rov : pred adjs,, ■ who was the first and the last 
whom/ etc. 

704 x^* €OS: ma y be taken literally, * clad-in-bronze ' {cf. xoAkox/tw*)* 
or may mean ■ with sinews of brass/ * strong. 1 

705. *irl U [faira 8^], 

706. AEt&Xlov : join with Tp%x Qy - 

707. oXoXojiiTpTiv I cf. follg- passages : r 185, A 137, 186, 489. 

70S. "Ykft : this place was mentioned B 500, but with £> p*ya |if|ii|- 

Xt£f \ * caring much for/ 
709, Kf KXtjiiiMJs : lit. Meaning upon/ 'adjacent.' — Ktj+ht£Sh this 

282 NOTES. 

lake, here named from the Kephisos, which flows into it, was later 
called Kopais. 

710. 8%»v: 'district.' 

711* tovs : ix. "Efcroop re Upid/xoio xdts icol x<£&**°* ^Apiys, v. 704. 

712. 6X4kovtos : act. voice of the same verb which was used in midd. 
A 10. 

715. fiXiov: pred. adj., 'vain is the promise which we gave.' 

716. feiNfxravTfa) : ace. as in B 113, 288. 
718 = A 418. 

719. With this verse begins the Beo/taxla, or ' Battle of the Gods,* 
which fills the remainder of the book. 

720. XP^V 1 ™* * : c f- VY - 35 8 » 363 lwoixonivt| tmw: 'stepped 

up and began to put to.' 

722. &|ufr' 6xter<n. : ' on both sides of the chariot,' more closely de- 
fined by &tori a/xtpis : ' at either end of the axle,' v. 723. 

724. XP* ^ 1 ! : P re d. adj. For Xrvs and tydiros, see A 486, B 46. 

725. irpoo-apTjpdTa : ' closely riveted to it (the felly)/ 

726. Translate : ' and the hubs revolving at either end (of the axle) 
are of silver ; ' or vtpilpopoi may mean ' round.' 

723. The chariot body (hippos) 'is made fast' (in-crurai) to the axle 

by straps ornamented by plates of gold and silver Souil Aimrycs : it 

is doubtful whether ' two ' arrvyes, one on the lower, the other on the 
upper, edge of the chariot box, are referred to, or whether total means 
'two-fold,' and describes an &vrv£ of unusual breadth and size. 

729. tov : governed by i£ 9 'from it (M<ppos) there extended (Wx«r).' 

730. 8^0-6 : sc. *HPrj 4v 8^ ktX. : ' and upon it (the yoke) she laid 

the breast-collar.' 

731. inrh Si Jvy&v ^ayc : ' brought under the yoke,' language to be 
taken literally, for the yoke rested upon the withers of the horses.' 

734. irarp&s 4w* otfSci : ' on the floor of her father,' i.e. in Zeus's dwell- 
ing, in which Athena armed herself with the breastplate of Zeus (xir&vot 

v. 736). 

737. tcvx€o-iv : may refer to Athena's usual armor. 

738. Ovrovrfccnrav : see on B 447. 

739. Hv trip*. irdvTn <|xfPos 4<tt€<|>4v«t<u : 'which Flight encompasses 
round about on every side.' 

740. kv : ' within,' i.e. on the expanse of the shield. 

741. Topytir] : the proper adj. is equivalent to a gen. Topyovs, witb 
which T*\d>pov is in apposition (see on B 54). 

743. &p4tya\ov icvWrpr Tcrpa<^XT|pov: 'two-crested helmet with four* 
fold plate.' T€Tpa<pd\ripos (<pd\apa, ' cheek-pieces ') probably describe? 
plates of metal, of fourfold thickness, on either side of the helmet ex- 
tending perhaps from the temples to the neck, and forming an additiona) 
defence against lateral blows. A different explanation is given in the 
Horn. Diet. 

ILIAD V. 283 

744. Uarbv . . . opopvtav: 'fit for the combatants of a hundred 
cities/ i>. of colossal size. 

745. Notice the regular recurrence of short syllables (vrlxos dkoBd- 
ktv\os) and the tripping movement of the line. Disregarding the first 
syllable, we have an anapaestic movement. 

746. ppiOi |&6ya anfiap6v : the three epithets, following hard upon 
one another without conjunctions (asyndeton), emphasize the mighty 
weight of the spear. 

747. KoWmrcrcu. [Korfitrnrau]. 

749. pvKov : ' grated on their hinges.' fxov [iffaarrov]. 

751. vtyos : The clouds which separate the lower afy from the oXHp 
are the gate of heaven. It seems rather a harsh expression to speak of 
cloud-gates as ' grating on their hinges/ v. 749. 

752. Translate : ' there then straight through them they held their 
goaded horses/ 

753, 754 = A 498, 499. 
755. Cf vv. 368, 775 

758. 6<r<rdTuSv tc teal olov : i.e. tin r6aov re zeal roioy {cf B 120). 

759. dxos : in apposition with v. 758 (cf. T 50, 51). 

761. dWvTcs : ' at having let loose.' 

762. 4) £d ri poi tccxoX&treai : ' will you then really be wroth with me 
at all ? * This question follows naturally after the assumed affirmative 
answer to the question in v. 757. 

763. Xvyp&s TrcirXiryuia : cf. with irtfrAqy&f AeuceWi irXrjy^ffiv, B 264. 

765. aypci |idv [&ye 8^]. 

766. irfXd|civ 68w xjoa : cf for the same idea v. 397. Athena as god- 
dess of war is a natural rival of Ares. 

768. Cfv.366. 

770. 6<r«rov: ace. of extent of space, and 1)epo€iB4s agrees with it. 
Translate: 'as far into the cloudy-grey (distance) as.' 

772. t6<to-ov : i.e. the horses covered at each spring a distance as great 
as a man's eyes can penetrate into space. 

774. crv|ipaXXiTov : notice the position of the dual verb between the 
two singular subjects. 

776. irovXvv : metrical convenience may explain the employment of 
the ace. masc. of the adj. instead of the regular fern, form iroW^y. 

778. WpaO' : ace. of specification. The two goddesses are compared 
to pigeons 'in their gait' because of their short and rapid steps. To the 
hero on the other hand is applied the expression ficucpk Qifforra {cf.T 22). 

780. 60i : 'to the place where ' (cf T 145, A 132, 210). 

781. fMtjv Atopri)8cos: cf B 387, r 105 fcrrcurav: 'were standing,' 

for in their retreat around Diomede the Greeks halted occasionally to 

782, 783. For other instances of comparison of heroes to lions and 
boars, see A 253, E 299 oitc aXairoSvrfv : litotes. 

284 NOTES. 

785. Stentor is only mentioned in this one place in the Iliad, yet this 
mention is the origin of the familiar adjective ' stentorian.' 

786. aioWjoxMricc : * used to shout ' (as often as there was occasion). 

787. alSAs : nom. for voc. in exclamation kok iXfyxca: see on B 

235 tt8os aytfroi : cf T 39. 

789. iruXdttv AapSavULwv : s>. 3,Kai*v w\vv (cf V 145). 

791. Iirl vrpxrl : a comparison with v. 700 shows this to be an exag- 
geration. The extremes between which the battle oscillated were the 
city gates (irtfAcu, v. 789) and the ships rijes). 

793. Tv&t&u liropowrt: * hurried up to Tydeides/ not, as in T 379, A 
472, with hostile intent 

795. IXkos dvcu|rvxovTa : 'cooling off his wound,' *>. wiping away 

the sweat which increased the pain r6 |uv fttXc : see on v. 361 for 

double ace 

796. Ireipf: 'distressed.' 

797. t$: 'by this/ U. by the sweat. 

798. dvC<rx<i»v : ' lifting up/ so as to get at the wounded part beneath. 

800. ol : here reflexive and used as in prose =sibi, 

801. Toi : ethical dat. ' I tell you/ or 'you know/ 

802. ica( f ' 8tc w«p : ' and so even when.' The apodosis follows in v. 
806, ain&p TpOKaXlfao. 

803. v6<r<j>iv ' Ax<u»v : ' without (*.*. unaccompanied by) Achaians/ In 
A 388 the expression is fxouvos i&v (cf. Agamemnon's account of the same 
scene (A 376-400) from which many phrases are here repeated). 

804. 805. Cf A 385, 386. 
807. CfAtfg. 

803. This verse is a combination of A 390 and E 828. It is inconsist- 
ent with v. 802, and weakens the contrast plainly intended between w. 
802 and 810. Hence there is good reason for rejecting it with Aris- 

810. irpo<j>poW«s : join with ic4\opai. 

812. atrijpiov (i priv. and icrjp) : lit. ' without heart/ ' spiritless/ 

815. yiyvt&o'tcM : in spite of her appearance in mortal form, as may 
be inferred from v. 835. 

818. aiuv tycTpfov : cf vv. 127-132. 

819. ofi p.* etas : Diomede replies that he is in precisely the same 
situation as was his father Tydeus (cf v. 802, oIk clcwr/cov). 

820. 821 =vv. 131, 132. 

823. dX^ficvai [dAqyai] : 2 aor. pass, infin. from «XXo» (cf v. 782). 

824. |idxT|v dvd [kvh n&xnv] : **& an <* tid do not suffer anastrophe 
when they follow their object. See Sketch of Dialect, § 6. 

827. to y* : ace of specification, lit. ' in respect to this/ ' on that ac- 
count/ i*. of the goddess's previous command in vv. 124, 13a 

830, <rx*$lr\v : ' in hand to Viand tnewmtax.' The form is ace. fern, of 
' adj. (cf. &rrtj3i7)v, A 278). 



831, TVKT&v KfiKov : lit. * an evil worked out to full completion/ *a 
consummate evil,' The character of Ares is without dignity or worth! in 
most unfavorable contrast to that of Athena. 

832. irpvV : the promise here attributed to Ares is not found in the 

tliad. trnvr dyopcvuv fia^fyr«rflat : * was giving to understand by 

words {byapeiwv} that he would fight.' 

836* irdXiv ipvtnura* : ' having drawn him backward, 1 *>. forth from 
Ihe open part of the chariot in the rear ijipMrtoi : ' instantly,' 

837. Athena enters the chariot, not as combatant {irapafi^rrtt), but as 

83a t^tjiavia : cf v. r42. $f\y*,vos : see on v. 693* 

839. Hyt¥ : ! it bore.' 

845. "A'i&os icvWnv : ' the helm of Hades/ This made the wearer in- 
visible, like the fog-cap {Tarn-kappc or Ntb*l~kappe\ of German mythology. 
Athena put on this cap that Ares might not recognize her ; she would not 
have needed it to make herself invisible to men {cf A 19S). 

849. tflvs with gen. : ' straight at/ * straight for.* 

851* AplfaTo : * aimed a stroke/ 

854. Were we to read fatp (with Codex Veneius) instead of htr" Ik v the 
sense would be easier. As the text stands, we must translate : ' and she 
caught it with her hand and pushed it aside, so that it flew harmlessly 
under and out from (behind) the body of the chariot. 1 

856. iir-^pfto-f : * drove it home.* 

857. (iiTpKjv : ace of the thing with fav»v<nccTQ t ' was wont to bind 
about him (midd. voice) his body-band.' For note on ph-pig, which was 
worn next the skin under the fvpa and (utrrbp, see on A 137. 

858L ofrra: see on v. 376 {cf A 525). Notice the change of subject 
between olra and fte'So^er [BUko^w], Sc. with the latter verb &6pv. 

860. fwtdxtXoi, Swcix' 1 ^ * : shortened forms for ivi&Kts x& lot * fitxd#ts 
xthm* The enormous numbers make a burlesque of Ares's pain. 

861. £wdyovr«s f pi&a : cf B 381. 
862* ford \ adv., cf T 34, & 421. 

864, 865. Translate : * as there forms itself (lit. comes to view) from 
the clouds a black fog-mass, when a gusty wind rises in consequence of 
the burning beat/ 

866* roto* i * such/ i>. ' so black ; ' the point of the comparison is the 
blackness of the two appearances, 

867. Join 6pov vtfh<r<rtv with lt&#: * as he went with the clouds (In 
which he was wrapt)/ 

868* Portions of this verse are found in B 17 and E 367. 

870. djiPporov atjia: i>. l x Ap (cf w. 339, 340). 

873. TrrX-niT« <tpiv [rh-Kafttv] : cf T 309, where *e*pup,4i>QM iirrh = 

875. o-o£ ; ' against you/ because the acts of your favorite child, Athe- 
na, bring us into opposition with you. 

286 NOTES. 

876. &4j<ni\a : seems to be the same word as ofoi/Xo, v. 403. h4m|- 

Xf : this 2 pf. does not differ in meaning from pres. /ac\€i. 

878. SfS|Wj|uo4a : pf. with sense of pres., * are subject to ' (cf. T 183). 

879. irpoTipdXXccu : ' dost punish/ lit. ' castest thyself upon.' 

880. dvvcCs [bvlris] : as if from pres. k»Uw instead of aylrjfxi (see Sketch 
of Dialect, § 24, 1). 

885. faHjvcucav [virfiveyKcw] 4j W kc : cf. Y 56. 

886. kv vticdScomv : Ares, as immortal, could not die, but he might be 
severely wounded and be stretched on the battle-field (airrov) among 
heaps of corpses (v*icd6*<nri), 

887. 1&9 [C»6s]. 

890, 891. Cf. A 176, 177. 

892. A&oxcrov, oiic tirvctirrrfv: 'uncontrollable, unyielding,' showing 
the opposite qualities to those suggested by v. 878. 

894. t$ : ' therefore,' because of the character ascribed to Hera in v. 

895. Zeus speedily relents from the feelings expressed in v. 889. 

896. t^vos : ace. ' by descent.' IpoC : • to me,' i.c. ' as my son.' 

898. tWprcpos [Kar&rcpos] Ovpavu&vwv : 'lower than the (rebel) sons 
of Uranos,' i.e. than the Titans, imprisoned in Tartaros. 

899, 900 = 401, 402. 

902. Iirfvyrfiuvos : lit. 'in haste,' Ms being personified. Certainly 
personification is natural of anything so rapid and mysterious in its oper- 
ation as rennet or any substitute for it crwbnfev : gnomic aorist. 

903. TrcpiTptyenu kvk6o»vti : ' thickens on every side as one stirs it.' 
906. Contrast this verse with v. 869 {cf. A 405). 

908. These goddesses have now done enough to clear themselves of 
the charge of supineness which Zeus in Z 8 follg. brings against them. 


Zrfra 8' ap 'AvSpojidxr)? teal "E/cropo? ear oapurrvs. 

In Zeta, Hector prophesies ; prays for his son ; wills sacrifice)- 

Fighting continues after the gods have left the field, but with decreasing 
violence (1-118). Thus room is left for quieter scenes: first, the parley 
of Diomede and Glaukos (119-236), as an illustration of the power of the 
bond of guest-friendship ; then, the meeting and parting of Hector and 
Andromache (370-502), as an illustration of the strength and sacredness 
of the marriage tie. Paris's frequent appearance on the scene reminds us 
how he had violated both of these bonds. 

1. Tp&av Kal 'Ax<u£v : join with <pv\oiris ob60T| : i.e. x<opls Bear 

iyhcro. Ares, Apollo, Athena, Hera, and Aphrodite, who had taken 
part in the combat in E, have now withdrawn. 

2. irtSCoto : for gen. see on B 785 ttowrt : \6&vu from iBfa [cMs], 

lit. 'go straight.' Translate: (v. 2) 'and the tide of battle set in many 
directions over the plain, now this way, now that.' 

3. dXMjXov : gen. of object aimed at (cf. A 100). As subject of ptc. 
supply a word meaning ' combatants.' 

4. Join this verse with fto/ere in v. 2. The caesura in the verse indi- 
cates that Zirfcvros is not dependent upon f>oda>t>, but is governed by 
ficcariyts [/acto{j5]. 

6. +<5»s tihpccv [(Turnpiay broiler] : lit. 'caused a light,* i.e. Met in a 
gleam of light.' 

7. Apwrros : in proportion to the valor and size (\\\tv tc ficyav re) of 
Akamas was the relief which Ajax brought to his companions (<p6ws 
idriiccv) by slaying him t^tvkto [tyercro] : plupf. 3 sg. from tc^x«- 

9-11 = A 459-461. 

12. firc^vc : redupl. 2 aor. from stem <t>cv- t ' kill * (see on A 397). 

14. tyvct&s fkoroio : cf. Vergil's dives opum, Aen. I, 14. 

1 Chapman's couplet is not a translation, it will be observed, of the Greek hexameter 
which stands above it. 

288 NOTES. 

15. h&i tm [4<p* 68$] : 'upon the road/ so that all wayfarers must pass 
by his dwelling. 

16. Translate : * but not one of them all (*>. the many whom he had 
entertained, t«k?« referring to irdVros) warded off from him (lit. ' for 
him/ see on A 566) sad destruction.' There is pathos in the thought of 
how little return he received, in the hour of need, for all his kindness to 

17. irp6o*cv : may refer to time or to place : ' having first (prior to 
Axylos) faced Diomede ; ' or 4 having faced Diomede in front of him 
(Axylos)/ Le, for Axylos's protection. 

19. tyrprtoxos : see Horn. Diet *yalav ISvnjv : * they went below 

the earth.' 

21. fK\ Si \Ltr : ' and went after/ i.e. to overtake (see on A 222). 

82. vrj(s : ' Naiad/ derived from v&», ' flow/ 'ApapPaplq : perh. a 

compound of a priv. and &6p&opos, * mud.' Thus the meaning would be 

24. otccStvov SI i ycfvaTo ^^FHP : ' an ^ ^ s mother bare him in secret' 

25. irotfieUvtDV : so Paris kept his father's flocks on Mt. Ida. — 
4aXoTT)Ti Kal rivj} : c f- r 445* 

27. *iNXv<rc: * relaxed underneath;' the preposition is used with 
special reference to 71/40, which here equals y6vara (see on r 34). 

32. IWjparo : 1 aor. midd. from ivcdpw. 

84. tvppcirao : the doubling of the f> in this word is the indication of a 
lost consonant. The orig. form of the root of £c'o> was apv-, 

37. fkrijv fryaGos : see on B 408. 

38. &Tvlo|&lva» wcSCoio : ' fleeing bewildered over the plain.' 

39. |tvpuc£v<p : adj formed from pupiicy, Lat. myrica, * tamarisk/ a shrub 
mentioned as abundant in the Trojan plain. 

40. The entanglement (&\cup04vTc) of v. 39 is the cause of the break- 
ing (4|ayrle]) of v. 40. The horses were attached to the^hariot only by 
means of the yoke, so that the shattering of the 'fore part of the pole * 

(rpdrtp puny) would set them free. Cf. Plate I in Horn. Diet afrrA 

|iiv : *>. the horses, in contrast with the chariot which they left behind. 

41. tj irep ol &\Xoi, kt\. : ' by the very same road by which the others 
(horses and men) were fleeing bewildered.' 

44. SoXi^oo-kiov JfyX 0S : c f* F 34& 

45. Connect yovvwv with \a$4v. 

46. l&ypci : ' take me alive/ i.e. ' spare my life.' The plea for life is 
based, however, on the ransom which he offers. The emphatic portion 
of the verse follows the caesura (cf. 5^eu Hiroiya, A 23). 

47. h tyvcioO irarpos : the first example in the Iliad of the ellipsis, so 
common in prose, of the word * house.' 

49. t&v k4v tov : ' of which things my father would gladly 
give to thee.' 



50. irt^nyBoi-To % red u pi. 2 aor. from wwB^ofLtu* The thing learned 
is here something about a person, * that I was alive* {cf. A 35;). 

01. Iirf^fl* : * sought to persuade J (contrast the force of the aor. in v. 61, 
where the counter-persuasion of Agamemnon is successful). 

63, fcaro^ Jta-rtf suggests the direction Mown to the sea;' the 
form is 1 aor. with intermediate vowel s instead of: a {tf. T 105). 
54* o^OKA^raf ; implies a loud tone of reproach and reproof, 

55. & ir&rovj v Mtv&cu : the repetition of the interjection suggests 
haste and eagerness ft [8^]* 

56, Avfip&v : used for &v$p6s, an exaggeration for the sake of effect. 

^ <roi, KTh, : ironical reminder to Menelaos of the wrongs which he 

had suffered frmn the race, one of whom he seemed about to spare. 

5ff« icolipov: lit. *a (male) youth," here simply a designation of sex, 

'a male child, etc* 1 u^B' 6s: rel. used as demonstrative, 'let not 

even him/ 

00, AidiB«crnjL ital &$avr<H : both adjectives 3 re used proleptically ; 
translate : ' let them perish out of Ilios without burial and without leaving 
a trace behind 9 (cf. A 39, 126)* 

63- attrijia iraLptLiTiiv : * urging (upon him) what was proper * {cf* for * 
different meaning of the verb, A 555K 

64* dvrrpdirtT : 'fell back 1 (t/. fhrios frr***?, A roS). 

05* Xttf h trrffivm pas : * planting his heel on his breast* 

67 = B no. 

68, knpa\Ao|±€VQS : * throwing himself upon/ the gen. ivtywv depends 
upon the preposition in composition. G* 177, H* 751. 

70. rAi refers to iwipwy. 

71. <ruW|crrrt: fut. with potential force [tf. A 137, B 203, 367. The 
verb as a verb of depriving takes the double accusative of the person and 

the thing V€*pcru<s Tfflvswras : cf. a similar expression in King James f s 

Version : ' In the morning they were all dead corpses/ 2 Kings, xix. 35. 

73* W "A^atwy eUra.Wpn<rav : * would have been driven (forced to go 
up) into Ilium by the Achaians. 1 The gen. of the agent is often used 
after verbs which though not passive arc equivalent to passives (see on 
A 242). 

74 + dvoXiccCncn : ' on account of their failure to defend themselves, 1 

76. C/.A6g. 

78. Tpiduiv kclI Auk£«v : connect with tf^*i [vfiTy]. 

79. tfluv : orig. meaning 'motion, 1 'direction j ' hence 'undertaking.' 
60. OTf|T* a^rr&v : 4 take your stand here/ . — - tpifltdicm : 2 aor* imv* 

with peculiar rcdupL (see Sketch of Dialect, § i5> 2). A last effort is to 
be made before the city gates to stay the flight of the panic-struck mul- 

81, liroix^l* iVOt : f f' A 31 irpW a£ri , . * tcsHsmi \ * V^ferc*. v^fe*^ 


fall again (implying their habitual effeminacy) in flight into the arms of 
their wives.' X^PF 1 * ; * exultant joy ' (cf T 51 ). 

84. ^|u** |i4v : * we,' i.e. Helenos and the other Trojan chiefs, except 
Aeneas and Hector. p4r is correlative with fa-dp in v. 86. 

86. mS\iv8c (leripxco : * or t*- 9T ^PX°f uu usec * m somewhat different sense 

with ace. of direct obj., cf. E 429 Vj 85, kt\. : the predicate is the infin. 

Octroi in v. 92, which equals 04™, and therefore, like any finite verb, re- 
quires its subject in the nominative case (see on A 21). Translate : Met 

her collect into the temple the old women and lay,' etc yq>a*6s [ypavs, 

ace. pi.] : an adj. form occurring only in this book and corresponding ex- 
actly to the masc. ycpcu6s [yepvv], A 35. 

88. vx[6v [t>*4v] : ace of limit of motion (cf A 322, r 262) vtfXci 

Aicpx) : i.e. axpow6\cu 

92. 4-n-l yovvcutv : the mantle was to be laid 'upon the lap* of the 
image of Athena. The statue may be thought of as a rude wooden one. 
Such images were called $6ava. Statues of Athena usually represented 
the goddess in standing posture. 

94. <jvn Lffvio*]: La Roche and Hentze both prefer the meaning 

' sleek ' to the old rendering ' yearling.' 4|K&rras : compounded of a 

privative and kcvtcw, lit. ' that have not felt the goad,' i.e. ' unbroken/ 

96. at kcv dir&rxxi : states more definitely what is meant by odf k i\cfi<rp 
in v. 94. Both verbs may be brought together in translation thus : 4 in 
case she may show pity in keeping off ' (see on A 67). 

97. |t4J0-To>pa $6fioio : cf A 328. 

98. KapTurrov J Axau»v : cf. E 103, where Diomede is called Hpiaros 
*Axai«y, sharing this title with Achilles, A 244. 

99. Translate: 'not even Achilles did we formerly (*'.*. before his 
withdrawal from the Greek host in consequence of his quarrel with Aga- 
memnon) so much fear.' 

100. 8v . . . 4($i|icv(u : ' who, however, they say is the child of a god- 
dess ; ' the gen. Ocas depends upon the prep, in composition. 

101. Uro^opCgciv : differs little from v. I. ayri<f>cpl(civ = airri^cp((r$eu 
(see on A 589). 

103-106 = E 494-497. 

108. <|>4v & : ' for they thought ' (cf T 28). 

110. Cfv.66. 

113. tyf>' &v ffeCu [coos av £»] : 'until I go,' H. 444 D •y^povci 

PovXevrQO-i : i.e. Brmoycpovo-i, cf. Y 149. 

115. 4Karc$fipas : the number of cattle sacrificed is mentioned in v. 93 
as twelve. The largest number of victims mentioned in Homer as actu- 
ally sacrificed is eighty-one (Odyssey, 78). 

117. dn<|>l&: 'and on both sides,' i.e. ' above and below/ <r<J>vpd 

Kal crfx&a : definitive appositives of pu> f the object of rhrrc. Translate : 
'and above and below the black ox-hide was smiting him upon neck and 



ankles.' Hector carried his shield upon his back suspended by a strap 
which passed around his neck. 

118. Translate 1 ( a rim, which ran round the outer edge {lit. 'as outer 
edge,' TvpdTTi} of the bossy shield.' &irrnl is in partitive apposition with 
Bcpfia The outer edge of the Stpfrn was the £vtu£. 

118. Here begins the splendid episode of the meeting of Glaukos and 
Diomede. A reason for introducing it may have been to give Diomede, 
who had performed prodigies of valor in E* a sufficient occasion to with- 
draw from the field- 

121 - r 15. 

133* Diomede's not recognizing Glaukos seems strange in the tenth 
year of the war, yet not so strange as Priam 's inability to recognize 
Agamemnon and other leaders of the Greeks {cf, T 166 follg.). It may be 
added that Glaukos is not one of the most prominent of the Trojan chiefs. 
Diomede is already known to Glaukos (cf. v. 145). 

136 ► fi t" [tin re] : see on A 244* The clause B r . . - e^e^as explains 

1ST. SiwHjvwv iraiSfs : ' (only) sons of wretched fathers/ *>. of those 
doomed to lose their children Avtiouhtl [Ajriwrt] 1 see on A 31. 

130* ei£4 y^P °^54 : * for by no means,' negation strengthened by- 
doubling the negative* AuKcfopyos [AvKovpytts] : a Thracian king who 

excluded the worship of Dionysos (Lat Bacchus) from his land and drove 
Dionysos himself into the sea* In punishment he was blinded* and soon 
after lost his life. 

181. S^v Jjv : adv. in predicate where an adj. (S-qtttfios) seems more 
natural, 'was long-lived/ 'lived long' (see on A 416), 

132, ^etcvopivoLo : 'madly-raving/, — Tifl^vas : lit, 'nurses, 1 *.a the 
frenzied women (often called 'maenads/ ftatvafuu) who celebrated the 
orgies of Dionysos. 

133* NvHjUfV : ' Nysa * is said to have been a mountain in Thrace. 

134. 0vo-G\a: this word, derived from Bvm t 'to sacrifice/ may include 
all the sacrificial implements, but refers primarily to the ' Tkyrsi* or 
staffs with ends fashioned like a pine-cone* which were borne by the 

priests or servants of Dionysos ivSpo^ravoLo ; epithet used on account 

of his attempted violence upon Dionysos and his attendants. 

135. In this and the two following verses Dionysos is represented as 
& cowardly god* fearing an angry man. 

138* rep: 'with him/ U. * against him/ refers to Lykourgos, 

141* *vB' &v * * . £0&ol|u : 'and I would not (in view of the short life 

of all who have attempted it} wish to fight with gods* 1 
143. 6Xi0pou ircfpaTtt ; see Horn. Diet, under ire Xpap. 
140, rofr| Si Kal dvBpwv : ' such on the other hand also is that of men/ 
147. tA )ifr has for its correlative tfAAa U instead of a tA Si \tos 




148. 6' bnyiywtw. t parataxis instead of St* iwtytyverai, 

149. In this verse we have an exact parallel to the construction In v. 
14; : the whole, y*rt%i is in the same case as its two parts, -q pry and ^ hi. 

160. fia^jitvai : translate inf. as imv* : ( learn even this/ trifling as the 
matter is. 

151. iroXXol St « . * tartows may be considered as an instance of 

152. T2<m toJXi* 'E<t>Vn. \ with the form of this verse, especially with 
its beginning, many famous descriptive passages may be compared, *^ 
Vergil's Aeo. I, 5, Dante's Inferno, canto V. v, 97. Ephyre is the older 

name of Corinth, The phrase p.vx« "Apy* * means f in a recess of 

the Peloponnesus, 1 for which large division oC Greece "Apyos is often 
used, See Horn. Diet under 'Apyos, 

153» Sfo-wfcos : proper name formed by reduplication from the adj. 

155. BfXX^o^ovnjv : the scholiast explains that the orig. name of 
Bellerophon was Hipponoos, but that, after slaying by accident a Corin- 
thian named Belleros, he fled to Proitos to be purified from the taint of 

156* "^vof^tfv lpaT*kvt}K : * lovely manhood/ 

157. The second foot of this verse is a spondee, the last syllable of 
efcrdp being long on account of the <r and F properly belonging to ot. 

159. Connect *Apydatv H as the punctuation Indicates, with S^ov- 

160. Ty : best joined with hrtpfyaro {fadv^ai}) * was madly in love 
With hlm. p 

163. mTB{*) 1 ipf. of unsuccessful attempt, ( was trying in vain to per- 

16$, 4'* V0 "*f 1 fr T l : ' having devised a falsehood/ 

164. rtGvaCTfs ^ K&xravt : ' mayst thou be dead or slay/ ta * I wish 
thee dead unless thou slay' {cf. A 1S-20). The successive steps by 
which the form ttdxravt is reached are: jcBTcfomvc, {KarKrav*}, {KOKicravfl, 

165. \i? [ftat] : see on A 170. 

167- enpoo-o-aTo yip to vt Gu^ ; i> ( his conscience forbade that ; ' 
for Bellerophon was { 4wt t and to kill him would have been the act of an 
&af&fo, cr^jSai describes the reverential regard for what is proper in the 
sight of gods and men. 

168. oHi)*a,TO Kvypd : the art of writing was certainly little practised in 
the Homeric age, hence triipcera is to be translated ' signs * or * characters/ 
not ■ letters/ ypd+as Bupo^Gopa woXX4. : 'having scratched many life- 
destroying symbols/ #V. various scenes were scratched upon the inner 
sides of the folded tablet, all of which had murder as their subject 

170. Tt-ivBtpm 1 i.e. lobates, the father of Ante fa. 

171. Ajjivpum irajATrj : kfd^vh usually an epithet of persons, is used 



here in a conventional sense, and the phrase means nothing more than 

1 safe-conduct.' 

172. Sdvflov pfoirra : differs little from %dv&oio frodaw , v. 4, 

174 Uptvtrev : orig. meaning, * make holy/ ' consecrate ' ; then 

4 slaughter/ ^w^^iop, iwia : nine is a favorite Homeric round number 

[trf A $3}* A fresh bullock was offered, and eaten, each day. 

175. C/A493- 

176. tykwt ; it was a part of the etiquette of the Horn, times to first 
entertain the stranger, and then question him as to his country and pur- 
pose. crfjjxa (repeated in v. 17S) refers to a pictured scene. We are 

left to make the inference that Eellerophon had told Iobates that he was 
the bearer of a u-fyia from Proitos. 

177- ot : 'for him/ i.e. for Iobates — ^^IpoLTo; (midd.) 'bore with 

180. irf^v^ifv [ire^jtelir] : redupl. 2 aor. inrln. from stem ^ei*, 'slay/ 

As the adj. fl«£ov equals a gen, pi. BeBvj the gen. kv$pffaruv follows 

naturally (see on B 54). 

181* This verse is thus translated into Latin by Lucretius, Dt Rerum 
Iifatura^ V T 902 ; Ante Iso f postrcma drac9 t media ipse Chimaera. 

1&2. Sclvov : join with j*4vo?. 

183. fltwv rtjuiftrcri m8-q<ra& : if. A 398. 

184. : the Solymoi were a warlike people on the borders of 

IBB. KapTfcrrnv : in Engl, such a pred. adj* is best translated by in- 
serting a relative clause : * he said that this battle with heroes (AwB/wk) 
was the hardest-fought into which he had entered. 1 

186, r AuA£ovas : cf. T 189. 

187. Cty* 1 " : the subject changes from Bellerophon to Iobates (ef, T 

189. «l<r* X*xok : * he set an ambush/ For the estimate in which ser- 
vice in an ambuscade was held, ef. A 327. 

101. ytywKTK* t the ipf* tense suggests that the knowledge came grad- 
ually, forced upon Iobates by the successive exploits of Bellerophon, 
which implied divine favor and aid. 

103. $\Luru Ttft^s : the royal rights thus shared were : sovereignty ; 
claim to presents from subjects {y4pas) j a special plot of land (r^/tciwj}. 

104. kd.1 \Uv [p^v] * ' and" in truth/ i^pevos ; cognate ace after 

rdfiQir, of which it contains the root rt^-, rap-. Thus rtpevos = t6ttos too- 

105. ^vtoAl^s : gen. limits Tiptvos understood, with which koAoV agrees. 

106. tj EC : refers to QvyaTtpOt v. 192. 

109. Eap-FTiljSova : thus it appears that Sarpedon and Glaukos, men* 
tioned together B 876, were cousins. 

300. dXV St* S^j ; recurs four times in succession w. 172, 175, 191 

wal kiIvos : ( he also/ i.e. Bellerophon as well as Lykourgps,v. LAfi, 

294 NOTES. 

201. icdhr: apocope and assimilation 'AXijiov: there is a play, no 

doubt, upon the resemblance between this word and &\aro f from which 
Aristarchus considered that it was derived ; others connect with & priv. 
and Altos', * harvest,' and translate : * barren waste.' Vv. 200, 202-205 
interrupt the connection and may be interpolations. Cicero translates 
vv. 200, 201 , in the Tusculan Disputations, III. 26, as follows : " Qui 
miser in cam pis maerens errabit A lets. Ipse suum cor edens, hominum 
vestigia vitans" 

203. "Apip &tos iroXlpoio KaWieravc : ' Ares, insatiate in combat, slew,' 
is a poetic way of saying * they fell in war.' 

205. xP wn i vt °5 : if connected with fata, ' reins,' might refer to the 
' bands ' or * sash ' by which bow and quiver were suspended. See Horn. 
Diet, for a different explanation of the word. 

207. |tdXa iroXXd : * very earnestly ' (cf. A 229). 

208, 209. These splendid verses should be learned by heart. They 
were evidently in the mind of Herodotus when he wrote, vii. 53, Mpas 
ylvccrdai byadovs teal /a^ Karcuvxtvav T ^ *p6<r0* ipyaafi4va Tltpapai. 

213. KaWin){cv : * planted/ thrusting the butt, or cravporrfip, into the 
ground {cf. T 135). 

215. ^dw: « now then in very truth.' iroXoirfs : ' of old time.* 

The passage w. 215-236 is most interesting as a description of the rela- 
tion of guest-friendship in the Homeric times. 

217. JfCvwr' 4pv£as : ' entertained and kept ; ' the aor. ptc. here desig- 
nates an action not prior to, but contemporaneous with, the principal 

219. {oMrrijpa : see on A 132 follg. 

220. S£ira$ &p4 uc ™ rc ^ ov ' see on A 585. 

221. (iiv [ain-6] : used in ntr. gender, which happens but rarely (see 
on A 237). — U&v : 'as I went (to the war).' 

222. 223. These verses have been thought an interpolation ; they man- 
ifestly interrupt the connection icdXXiirc [xar&iirc] : ' left behind,' i>. 

in Argos when he went to take the lead of the expedition of the Seven 
against Thebes. 

224. +&os : see on A 20. 

225. r&v : i.e. AvkIoov, which is readily suggested by AvkIt). 

226. Kal 8* AftLXov : ' even in the press of conflict,' where they could 
less clearly distinguish one another. 

227. Micovpoi : see on B 130. 

228. ktcCvciv : depends on xoAAol i/iol (eW). 

230. Kal ot8c : ' these also,' i.e. the hosts of Trojans and Achaians who 
are thought of as having paused to witness the meeting and parley of 
Diomede and Glaukos. 

233. \tlpas 6XM\\tav \af&rr\v : more usual would be x* l P&v 4XA<Aow 
\a$4rrjv. Translate the verse : ' they grasped each other's hands and 
plighted faith to one another.' 




Sdti. Xpforea xaAicftav : this became a proverbial expression In Greek 
literature for an unequal exchange. 

237. The episode of Diomede and Glaukos is now ended, and the 
narrative is resumed from v, nS, where it was broken off. 

239. ilpd|«vai : fXpoptu [I pa pat] i& used here rather in the sense of frrc'w* 
*seek for/ than in that of epa™*, 4 question/ tra% i from nom, sing, 

240. irdo-ids- final syllable long before caesura [<f. A 76, E 485)* 

243, £<ffrfjs aL0otFCTTnri 1 lit. l with polished porches/ fc. ' with porches 
of polished stone/ The dat. may be explained as dat. of means, the 
porch being a part of the palace and necessary to its completeness. 

244. Cf. Aen. II, 503, tfuinqitaginta Hit thalamL 

247. *£ovpdo»v : join with QdAapoi in follg. v. It Is only of the married 
sons and daughters of Priam that the apartments are mentioned. Hector 
and Paris have palaces apart (if. w. 313, 317). 

251. tvfa takes up the connection from v. 243 -fjirwSSttpos; lit. 

"kindly-giving/ may be compared in signification with Lat. alma 

JyavWn, ^VO* : obviam ivti. 

252. Laodike was previously mentioned, r 124. 
Cf. A 513 and 361. 
Kiir&v : the emphasis is on the pte* 

SiKrvwuoi : lit. ' not to be named/ ■ accursed * (if. Lat in/amis), 
trk 8' dv%cv : parataxis, where, in later Greek, we might have 

had a clause denoting result frflaBf : join with lKB6vr{a). 

257. % fl-Kprp irdXios : connect with hmox***- The temple o£ Athena 
was in the Acropolis. 

25B> b*Ua> [iv4yKta] : translate by fut. pf, indie, 

260. AHj(r«n : translate independently of ws as a new statement. 

861. uiya dl£*i ; translate piy* as adv. or as pred. adj. ; ' increases 
mightily/ 'renders great ' (if B 414). 

262, i*s . , . Kfou-TiKas ■ suggested by #*k^wti. The connection may 
be thus given : wine inspirits a wearied man, * as thou art weary/ 

264. foip* ; lit. * raise/ Le. 'offer to drink,' 

265. d-n-oYiHwerfls '■ lit- * take away strength of limb/ ' unnerve/ Hec- 
tor's mother offers him wine with a twofold object: to restore his 
strength, and that he may pour out an oblation to the gods. He refuses 
for two reasons : be fears that it will unman him, and it is not fit to make 
oblations with unwashen hands* This last sentiment may remind one of 
David's words, 1 Chron. xxii. S. 

289. bytkttvf$i see on A 12S. 

270. fa&m [8vfrtats\: 'with burnt-offerings/ The form implies a 
nom, sing, fffor. 
272, vot a^rjj [tfotfrp], 
271-278 =1 90-97. 




890. n*r*Xrfaro|Mu : prr& in composition has here the same meaning 
as ^i*t<£ used alone with ace (see on A 23*}, 

281. «lw4vrot : /*■ /^op, and translate r hear my voice/ &* (accent be- 
cause of following enclitic) is here a particle of wishing [*ffl*]. «* is not 

elsewhere found with opt of desire {cf A l8a) av4h |a(rrf0i] : Le- 'on 

this very spot and at this very moment 1 

283. tom) ri irawrfr : ^ A 28. 

284. ictfvrfv -yt : ' him at least/ i ** 'him, though no one else.* m A$&t 

■ft™ : see on r 322, where Btfyio*% which is governed by ffrror, is expressed. 

285. 4»£t|¥ jm: * I should say 1 [cf B37). It can hardly be decided 
whether ^p*W is to be taken as the subject of iicXcXa&itr&vu, or as ace of 

286- ttotI ptyip(aj : i\t> * into the apartments within/ for hitherto 3 he 
has been in the court. 

3®0- EuWUv : Si don was an older city than Tyre, which is not men- 
tioned in Homer, Paris is said by Herodotus (ii. 1 16) to have been driven 
by storms, first to Egypt and then to Phoenicia, on his return with Helen 
from Sparta to Troy, 

292. 4iWjY a Y ev : the same word is employed as in T 48. 

294. irotK&ncwri : votxlkpam refers to patterns worked ft. colors like 
the scene in T tz6. 

295, vtfaros: probably an old cuperlattve of vias. Cf, in meaning, 
Lat. NM&ffofttf in the sense of 'last/ Here * lowermost/ lying at the 
bottom of the chest as the most valuable. 

298* 6*avti r previously mentioned, E 70- 

303. Cf v. 92. 

304. ttxofiivi) : the ptc as joined with $pvro may be translated ' prayed 
with a vow* {cf. A 450)* 

807-300- Cf the nearly identical vv. 93-95* 
811. &v4vfu<v i see on A 514. 

813. S^UTd, : used in different meaning from $&m«* v - 3 l & The for- 
mer designates the entire palace; the latter the men's apartment* or 

814. trbv dvBp&ri t * with the aid of men/ 

816, **X V : the afoi * enclosed yard * or ' court/ is reckoned as a part 
of the palace, the parts of which are named in this verse. 
BIT. npid|*ow> ti tcfclTrkropof : abridged expression for fap&rm* ltpt- 

820. inpt 1 * round about/ *>. about the junction of shaft and bronze 

821. tv 0oXdpp t ( in the women's apartment/ as in r 391. — fwwra : 
htm and frepai, * to be busy with ' and * to follow/ are act. and midd. 
voices of the same verb, and from the same root as Lat. teqvw* 

822. A^ovta : ■ handling, 1 to test and see if fit for battle. 



324. irqiucXvr& tp-yu : ' famous handiwork/ *\*. woven fabrics* 1 — 
KtXmt : used with ace, of the thing and dat. of person, like iwiratftre or 
fotr&tofe See on B 50. 

326. £iu|j,<Jvt* '• see on A 561 - xdhov : ' resentment/ Hector thought 

that Paris had retired from the combat on account of resentment against 
the Trojans for being willing to surrender him according to the compact 

of r. 

229. Cf t for meaning of Appiff Aqc, B 93 ; for meaning of /M%ctfcuo, E 


330. udtaVm iroXfyoio : cf A 240* 

381. £v* [^vi^rTjBt] : anastrophe takes place when a preposition stands 
for the preposition in composition with a verb. The verb may be other 
than €tfd. imp^s : for gen. see on B 415, 

332, 333 = r 58, 59. 

335, Tp*&wv : obj. gen. after x^ty *&& vept&a't, * out of resentment and 

indignation against the Trojans.' too-o-ov implies a correlative 3<rov f 

which might have been expressed in the following verse thus : &&qv I64\w#, 
where, instead, we have ttfeAap 8£ 

336. &x f 'i ; dat. a * ter ■"pOTpwr^ffo*, ' devote myself to grief, 1 **» at his 
defeat by Menelaos. 

338-840, These verses describe the same feeble, vacillating character 
which is portrayed in T 44S follg. Cf especially the sentiment vIkt} B* 
twa/utfarw. foSpa* with V 44a 

340. Stftfl : subj. of exhortation, or subj* with meaning of fut. 

342. Hector's haste to enter the combat prevents any reply. 

344 Helen's expressions of self-abhorrence in this verse are similar 
to those in r 173. 

845. l(|UiTi t$ fin : cf B 743, T 1S9. 

348. Mx* ^ 01 irpo^^pGwcni ■ * to have borne away. 1 Cf for similar 
force of ofxro-ltac, best translated by an adv., B 71 ; cf also t&o» $4porrft f 
A 391. 

848. Av is omitted with inr<L(F)iptrt. 

849, TCK|A"fipttVTi> : ' appointed/ * decreed/ 

860. firtira ? f then/ i.c. ' in that case/ as a kind of compensation. 
851. Translate : * who had a sense for reproof and the many taunts of 

352. Twroi : used contemptuously as in v, 363. I>itcSol : lit. 'firm/ 

i.c. ■ discreet ' {cf m>K.v&r f B 55), 

353, liraiip^o-fe&cu J £4 ' will reap the fruit of his doings * (cf A 410). 
856* Cf r 10a 

357. As M does not suffer anastrophe, it should be joined with Bjjtct 
rather than with oTtnv* 

360. ttifli^i: 'seek to make me sit down.' atifo irttots: possibly 

an example of parataxis, ■ and (for) you shall not persuade me* 5 



801. Mrwrvi *+p' kmpvv* : the inf. would be more usual than the 
final clause with %wt But the Utter is often used interchangeably with 
the inf. (see on A 133). 

362. piy* 1 join with vo&hv ix owFiV = * r o9oda , iv. 

36ft. 8ajj.6w<riv ; assimilated lorm instead of the contracted fut iapwrtv. 

869 = v, 116* 

870. rt vai-erdoirras : lit. ' pleasantly dwelling/ i.e. * pleasant to dwell 
in' {cf> v. 497)* 

378. irV^ : the 'tower* above the Scaean gate (cf. T 145, 154). 

374, fv&av: 'within (the hourfe).' 

875* t &n\ fir 1 o^B&v LSv : * he went to the threshold (of the women's 

Apartment) and stood/ Sprjjo-w t dat. after the verb pmcem, 'spoke 

to the maid-servants.' 

878. The genitives in this and the following v* are explained as in v. 

47* *lv*°r4pwt 'wives of husband's brothers/ a remoter relationship 

than that of yaX^ai^ ' husband's sisters.' 

895* LXioTEovTai : co native present, * are trying to propitiate*' 

3B7. (liy* Kp&ras ttvat [pey* Kp&rtar] * *to be far superior. 1 

3B8. Vj (xiv frflj *epb% Tifyos hKKyo\x£vr\ d^Kdm i * see (B^) t she is just 
arriving in haste at the wall* 1 

389. juuvopfrg flKuSa ; ' like a mad woman/ This phrase defines 
more closely fafiyoptrrj. 

891. kqt* : has here its proper force r ' down along, 1 £*. from the Acro- 
polis to the gate. 

303, c5t« : no conjunction is coupled with f Bt* as so often with Brt 7 
ut* or iwti t e# &AA T 5tc H {cf. vv* 296* 242, rot, t;S t 175, 172). 

393. Swfcijuvat [&t£i&u]. 

894* iroX^Swpos : ' richly dowered, 1 either with gifts from husband or 
from father* 

390. "Hct(«v 1 should naturally be gen. in apposition with 'Hcrfovor of 
the preceding verse, but it is attracted into the case of the follg* reh by 
what is called inverse attraction* Plakos is thought of as a spur, or off- 
shoot, of Mt. Ida. 

397. KA^m-in : the KfAwcr here mentioned are entirely different 
from the people of the same name near Syria, 

398. Notice the play on the similarity of the words Ix*™ *E«Topj t 
'was held, as wife, by Hector (lit* 'Holder/ 'Keeper*)*, Examples of 
the dat, of agent with a passive verb are not infrequent ; see on V 301. 

400. rfjino* atirc*« : ' a mere infant, 1 see on r 220* 

401- dXtyKWV : ivaXiyttiov is more common (^/ E 5), 

402, EKa[i£vSpiov : similarly, in A 474, we had ZifiotUtav % a proper 
name formed from the river Simois, 

403* *A<rn>Ava.!CTa 1 * the prince of the city/ The name was given to 
the babe as signifying what his father was above all others, 



404. tmnrg : join with ISiir, 'looking in silence upon his child.' 

408 = 2S3- 

407. Aaijwivit : see on B 190, 

409. cr«-0 : gen. of separation after x^JP^t which is properly an adj. [cf 
B *Sg; cf. also v. 432). 

410. irdvTes : * in a body/ 

411. &4 ,a H- e H m 'frni : * lacking/ * deprived of ; J the ordinary meaning 
is : g to fail in a spear-stroke/— &tf|«va.L [5i™]. 

412* OoXiriup^ : * cheer/ lit, ' warmth.* Sc t with &TW, pot <rtf y« ; 

there is the strongest possible emphasis on irti {tf below, for a similar 
emphasis, vv. 4Z9, 430). 

417. t* yt <r€fJdo*o-G,To : cf v. 167. Achilles here showed a scruple 
which he did not show in his treatment of the body of Hector. 

410. ktt\ <H|jwi fx<€V [<rijpa hextt] : - raised over him a mound of earth/ 
X^w means 'strew/ 'scatter, 1 as well as 'pour/ <r%ia is ace. of effect. 
Andromache dwells on the circumstances of her father's death and burial, 
thus keeping before us her loss. 

421. of U |ioi, ktX. s for a similar arrangement of relative and ante- 
cedent clause, cf r ijz. 

422. 14 [&{] t cf- & 437 1 where the accent is paroxytone. 
424. Iir* . , . dtiinn : cf v. 25, 

425* j3o<r£X€Uiv : ' was queen/ 

426. 4ftayt : 'brought (as slave)/ &tf dXXowi rrediwiri : women 

were reckoned, as slaves, among ' possessions/ 

427. Cf A 20. 

428. irarpfo : /.?. Andromache's grandfather, in whose house her 
mother, after being ransomed, died a sudden death (jaiA 1 "A/rre^u iox^ 

at pa,}. 

420. "Birrop : the vocative is brought, for the sake of emphasis, before 
the conjunction [cf v. 86). 
430. BaXqxfc : lit. ( blooming ; ' here, perhaps, ' stalwart/ 

432. EHj-nE [&jis] i 2 aor. subj. from Tiflij/u (see Sketch of Dialect, § 24, 


433. IpCviov : the great ' wild fig-tree ' (Iptvcos) stood near the Scaean 
gates, and was one of the landmarks of the Trojan plain. 

434. &|i{3aTOf [&v<L&ttTQs] : * easily scaled/ kriSpopov frrXtTo Tftxos : 

1 the wall was made open to attack/ There was a legend that Aiakos, the 
grandfather of Achilles, had labored with Poseidon and Hephaistos upon 
the walls of Troy, and that the part made by him was not impregnable. 

43&. iiTCip^o-avG ' ! ' have tried (an assault)/ 

438. tUoirpoirfov : ntr. pL of adj. BttrxpAwwi. That they were guided 
by some * intimation from the gods 1 {&§owpStriov) is inferred because they 
chose this point for assault. 

439. IiroTptfvf i koX Arttyu : the present tenses suggest that still another 
attack is expected* 

300 NOTES. 

448. Connect voKtpoio with Ua+t : ' remote from the combat.' 

444. «W . . . dyvrytv : U. * my heart forbids/ 

446. 4f>v»|MWt: see on A 159. Cf. with ly)» abroQ, meum ipntu in 
Latin, and see on B 54. 

447-448 = A 163-165. 

400. Tp6*v dX«yos : ' the woe of the Trojans.' — 6ir£ovi» : * in time to 

468. far foSp&t : dat. denotes the agent, and is to be translated like 
farrf with gen. (see on A 242). 

464. oi« : subjective gen. limiting ikyos. 

455. &yirrat : lit. ' carry with one's self,' ' carry off ' (cf. T 93). 

456. wpte &XXip : ' at the bidding of another,' U. not at her own free 
will as in T 125. 

457. Carrying water was a large part of the occupation of slaves; cf. 
the Old Testament phrase, ' hewers of wood and drawers of water.' One 
living in our times and with our surroundings does not realize what a labor 
it is to draw the water from the single or few springs of an Eastern town. 
Drawing water and washing garments are the chief visible occupations of 
women in the East to-day. 

458. KpaTfpJj 8' 4wuc«(aW AvdYmj : an instance of parataxis, 'for hard 
necessity shall rest upon (thee).' 

460. f(8c : with a gesture, ' there is the wife of Hector.* 
468. &|tvv«v: infin. of purpose depending upon rocovSc, 'competent to 
ward off.' 

464. x^ 7*** : **' ^A" 1 W* v - 419)- 

465. irpCv yi rt m»d l or6cu. : * before I in any wise learn of. 9 

468. fcMvfb) wpos KrfXirov: 'shrank back upon the breast.' Notice 
how each of the successive participles drvx^els, Tap&i)<ras, v<rf)<ras explains, 
by giving the cause, the participle which precedes it 

470. 8civdv : adverbial, as in T 337. 

478. v<m4>*v6*<rav : ' gleaming/ for it was made of bronze. 

474. irtlXt : (1 aor. 3 sing, from irtUx«) : 'tossed,' 'dandled. 9 

477. TpAwoav : for dat. see on B 483. 

478. &8c: refers back to &s *col ky& w*p tatoow: should be 

fodo-crovTa, in order to exactly correspond with iya66v. 

480. dvuSvTa : agrees with an ain6v to be supplied as object of cfiroc, 
which has a peculiar meaning with its personal object : ' may some one 
hereafter say of him as he returns from the conflict.' 

483. kt)£Sci: 'fragrant,' from the odorous substances which were 
placed in the boxes in which garments were kept In T 372 the same 
epithet is applied to ddXajios. 

484. Scucpvlcv ytXdowa: 'laughing through her tears.' tXAjo*: 

1 was seized by compassion,' aor. marks the entrance into a state. 

486. pof : ' I pray,' ethical dat. 

ILIAD VI. 301 

487. irpoidtlffL < sec on A 3. 

489. <*i$i pb If^hf] : ' nor yet in truth.' — ri irp&ra t * once for all,* 
400, rd «** avrf]s [ffovr^i] ^py* : 14. weaving and spinning, lor the 
preparing and serving of food was done by the men. With this verse* 
Plutarch tells us, Brutus sought to turn aside the anxious inquiries of 
Portia as to what he had upon his mind, just before thS assassination of 

492. fyyw iiroixwO&t 1 * to ply their task * (see on A 31 ). 

493. -rot [of] 'IX&p ^Yyiydao-tv : supply antecedent, ' (of those) who are 
born in Ilium? 

494. tfktm : * seized (and put upon his head)/ 

496, £vTpoirttXi.£GfiL!vT| has frequentative force, 'turning frequently 

about, 1 and ' bursting into tears* (&a\tpby . , , ^^uo-a), 0aAqM$v is adj., 

cf, reply Kwrbk Sdtipu ^touffa, T 14Z. 

499. y^ ov fr*ifww: 'she aroused a lament,* i.c. by her appearance 
{tsarh Sdnpv x^owa, v, 496). 

600. y6ov [iydwtf] ! unusual form of ipf, from yodce. 

501. !4»avTo ; see on T 28. 

504. irotttCKa X**^ : see ° n ^ 22 &- 

605. trtvar : 1 aor. without tense-sign, after the analogy of liquid 
verbs (Sketch of Dialect, § ao, 3), not different in meaning from more 
freq, plupf , or Z aor. ftrtfura. The points of similarity between Paife and 
the stallion are the exuberance of spirits which comes from youth, beauty, 
high feeding, and the utter lack of sober sense. 

507. @*ffl iSeV] i pres, subj. from e«cu. 

508 4ii'0 piles [ityptovs] i irregular contraction from ivfyedos (nom. 
i$flP*fa) iroTOfwv : for gen. see on E 6. 

509. KuBuiuv 1 cf *ciiS*t yutwv, A 405, 

610. o 64 1 the pron. lacks a verb, an abrupt change of construction 
(anacoluthon) commencing in the next verse. Perhaps the break in the 
construction may suggest the sudden starts and rapid movements of the 
horse at large, Cf a similar anacoluthon in E 136, 

612- wrrd : ' down from * {cf A 44), 

514. Kayxa^wv : * loudly exalting/ Paris's mien as he goes into 
battle is like that of the Trojans with which the to-tw a-iyy pit/to. a-re/Wrc* 
'A^ouif, T 9, is in contrast. 

515, fl idpifc* yvvaimi : ' was holding fond discourse with his wife.* 
The poss. pron. is here, as frequently f separated by an intervening word 
from its noun (cf A 72, 333). 

518. Paris supposes that Hector had stopped only because delayed by 
him, and would apologize. After toffvpivw, which is concessive, we 
might have had »ep, 

519. tvoinpQV 1 adv., * at the proper time,' 

530. Hector sees from the affectionate word of address, ^0* ?«, that 

302 NOTES. 

Paris has felt the taunts uttered v. 326 follg., and purposes to play the 
hero, and his answer contains recognition of his courage, with blame for 
his indecision and complaint at the abuse which his conduct has occa- 
sioned and which he (Hector) has been obliged to hear. 

521. SoifuSvu: 'strange man.' ivaloxpoi [bricuciis, /ilrptos] : 'fair- 

532. Ipyov d,T4jd|<r€t€ F^X 1 !* : ' would disparage your exploits in bat- 

528. ptOufe [peOlvs] ©** tO&ae : * art undecided.' t6 : probably 

adv. ace., ' therefore/ rather than article with *%>. 

524. fartp <r#€V : differs little in meaning from clveKa <re?o in the next 

526. 6pc0v6|u0a : ' we will make up these things (rd) hereafter * (cf. A 

527. OioSs : dat of advantage with <rrfi<rao-0ai y ' set apart for the gods.' 

528. Kp7\ri\pa 4Xcv0€fx>v: abridged expression meaning 'a bowl of 
thanksgiving for freedom.' 

529. 4Xd<ravTa$ : agrees with dfias which is easily supplied as subj. of 



The following scheme from RetzlaiFs Varsckule zu Homer 
exhibits the contents of Books I.-VI,, so disposed that the more 
difficult passages and those of special interest are longest dwelt 
upon, While it is not supposed that teachers will care to make 
this particular table an inflexible rule for their own practice, it is 
yet believed that they will find it suggestive and useful. An excel- 
lent way of developing in scholars facility in translation is to devote 
a few minutes at the close of the recitation to reading "at sight" 
a part of the lesson for the next day ; the length of which lesson 
may be subsequently fixed according to the amount passed over in 
class. The danger which must be carefully guarded against in all 
such experiments is lest the pupil fail subsequently to bestow the 
proper labor upon what he has skimmed over in class. 

It is mortifying to a teacher to make the discovery, after a class 
has read li at sight " a page or more of text, and has accomplished 
it with apparent pleasure and interest, that the average boy is 
unable to translate the whole connectedly. This fact, which is a 
matter of experience, reveals the difficulty of keeping the attention 
of each scholar intently fixed throughout the exercise on the pas- 
sages which others than himself are called upon to translate. It 
also discloses the truth that such an exercise adds little to the pupil's 
knowledge, and is valuable only as increasing his facility in com- 
bining and using knowledge which he already possesses. Here as 
elsewhere the principle holds good that what is lightly and easily 
acquired is little valued and quickly lost; and all exercises in 
extemporaneous translation must be regarded chiefly as an enter- 
tainment, and should not be confounded with serious work. 




Mors rapidly. 

Very rapidly. 

A i - 437. Pestilence in the 

A 438-493. Chryseis re- 

host. Quarrel 

stored. End of 

between Aoftil- 


les and Aga- 

531-6x1. Banquet of the 



493-530. Zeus grants The- 

tis*s prayer in 

behalf of Achil- 


B 1 - 141. Agamemnon's 

B 143-383. Odysseus recalls 

B 494-877. Catalogue of 

Dream. His 

the Achaians 

ships and he- 

speech before 

hurrying to the 

roes [may be 

chiefs and peo- 

ships. Thersi- 

read at sight]. 



184-332. Speech of Odys- 

333-454. Nestor's coun- 

seus. Call to a 


new struggle. 

455-493* Similes. 

r 146-044. Helen at the 

r 1 - 245. Preparations for 

r *45--«75- Priam betakes 


the duel be- 

himself to the 

tween Paris 


and Menelaos. 

376-461. Compact con- 

cluded. The 


A 85-191. The shot of Pan- 

A 1 - 84. The gods in 

A 193-333. Healing of Men- 




432-456. Disposition of 

333-431. Agamemnon ex- 

457-544* Single combats. 

forces. Com- 

horts to com- 

mencement of 



B 3 rr-43o. The wounding 

B 166-3x0. Death of Pan- 

E 1-165. Single combats. 

of Aphrodite. 


Prowess of Di- 

711-909. The wounding 

431-537. Rescue of Aene- 


of Ares by Dio- 

as by Apollo. 

538-636. Sally of Hector. 


637-7x0. Sarpedon. 

Z 119-336. Episode of Glau- 

Z 77-118. Counsel of Hele- 

Z 1-76. Onset of the 

kos and Dio- 



mede (Friend- 

337-368. Hector's inter- 


view with Hec- 

369-539. Episode of Hec- 

uba and Helen. 

tor and Andro- 

mache (Love). 

Total, 1533 verses. 

Total, 1533 verses. 

Total, 874 verses. 

In the Essay on Scanning, $ 6, two passages have been noted as specially worthy of 
being committed to memory. Of course, the list of such passages may be indefinitely 
extended. Add the following verses: A 538-530; B 304; T 108-110; A 43. 3*o, 331, 
405; Z I&-149, ao8, 336, 361. 448, 449. 




The forms of the letters, as a rule, are very regular and easy to 
decipher. The forms of (see flW, v. 311), X (see SXXot, v. 308), 
v 1 see f<£av, v. 302), are somewhat peculiar, u has the same form r 
whether in the middle or at the end of a word* There are frequent 
examples of ligatures, — L e. of two or more letters united closely 
together, as we join letters in writing; but this union of letters does 
not involve the loss of any part of any letter, and the ligatures do 
Dot become mere arbitrary signs, difficult to decipher, such as we 
find in later and less valuable manuscripts. 

The text and most of the scholia show the same hand-writang; 
only the very brief scholia, written irregularly close to the Greek 
text, appear to be by another and later hand. 

Two at least of the critical marks of the Alexandrian gramma- 
rians appear in the facsimile. They are the £171X17, a l so called £«rXij 
Ka&apd, — a character which resembles a capital V lying horizontally, 
with what is ordinarily its upper part turned to the left, — and the 
diwkfj TrcpuoTiypivTi, or * dotted DipIeV These two marks are found 
opposite vv. 305 and 325. 

The forms of the breathings will attract attention. The first half 
of capital H (eta) indicates the rough breathing ; the other half, 
the smooth. See G. 4, n. 2. 

The t subscript does not occur, but the t is always, as in drnrn- 
rtjm*, v. 309, written after the first vowel of the improper diph- 

There is a curious mark, in form like a diaeresis, written over 
initial t in vv. 305 , 3131 326* In vv. 305, 326 it seems to take the 
place of the breathing. 

On the next two pages a number of the scholia of this facsimile 
are given, printed in ordinary Greek type. They will easily be 
identified on comparison with the facsimile, as their position in 
reference to the Greek text is the same. 


IAIAAOS T 302-326. 

*Os hfxwy ov8* apa irw <r0tv bracpa(aar€ KpovtW. 
rotcrt & AapoWSip Hpiapos /xcra p.v#ov Icmtc * 

KckAvtc /t€v, Tpwc? ical cvjcnp/uocs 9 A\cuoi' 
5 tw cywv cfyu irpor t *IAiov ^vc/to€<nroF * ^Su? aJv? 

atyr, cttcI ov ttw Tkyo-OfL kv o^tfaA/Aoura' bpaxrOax 
fiapvdfxcvov <f>i\ov vtov aprfi<f>l\q> McpcXaqr 
Zcvs p,cV wov to ye otSc #cai ajSavaroi 0eol aAAot, 
oinrorepa) Oavdroio reXo9 x«rpayi.cVov ccrrtv. 

*H pa, xai cs hi<t>pov apvas 0ero urd^cos ^cfe, 
av 6* dp* Ificuv avros } Kara o* ^vta tcivcv oirurota* 
irap 8c ot 'AvnTvcup irepucaAAea pjjcrero 8i<£pov. 
to) /acv ap' dij/oppoi irporl *IAiov airoviovro* 

*J&KTWp & Ilptap-oto xeus ical 8tos 'OoWtrcvs 
X&pov p-cv irpwrov Steuerpeov, avrap ciretra 
icXi/povs cV kwcV; \aXjcijpel irdXXov cAoVrcs, 
oincoVcpos 8S7 irpocrOcv afairj \oXk€ov fyx ?* ^tH^i!^ 

rjv$ayro ^ Jwro *V~ 

Aaoi 6* rjpnqo-avTO, $€oun h\ \€tpas dvca^ov* i^x"**** 

«58c 8c rts e^rco-jccp 'Avcuaiv tc TpaKW tc. AiWAwl 

** tov xal. 

dvri tx»v Zcv iraVcp, *I&rj0ar /tc8cW, fcvSarrc ueytorc, T 

Zftjf JM- 

**•* omrorcpos ra8c cpya ucr ap.<fxrr€poKriv ctfi/jec, 

tov 865 d™£0t>cvov 81W1 8o>ov "AlSos c&™, J^^SfeS"* 
t}/uv 8* a? ^iXoYiyra ical opicia xioTa ytv&rBau «rl t© &*», 
*Os ap' l<^av 9 iraAAcv 8^ ueyas KopvOaLoXos "E/crap ^V*? 1 "^ 
rt«x*jr^*^ 'P**'" n 4p«w & *«fe ** «*%w opowrcv. ^Sj^ 

pit tov * 4 t \ # >p ** x / ' ♦ €/ KOtv&e c<rr<u 

Aot ucv cirei? 140VT0 Kara OTt\ag f jjxi Cfcaor<p to Ms. 

* 17T7TOI dcpCTtVoOCS ical XOUCiXa TCVYc' CJCCITO' 'Apur. xara 

•" yevueV exa- 

T*PX©f «rrov. 


rj pa teal is 8t'oy>ov: ra yap iv op#cot$ cr<£a£o/xcva ot /xcv 
iyXuptot hcpvirrov r# y#, ot 8c £cvot Oakdcrcrr}' rj 0€i£cov 
dVo^cpct rots cv aoret irurroxro/xcvos /cdfcavocs 17 ws ayvoowras 
8t8a£wv ra yap 0eots dirXfc Ovopara jpr&ov. fflovvro yap 
wnrcp <rvcrartT€ur0ai rots 0€Ots« 

"Axf/oppoi: Start xtup&erai 6 Uptapas; icat ol /icv ^axrtv 6V* 
tva d^* vi/rovs jcoetoxrov Oewprjoy avb rip irdXcoas t^v /jlovo- 
pjaxfav ot 8c Zva <t>vXd$Q ra tc/^7* 5XXot 8^ ti/v "OfM/- 
ptic^v Xuo-tv irp0MJ7(0VTat to o&no rX-qcrop^ 6<f>0aXfioUriv opatrOai* 
6ir€p a/xctvov. 

Upidpotx) ?rat$: Uop^vpuys cv Tots irapaXcXctficvot? ifaariv art 
tov *E#cTopa 'AiroXXcavo? vtov vapaStoWtv "Ipvitaq, *AXc£av8po?, 
"E\xf>oput)v 9 Aviatypcov. 

\wpov /icv vpwrov : dvay#ca/a>? Stc/icrpow irav to \wpCov iv 
f jjf/tcXXov /tovo/na^<r€tv wore jm; poVov tov 8ta twv oVXwv 
vucqOivra vwucfjcrOai, dXXa #cal tov aTroXcwrovra t£ dVoScScty- 
ficvov x<i>piov, wcnrtp kolL cVt twv dflXiprcuv aXXot 8fc <f>axriv 
Art Zva fwy irpos Ta caviw irkrfiri yiopurOwrur, dXX* aWcp 
cv cJpicrf} t§ ircpiypattfj piwxnv. 






Allen's Hadlby. 




559 b 

129, 9 (c) 



206 D 

53. 3. N. 4 











216, 10 

60, 5, 15 



719 b 

160, 2 




265 and N. 











290 D 2 

77* N. 1 












25, I, N. (d) 






«irl IrcXXiv 


191, N. 3 












218, and 215, n. 1 




182, 2 



409 D 

120, 1 (b) 




216, N. 2 




29, N. I 



719 b 

l60, 2 




47, N. 1 


























Kara KapVjvay 

800, 1 a 

191, IV. 2 (I) 



718 a 

160, I 













Allen's Hadlby. 
















729 £ 













I8 7 








184, 3, N. 2 




227, I, N. 



I IO, 2, N. I (b) 








226, 2 (b) 








171, 1 


at kcv povXcnu 


226, 4, N. I 



767 a 

184, 3. N. 3 



719 b 

160, 2 











269 a, 690 

82, N. 2 















719 b 












914 B a 









223, N. 2 



921 a and R. 

2l6, I 




I58, N. 2 



841 and a 

200, N. 5 (b) 



387 b 

26, 2 







1 041 

151, N. 4 




48, 2 (b) 


X €tf>a« 

216, 20 . 

60, 5,31 








136, N. 3 (a) 



428 and 33. 






Allen's Hadlky. 


767 a 

184, 3» N - 3 

955 and 924 a 



226, 2 (b) 


184, 3, N. 2 




184, 3, N. 4 



107 and 716 b 

24, 3, and 159, N. 2 





102 b 

22, N. I 

718 c and 719 

160, i and 2 

851 a and b 

202, 1 



1049, 1 









126, 7 b 


277, 5 

783 or 776 

190 or 188 


226, 4, N. 2 

1046 c 

227, 2 


209, 2, and 255 


200, N. 9, 208, 2 





84 D 

12, N. 3 



724 a 

164, and 197, N. 2 



715 b 

159, N. 5 




129, 15 







914 B a 


894 B 1 


9", 913 

229 and 231 


259 and N. 


















tA kokA 






rt tpya 















r 3* 





cl Sloven 


hi in apodosis 






















cncidcvra, Vjx^|< 



















Allen's Hadley. 



<r (ot) 









355 Da 

100, N. 5 


k) Ti\L4\(rowr\. 


208, 2 








171, 3> n. 




171, 2 


tpc, Xpvo-i)£8a 




k* 4-yw 


209, 2 








184, 3, N. 4 



932, 2, and 866, 3 

244, 256 


8' ftXfc 80 

1046 c 









171, N. 




200, N. 5 (b) 



767 or 768 

184, 3, N. 4 



215 D a 

60, 5, 22 








1 10, II. 2, N. I (a) 








255, and 209, 2 








226, 4, N. I 











269 D 

82, N. I 



969 c 

277, 6, N. I (b) 



914 B 





205, 2 








119, II 







216, 10 

60, 5, 15 








136, N. 3 




182, 2 




157, 2, N. 




I7I> 3» n. 




226, 2 b 



715 b 






Allbn's Hadley. 
















216, 7 




538 D 6 



'A X iXXfio« 

729 c 




















459 and 460 

no, iv. (a), (3) 




184, 3, N. 2 




98, N. 1 




184, 3, N. 1 

2 5 I 





|icrd rpiTdrounv 

801, 2 

191, vi. 3 (2) 


kcv yqiWj<rcu 





376 De 




















473 D 





226, 2, b 



729 a 













1711 3> n. 







729 c 





48, 2(b) 



716 b 

159, N. 2 



901 b 








716 b 

159, N. 2 






t&v AXXwv 

729 e 





226, 2 (b) 



559 a 

129, 9 (b) 



624 b 




715 b 


159, n. 5 





Allen's Hadley. 












716 b 

159, N. 2 



716 a 

159, R. 





3 2 3 




3 2 4 





*y<2> tt 

1046, 1 c 

227, 2 


K€V g\tt|MU 


255, and N. 







712 b 

158, N. 2 



716 b 

159, N. 2 








52, 2, N. 3 



729 c 




898 b 

223, N. 2 


to^s aXXois 

767 a 

184, 3» h. 3 







216, 4 




757 a 




409 D a 

120, I (b) 



518 D 12 

108, IV. 2, N. I 








182, 2 



625 c 








716 a 

159, R. 











767 a 

184, 3. n. 3 












188, I, N. I 








171, 2, N. 3 


at kcv W&u<rv 


226, 4, N. I 








136, N. 3 










at Kf iKOtjtcu. 


226, 4, N. I 





Allen's Hadlky. 









I38, N. 7 




184, 3, N. 6 



712 b 

I58, N. 2 



428 Db 





i73> l 



728 or 970 

167 or 183 




















265 and N. 




216, 1 








176, 1 



767 a 

184, 3. n. 3 








74, 1 







436 D 

IOO, N. 3 




172, I 



729 c 





172, 2 



783 or 767 

190, or 184, 3 



718 a 

160, 1 
















119, 10 



494 and 493 

119, 11 



718 a 

160, 1 











757 a 









182, 2 




171, 1 



755 b 

175, N. I 












171, I 





Allen's Hadley. 




768 or 775 

184, 4, or 187 



109 b 

23, 2, adjinem 




2 3i 




216, 1 

5 2 3 



208, 2 











216 D8 

60, 5, 13 




182, 2 



716 b 

159, N. 2 



47 D 

86, N. 2 



914 B a 




914 B 









200, N. 4 










fi&Xci ctvai 






2l6, I 







729 c 









2l6, I 












184, 3. N. 4 



454 and 490 ff . 





2l6, I 




26l, I 




171, I 



767 a 

184, 3, N. 3 




1S4, 3 








I72, I 




914 B 


Note. — The above references, in connection with the passage set for translation, may 
indicate a useful addition to, or substitute for, the usual daily lesson in the grammar. The 
references have not been carried beyond Book I., lest the pupil should be in danger of be- 
coming dependent upon such help, and of ceasing to consult the grammar for himself. 


The printing of a reference in full-faced type indicates that in that place the subject 
referred to is most fully treated. 

The references are to be understood as illustrative only, not as exhaustive, upon the 
various heads cited. 

Absolute comparative, B 440, A 64. 

Accusative, of limit of motion, with- 
out preposition, A 240, 317, 322, 
497, E 291. 

Accusative, of thing, retained in 
passive, A 149. 

Acephalous verse, r 357, A 135. 

Adjective, equivalent to poss. gen., 
B 20, 54, Z 180, 446. 

Adjective, of two endings instead 
of three, A 3, E 269, 776. 

Adjective, translated adverbially, 

A 39, 5 2 , 77* 424> 543i B 2 » I 4, 

T7, A124, E 19, Z 249. 
Adverb, in predicate instead of ad- 
jective, A 416, B 323, r 95, A 466, 

Z 131. 
Aegis, B 448, E 738 follg. 
Aethiopians, A 423. 
Alliteration, A 99. 
Ambuscade, service in, honorable, 

A 227. 
Anacoluthon, B 353, E 135, Z 478, 

Anapaestic rhythm, A 204, E 745. 
Anastrophe, A 162, B 91, Z 331. 
Anastrophe, forborne when word 

intervenes, A 505. 
Anastrophe, forborne when vowel 

of prep, is elided, A 350, A 97. 
Anthropomorphism, A 533, 564, A 

48, 507, Z 135. 
Aorist, formed after analogy of 

liquid verbs, A 40, Z 505. 

Aorist, formed with tense-sign & 

from liquid stem, A 136. 
Aorist, of mixed formation, r 103, 

120, 250, Z 53. 
Aorist, Gnomic, A 218, r 4, 33, A 

75, 143, 160, 279, 455, E 92, 139, 

5 2 3» 599. 902. 
Aorist, reduplicated 2d, A 100, 

256, 590, r 86, 355, A 127, 293, 

397, E 69, 504, Z 12,50. 
Aorist, syncopated 2d, A 449, 

Aorist, of entrance into state, A 

330, 33*> r 2 59» 398, E 422, Z 

Aorist, of single act, A xi8, 199, 

r 98. 
Aorist, sometimes translated by 

perfect, A 158, 207, A 246, 248. 
Apocope, A 305, 593, 606, B 160, 

426, 549, A 11, Z 201. 
Apodosis omitted, A 232. 
Aposiopesis, A 136, 580. 
Apposition, of part(s) with whole, 

A 150, 362, B 171, 259, 452, r 35, 

88, 338, A 350, 461, Z 117. 
Apposition, of whole with part(s), 

r an, z 149. 

Article, as demonstrative pronoun, 
A 9, 73* I2 S» 340, 382, 493- 

Article, as relative pronoun, A 36 
125, 336. 

Article, frequently wanting, A 53, 



Assertion,, with different degrees of 

positiveness, A 137, 175, 205, 262, 

B 229. 
Assimilation, in verbs in -dfo, A 31, 

104, B 92, 337, A 1, 9, Z 201. 
Assimilation, of consonants, A 593, 

606, B 160, 426, 549. 
Asyndeton, r 250, E 746. 
Attraction, A 260, r 124. 
Attraction, inverse, Z 396. 
Attraction, by predicate noun, A 

*39, B 5> 73> 
Augment, omitted, A 4, 54. 

Bow, stringing of, described, A 1 12. 

Chief arms himself, B 42-46, r 


Chief fights not in, but near cha- 
riot, E 108. 

Chief holds two spears, r 18, 338, 
380, E 495. 

Commander-in-chief's portion of 
spoil, A 167. 

Cloud-gates, separate Mip and aifrfip, 
E 751. 

Comparative, absolute. See Abso- 
lute comparative. 

Comparative, from noun-stem, 
A 325. 

Comparison, abridged, A 163, r 238. 

Condition, general. See General 

C mdition, posterior, A 67, 207, 408, 
Z 96. 

Constructio praegnans, A 6, 197, T 
113, 405, E 514. 

Conventional verse, r 95, E 84. 

Conventional word or phrase, A 
202, 212, 297, B78, Z 171. 

Conventional or habitual epithet. 
See Epithet. 

Courtesy, Z 176. 

Dative of advantage after word of 

ruling, A 71, 180, 231. 
Dative of adv. (or disadv.), instead 

of gen., A 67, 161, 342. 

Dative limiting verb, instead of 
gen. limiting noun, A 188, 200, 
r I9S» 348, A 24, 219, 331. 

Dative of place without preposi- 
tion, A 24, 107, 132, 482, B 210, 
T 10, A 302, 443, E 78. 

Deformity, physical and moral as* 
sociated, B 216. 

Demonstrative use of article. See 

Demonstrative instead of relative 
in second of two coordinate 
clauses. A 79, 95, 162. 

Dodona, near modern Jannina, B 7 50. 

Dog despised, A 159, 225. 

Elision, forborne because of orig. 

initial consonant, A 230, 275, 515, 

B 292, r 1. 
Elision, permitted when impossible 

in prose, A 117, 283. 
Elision, with loss of accent, A 210. 
Elision, with recession of accent to 

preceding syllable, A 107. 
Enallage* (change of order of words), 

Epanalepsis, B 671. 
Epithets, habitual or conventional, 

A 308, 316, B 164, E 375. 
Euphemism, A 576, E 567, 574. 

Fillets, what and how worn, A 

Final clause, instead of infinitive, 
A 133, A 465, E 690, Z 361. 

Five grades of positiveness in as- 
sertion. See Assertion. 

Flesh of victims, slain in ratifying 
oath, not eaten, r 310. 

Fulness of expression (Parallel- 
ism), A 57, 88, 513, B 276, 352, 
T 2, 1 01, A 170, E 267, 527, 665. 

Future-perfect, as more emphatic 
future, A 139. 

General condition, of present time, 
A 510, B 228, 294, 475, r 279* 
E 524. 




General condition, of past time, 
B 188, 198, T 216. 

Genitive, after superlative, A 505. 

Genitive, of agent with verbs equiv- 
alent to passives, A 242, A 498, 

Z 73- 
Genitive, quasi-partitive, E 6, 222, 

289, Z 2. 
Genitive, with adverbs of place, 

A 230, 500, T 341, 416, 424, E 849 
Gnomic aorist. See aorist. 
Gods, cheered by savor of sacrifice, 

Grasshoppers, old men's voices 

compared with chirping of, r 151. 

Habitual epithets. See Epithets. 
Hendiadys. See Fulness of ex- 
Heralds, under protection of Zeus, 

A 334- 
Hiatus, apparent, A 4, 409, 532, 

B38, 154, 164, E 4. 
Hysteron-proteron, A 251. 

Imperfect, of attempted action, A 
378, E 318, Z 162. 

Infinitive, as imperative, A 20, 582, 
E 606, Z 1 50 

Infinitive of purpose (with asso- 
ciated idea of result), A 5, 347, 
443, B 10;, 477, A 511, E 360, 
Z 228, 463 

Invocation of Gods, B 412, r 276. 

Iterative forms, A 490, B 189, T2I7. 

Ivory, stained a red color, A 141. 

King, his descent from Zeus, A 

King, his divine prerogative, B 103, 

205, Z 193. 
Knees, seat of strength, r 34, A 314, 

421, E 176, Z 27. 

Language, of men and of gods, 

A 403, B 813. 
Lengthening of final short vowel, 

by ictus, A 45, 153, 226, B 39, 

E 371, Z 240. 

Lengthening of final short vowel, 
before liquid, A 233, 394, B 239. 

Lengthening of final short vowel, 
because of orig. initial conso- 
nant, A 51, 75, 416, 437, r 222, 
A 27, Z 157. 

Libations, how made, A 470-1, r 

Litotes, A 220, 278, 536, B 166, 807, 
A 168, 498, E 18, 407, 441, Z 444 

Long hair, of Greek warriors, B 11, 

Loom, A 31. 

Messages delivered verbatim, no 

oratio oMiqua, B 60-70. 
Metathesis quant itat is t A 1, 138, 193, 

B 226, T 272. 
Metonymy, A 30, B 108,381, 387, 

426, T 75, 113, E 326, Z 152. 
Middle voice with meaning of ac- 
tive, A 56, 198, 203. 
Mood-sign of 1st aor., shortened in 

subjunctive. See Shortening. 
Muse, inspirer of epic song, not 

known in Homer, as one of nine 

sisters, A 1. 

Negation, signified by tossing up 

the head, A 514. 
Nominative for vocative, A 231, 

E 403, 785. 

Okeanos, A 423, r 5. 

Olympus, in Thessaly, home of the 

gods, A 44, 420. 
Omniscience of gods implied, A 365 
Onomatopoeia, A 34, 49, B 209, A 

Optative, conditional, r 299, A 542, 

Optative, in oratio obliqua, A 191, 

B 794, r 317. 
Optative, of desire, A 18, 42, B 260, 

T 74, 102, 256, A iS, Z 164, 281. 
Optative, potential, A 64, 100, B 250, 

T 52, 235, A 93, E 303, 456. 
Oxymoron, A 43. 



Palaces of the gods, Hephaistos's 
work, A 426, A 2. 

Parallelism. See Fulness of ex- 

Parasitic letter, A 491, B 130, 328. 

Parataxis, A 5, 10, 29, 228, 259, 326, 
453, B 26, 197, 301, T 61, E 178, 
Z 148, 151, 256, 458. 

Paronomasia, A 406, B 32 s, Z 398. 

Patronymics, A 1, hi, 188, 307, 
A 488. 

Pelasgians, B 843. 

People, hard lot of, A 80. 

Perfects often translated by pres- 
ent, A 37, 173, 221, 278, B 15, 
134, E 228, 878. 

Periphrasis, B 387, r 105, A 386, 

' Pet- ' or ' Nick-name/ A 385. 

Plural, used for singular, A 14, 45, 

Polysyndeton, r 35, 116. 

Possessions of gods, often of gold, 

a 6n, r 64, a 3. 

Posterior conditions. See Con- 
dition, posterior. 

Prayer, attitude in, A 450, r 275. 

Prayer, audibly uttered, A 450, 
Z 304. 

Prayers, in Horn, poems compared, 

E "5- 

Prepositions as adverbs (their origi- 
nal use), r 34, 115, A 46, Z 320. 

Present used with adv. of time 
where the perf. would be used 
in English, A 553. 

Primitive style and thought. See 

Prolepsis, A 536, B 409, T 192, E 85. 

Pygmies, r 6. 

Quantity, variation of, in same 
word, A 14, 21, B 381, A 441, 

Reduplicated form with intensive 

force, A 600, B 392. 
Rumor, Aibs &yyc\os, B 93. 

Sacrifice, ritual of, A 458-468, T 

274, 318. 
Sailors sleep on shore, A 476. 
Shield, devices on, prototypes of 

modern coats-of-arms, E 182. 
Ship, how managed, A 433-436. 
Shortening of mood-sign in aor. 

subj. A 141, 444, r 409, A 352, 

E 469, 747- 
Shortening of vowel or diphthong 

in thesis, A 156, A 109. 
Simplicity and straightforwardness 

in Homer, A 91, A 405. 
Singular, in collective sense, A 382, 
Spondaic verses, A 11, 74, 157, 216. 
Spondees, effect produced by, A 

388, 439- 
Subjunctive, as fut. indie, A 137, 

182, r 417, A 167. 
Subjunctive, conditional, r 354. 
Subjunctive, deliberative, A 150, 

B 2, A 15, E 33. 
Subjunctive, final, A 32, B 195, T 

166, A 486, E 233. 
Subjunctive, hortative, A 25, 62, 

T 283, Z 340. 
Sudden death, accomplished by 

Artemis's arrows, Z 428. 
Superlative, double, A 105, B 57, 

Superlative, from noun theme, B 

Suppliant gesture (touching the 

chin), A 501. 
Symbolical acts, r 274, 300. 
Synizesis, A 1, 15, 131, 277, 340, 

B 225. 

Three designations of Greeks, H 

Tmesis, A 25, 195, 572, B 39, 160, 

549. A 77- 

Trumpets not in use before Troy ; 
hence voice important, B 408. 

Types of artistic representation of 
various deities already devel- 
oped in time of Horn. Poems, 
B 479- 



Unmixed wine used in solemn liba- 
tions, B 341, T 270. 

Veil, worn by women in presence 
of men, r 141. 

Warfare, its character, A 367, A 

Washing, after plague, A 313. 
Water-carrying, women's work, Z 

Wealth, in cattle, A 154, B 449. 
Weaving in Homer. See Loom. 

Weaving and spinning, women's 

work, Z 490. 
1 Winged* words, A 201. 
Women reckoned as slaves, among 

possessions, Z 426. 

Zephyros, not a gentle wind in 
Homer, B 147, A 2. ^ 

Zeugma, r 73, 79, 327, A 133, E 356, 

Zeus, his supremacy, r 308. 

Zeus, dwells on mountain tops, r 


ftyfiv, with UarSptov, A gg, 431. 

&Yyf\£f|S = &yye\os, T 206. 

dXidj, r 45, A 245. 

&|io0os and i|r&)M&0o$, E 587. 

&|t|3p6<rios, B 19. 

&ju£po|uu, with dat. or without 

dat. fireo-i, translated ( answer/ 

A 121. 
&p4|M»y, of externals alone, A 92, 

&|i4iyv4jcis, A 607. 
djjwJ>iK^TT€XAov, A 584, Z 220. 
dyTu{, E 262, 727. 
fipa, A 46, 56, 236, 330, B 38, 419* 

a*rdp (&Te£p), A 50, 166, V 118. 
afrds, almost always emphatic, 

A 4, 47, 1 1 2, 270, 338, T 66, A 237, 

287, E 396. 
atfros, A 133, 520, Z 400. 

ftfos and pu>$, A 49. 

ytyvpoi iroX{jiou>, A 371. 

SaijAovtos, A 561, B 190, A 31, 

Z 326, 407, 521. 
84, fVf apodosi t A 58, 137, 194, 324. 
8^1, A 61, 1 10, 266. 
Sfi--, A 33, sss, r 242. 

4 prefixed, to facilitate pronuncia- 
tion, to word orig. beginning 
with F, A 306, 309, B 22. 

ftiircv, A 253. 

Ifjos, A 393. 

cl 8* dye, A 302, 524. 

ct kc, with opt., A 60. 

€tca>, A 71, A 460. 

iircl 4), two ways of pronouncing, 

A 156, 169. 
tirw, firopai, A 166, Z 321. 

F, words beginning with. See 
p. xxxiii. 

% % r 46. 

6, verb-formation in, A 219, T 231, 
E 147. 

lepos, A 366. 

tov, tos, tos, A 94, Z 422. 

Kal, untranslatable in Engl., A 249, 

KoXiovrcu = (nearly) darl, B 260, 

E 342. 
kc, with subj. in final clause, A 

kcXcvo), with dat. of person, B 50, 

T 259, A 428, Z 324. 
ictfjp and icf)p, A 228. 
Kpdrtfs and KpfaoS, A 530. 

{UKav «8o»p, B 825. 
jUv = ij-Viv, A 77, 163, 267, 273, 
B 203. 



|utA with dat. = kv with dat, A 252, 

516, E 344. 
juto, with ace, ' after/ A 222, 

A 70, 292, E 21. 
ju V = avro, A 237, Z 221. 
\drpr\ (also £«/Aaand faffT'fip), A 137, 

187, 214, E 857. 

£av0rj, epithet of Demeter, E 500. 

6 = 5n, * because/ * that/ A 120, 

244, 518, E 331. 
olos, olos, otbs {6ios) % A 486. 
5|M>S, opus, A 209. 
«s, H, 8v, poss. adj., A 72, 205, 307, 

A 294, E 328, Z 516 
0$, apparently used in protasis, 

r 289, a 160. 

ov& -yap oite, B 703, E 22, Z 130. 
otiroi and ovtoi, A 298. 

iras, 'all kinds of/ B 823, En, 

iwp, orig. meaning, A 131, 275, 352, 

508, 586, T 201. 
it6Xc|jloS; ' combat/ A 165. 
irop<j>vpeos, A 482. 

irpCv, adv. of time, not conjunction, 

A 29,97, A 114. 
irroXhropOos, B 278. 

pa. See &pa. 

cn&v with dat. = 4v with dat M A 170, 

0-<j>0)tT€pOV, A 2l6. 

Tf, without connecting force, A 81, 

82, 86, 218, 279, B 289, T 12. 
Ti«, * many a one/ B 271, V 353. 

faro, with dat. of agent, B 714, 
E 3*3> Z 453- 

-+i, orig. meaning of suffix, A 37. 
4>iXos, A 20, 98, 345, 447, 491, 

Z 224. 
4>p4v€S, A 103. 

ilrvxij, meaning in Homer, A 3. 

& and &, A 254, B 372. 
«s, <&$, &s, A 23> Il6 » r J 59- 


University Press : 3°^ ^VVsou wA Sotv, Cambridge. 

John Allyn, Publisher, 30, Franklin Street, Boston. 

"There is always room at the top." 

Caesar's Gallic War, Books I. to VII., with Introduction, 
Notes, Vocabulary, and Twenty full-page Illustrations. By Pro- 
fessor Francis W. Kelsey. 12mo, half leather. $1.25. 

THIS book has been accepted as a long step in advance of any 
other edition of Caesar published in this country. Its great 
superiority has been generally conceded, not only in regard to the 
text, notes, and vocabulary, but also in the illustrations and other 
features peculiarly its own. 

The Gallic War, in great part a story of battle and siege, is usually 
the first connected reading of the Latin student. Its matter is no less 
novel to him than the language, each presenting numerous and pe- 
culiar difficulties. The editor has aimed to meet the beginner's per- 
plexities at every point, — to supply in one volume all needful help on 
forms or constructions, as well as the varied information required to 
make the study interesting and profitable. No undue prominence 
has been given to any one feature : equal pains have been taken to 
explain a point of syntax, or to describe the life of the Roman soldier; 
to suggest an apt translation, or to set forth the character and purpose 
of a strategic movement. 

The Introduction, besides giving a full review of Caesar's life and 
character, with an estimate of his generalship, furnishes also a concise 
and logical account of the Roman art of war in Caesar's time,the 
organization of the army, the equipment and provisioning of the sol- 
diers, the tactics of battle and siege, together with an outline of the 
geography of the countries mentioned in the Gallic War. This essen- 
tial information, instead of being scattered through the notes, is given 
as one consecutive whole, each subject under its proper heading. 

Keisey*s Caesar. 

The H lustrations consist of six full-page colored plates, presenting 
a vivid and accurate picture of the costumes, equipments, weapons, 
and standards of the Roman army ; of a double-page map of Gaul, 
based upon the latest authorities, and show! ag the route of Caesar In 
each campaign ; and of fourteen full-page maps and plans, illustrat- 
ing the battles aad sieges, and placed opposite the text which they 
serve to explain* The reproduction of some of these illustrations in 
t» the r editions ia the best testimonial to their value. 

The Text is clear, accurate, and uniform in its orthography, and is 
conveniently divided by brief English summaries. 

The Notes are apt and sensible. They contain full references to 
the Grammars of Allen & Green ough, Harkness, and Gildersleeve, 
pertinent questions on construction and translation, together with all 
necessary historical and topographical information. The notes on 
Bo^ks V.-VII. are fuller than in most editions. 

The Table of Idioms, not found elsewhere, will enable a teacher 
to drill his class on those constructions which are most perplexing to 

The Vocabulary, like the notes, has been prepared with the design 
of giving the pupihs uch assistance as he needs, and such knowledge as 
he can digest. 

Throughout the book every effort has been made, by 
way of illustration and comment to render the study 
of Caesar attractive and useful, — a means of culture 
as well as of discipline. That the result has been to 
produce the best* equipped edition of the Gallic War 
now before the public, is well shown by the following 
opinions : — 

Dr. J. H + Hanson, Cohurn Clnasiral Institute t Wfitem'lle, Me, — I have 
carefully examined it, from utlcpage to finis, with the utmost satisf action ♦ 
I see nothing to criticise, but everything to commend. It is the ideal 
Caesar realized. That it surpasses all its competitors in its introduction, 
colored illustrations, and maps and plans must, it seems to me, be the 
universal verdict. 

Chas, Fish, Principal High School, Bnmswtck t Ms. — The hook seems to me 
to be Admirable ; indeed I hardly see where it can be bettered. The table of 
idioms and phrases is by no means one of its smallest recommendations, 

John Allyn t Publisher, 30, Franklin Street, Boston. 

rB, C Mathews, Principal Bigh School, Neirark, N.J.— I value exceed- 
intjlij the following points : L The introductory matter, which if indispensable. 
2. The colored plates, which are admirable. 3. The position of the maps and 
diagrams in the text, instead of in the notes or voeab alary. 4. The table of 
idioms. These and other excellences must win for the book the highest rank. 

W. E. Plumley, LawrencevUle, N. J. — It is an admirable edition, and 
we shall adopt it at once. 

Richard M- Janes, Head-Master Wm. Pmn Charter School, Philadelphia. 
— Kelsey's Caesar is in my judgment the nearest approach yet made in this 
country to what a school edition of an ancient classic should be. We shall 
adopt it, » 

Henry Snyder, Principal Bigh School, Easton t Pa. — I hare given it a 
thorough examination, and find it to be most excellent in every respect Tlie 
typography is unusually clear and legible. He must be a dull pupil indeed 
whose interest in Caesar and hia Gallic Wars cannot be thoroughly aroused 
by the study of this fascinating work. 

Prof, Geo* T, Bttinger, Muhlenberg College, AUsntown, Pa. — 1 hare 
nothing but praise in its behalf. The new features make it the most helpful 
edition now published, and I heartily recommend iL 

Prof. J. O, Notestein, Wooster University, Ohio. — I have examined it 

»with ever increasing admiration. I had thought that an edition of Caesar 
published last year would long keep the field, but this is certainly a better 
edition. It will be adopted next year as the preferred text-book here. 

Prof. C* L + Ehrenfeld, Wittenberg College Ohio, — It is, in my judgment, 
the nearest tr> perfection of any edition of Caesar either from the American 
or British press. 

Prof. Edwin Post, De Pauw University, Grwncasile, M-T011 have 
made a book which, for beauty of workmanship, both outside and in, can 
hardly be beaten. The introductions are very timely, and must be helpful. 
The map of Gaul is far the best in any school edition of Caesar. The type 
of the text is much to my idea of what it should be* It is time to enter pro- 
test against the larger type of late grown fashionable- The size you adopt 
allows the pupil to take in the sentence as a whole much easier! — no small 
matter indeed. 

The notes and vocabulary impress me as just what the student of Caesar 
needs ; the one should be helpful without being the medium of tedious dis- 
quisition ; the other should be limple without being burdened with uncertain 


John Allyn, Publisher, 30, Franklin Street, Boston. 


With Id traduction, Notes, and Vocabulary, by ProfessoT Charles M, 
Moss, Wesleyau University, Illinois.. 16mo, 160 pages. Revised 
edition. 71) cents. 

It is the aim of the author to furnish a Greek book for beginners which 
shall be simple And Interesting-, and at the same time contain a large num- 
ber of such words, phrases, and idioms as are of frequent occurrence in 
Attic Greek. There has for some time been a demand for such a book, to 
precede the Anabasis, which is of uneven difficulty, and which is quite apt, 
when read slowly hy a beginner , to grow very tedious. 

The book contains no disconnected sentences. It consists of a seriea of 
carefully graduated exercises for translation, beginning with the simplest 
stories, and ending with extracts adapted from Xenophon, Herodotus, nod 
Lueian. The text is preceded by valuable hints on translation, and followed 
by notes and a complete vocabulary. 

It is believed that the time spent in reading this book, before taking up 
any Greek author for consecutive study, will be more than saved in the 
subsequent rapid progress of the pupil. 

Tins book was on publication immediately adopted for use in i — 

Phillips Exeter Academy ; St, Paul's School, Concord, N. H. 
Roxbury Latin School, Boston ; Academy at Worcester, Mass, 
Lawrence ville School, N. J.; Webb's Classical School, Tcnn. ; 
In the preparatory departments of : — 

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Oberlin and Adelbert Colleges and Wooster University, Ohio. 
State University and Hanover College, Indiana. 
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In the High Schools of : — 

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Tall River, Mass. ; Bingham ton, New York, 
Newark, N. J- ; Washington, D. C. ; 

In the Normal Schools at : — 

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and in many other seminaries of high standing 


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